Sunday, February 28, 2010

Essay on Tourism

Tourism Essay

Tourism is undoubtedly the single largest industry in the world and contributes vast amounts of revenue into any given country. In New Zealand alone, tourism accounted for 10.2% of Gross Domestic Product in 1996 or in dollar terms $11.78 billion (Collier, 1999). In 1999, half a billion people traveled worldwide which indicates the huge scale of the tourism industry. And the speed of tourism growth is also outstanding - airplane numbers have increased thirty times since 1960 and in the last fifteen years the number has doubled. And the amount of international tourists is also increasing rapidly. In 1939 there were only one million tourists worldwide whereas in 1999 there were more than one million international tourists from New Zealand alone (Otago University Resource, 2001).

After understanding how large the tourism industry is and the speed it is growing at, it is necessary to then learn about the associated impacts from tourism. The impacts are divided into three categories: economic, socio-cultural and environmental and each impact can create either a positive or negative outcome. Obviously the most important impacts that need to be dealt with are the negative ones. Throughout this essay each different impact will be explained and an example provided. It will also indicate how important it is for a tourism manager to be aware of these impacts and how they could possibly minimise or eliminate any of these adverse effects.

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Socio-cultural impacts are concerned with the effects tourism has on host communities and the residents. Travelers can have either a positive or negative impact on a host community but in this particular example the negative socio-cultural impacts on Queenstown will be examined.

Queenstown is a vastly growing, popular tourist destination in the Southern Island of New Zealand. Labeled as the 'Adventure Capital of the World,' attractions range from jet boating to snowboarding to parapenting hiking. Although one may assume the city is reaping the economic benefits from tourism, it is also suffering from negative socio cultural impacts. Tourists from Europe, the United States, Scandinavia, Australia and Asia outnumber the 9,000 residents two to one (Sunday Star Times, 2000). Due to the high tourist to resident ratio it is inevitable that residents are feeling the disruption in their everyday lives. Locals are feeling as though their town has been taken over by tourists. A specific example of this 'take over' is the congestion caused by tourists in Queenstown. Suppose a Queenstown resident wants to make a trip into town to do some shopping. Extra caution must be taken when driving into town due to the number of vehicles on the road. Also a lot of the drivers are foreign and unfamiliar to New Zealand's road rules which adds to the danger. Getting around Queenstown can take a lot longer due to vehicles like buses and campervans slowing down the traffic and since there are limited passing lanes driving can be quite frustrating for residents. Once the resident gets to town they find the streets crowded with tourists and queues at the counters. Prices on necessity goods have been inflated and some locals probably would not even consider buying luxury goods in Queenstown due to the augmented 'tourist' prices (Sunday Star Times, 2000). Signs on the windows of shops are starting to appear in foreign languages, typically Japanese. Even some of the shops are owned and operated by foreigners and the shop assistants cannot speak fluent English.

This example of a Queenstown resident's trip to the shops highlights the gradual disruption of a local community and culture. Therefore it is necessary for Queenstown tourism mangers to become aware of these negative socio cultural impacts and do something to either minimise or eliminate the effects. All of the tourist attractions are going to be more successful if they get full support from the residents.

There are various tools tourism managers could use to help manage these socio cultural impacts. The first step is to assess the carrying capacity of the city. There are only so many beds in Queenstown that can accommodate visitors. In terms of an accommodation carrying capacity, the figure could be worked out by surveying how many beds there are at every form of accommodation in the region.

The second step would be to look at how many tourists are visiting the Queenstown district and see how essential it is to create more accommodation or attractions. One must remember that the authenticity of a destination can be ruined if it is overdeveloped. By visiting Queenstown right now it is possible to see how much of a mess the town is in due to tourism development.

In order to reduce the congestion on the roads there are two steps that could be taken. Firstly a heavy traffic by-pass could be created to stop people travelling through town centres unnecessarily. The second solution would be to create more passing lanes where possible to keep the traffic flowing smoothly.

And finally the last tool that could be used to help the host community is by actually involving them in tourism planning and development. If tourism managers respect and listen to the resident's opinions it may help reduce future negative impacts. After all without the locals there would be no 'kiwi' culture in the town and there would be no one to help operate the tourist attractions.

The most arguable aspect of tourism today is the impact it has on the environment, with most comments suggesting that it does more harm than good. Environmental impacts are concerned with the disruption and destruction of floral and faunal species, pollution, litter, erosion and any changes to the natural and built environments of a community due to tourism activity.

In Australia there are many natural environments that are under threat due to large numbers of tourists visiting them. The Great Barrier Reef in Queensland is a prime example of a natural environment being ruined by tourism. Coral reefs are delicate, vulnerable ecosystems that live and grow below sea level. The Great Barrier Reef has been under sustained attack from development, tourism and natural factors. It is slowly eroding due to human activity, such as boats and anchors hitting it and thousands of snorkellers and scuba divers breaking off huge chunks for jewelry and souvenirs (Anderton, 1995). Considering the vast amounts of tourists who visit the reef every year, there is possible risk that parts of the reef could be completely destroyed if the impacts are not managed properly.

And it is not just the destruction of the idyllic reef settings at risk but also the extensive range of wildlife living in the reef. Tourism is causing disruption to breeding habitats, changes in vegetation and extinction of species due to water pollution (Anderton, 1995). And if tourism in the reef continues to escalate and no restrictions are enforced, then there is a possibility that there will be no beautiful coral or fish to see in the near future. One can now understand how important environmental impacts are and why responsible tourism managers should be aware.

The approach a tourism manager should take to fixing or minimsing any negative impacts is a 'Sustainable Approach.' From a 1987 report 'Our Common Future,' sustainable development was defined as "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." There are four possible solutions to managing the latter environmental impacts.

The first solution is to place a limit on the amount of tourism operators in the Great Barrier Reef region. If there are too many tourism operators at the reef, it is creating overcrowding and pressure on the reef. Also having a limitation of visitors on each vessel would reduce the pressure. Operations like snorkeling and scuba diving should have to be registered and undergo specific training programmes that educate people on reef protection.

Legislation should be introduced reflecting the collection of coral souvenirs. It should become illegal to break off pieces of coral from the reef. Since visitor numbers are relatively high one can imagine there would be no coral left if every visitor took home a chunk.

The third solution would be to build or create specific reef viewing areas. It would be like land zoning and therefore some areas would be 'out of bounds.' This would help protect certain endangered areas and allow for future generation's use.

Finally education is an important and effective management tool. Education could be included in tourist activity pamphlets, distributed through travel agents and information centres, to illustrate how important it is to care for the reef.

Tourists then have a chance to understand the appropriate behaviour expected by the operators before arriving to the activity. The expected behaviour would then be repeated verbally upon arrival to the activity to signify the importance of protecting the reef. Glen Burns is an employee of a Great Barrier Reef scuba diving operation and he believes that educating tourists is very successful. On a recent television programme 'Assignment: The Tourism Trap' he said: "Once people become aware of the fact that these corals are living animals, living organisms and that by standing on them they will crush and kill them, then you'd be amazed. People really do want to look after (the Great Barrier Reef); they don't want to do any damage. They want to see it stay (pristine) and they will do their utmost to make sure it stays that way (Assignment, 2001)." The quote simply excentuates how effective education is for minimising environmental impacts.

The last example is about the economic impacts caused by tourism. Typically concerned with the monetary costs and benefits created by tourism development and operation, people generally associate high revenue to popular tourist attractions. And one can understand their opinions since tourism contributes greatly to New Zealand's Gross Domestic Product, Foreign Exchange earnings and it also supports a significant number of jobs (Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, 1997). But in the following example the issues of sustainability and weather reliance will illustrate just how tourism attractions can suffer economically.

In late 2000 Ruapehu Alpine Lifts (also the owner of Whakapapa skifield) bought Turoa Ski Resort due to Turoa's poor financial status. Turoa ended up in receivership early last year, resulting from poor snowfalls and the issue of seasonality. A ski resort is typically a winter-orientated operation and a season can be as short as three months. So with huge set-up and operational costs and the addition of hiring and training mainly seasonal staff, it can be seen that it is a pricey attraction to run. For any tourism operator receivership would undoubtedly be the worst economic impact of tourism.

The first problem Turoa Ski Resort faced was the issue of seasonality, which contributed to the negative economic impacts. The mountain would be packed in the winter season but as soon as the winter season ended the tourists would disappear. Even though the resort is open during summer for sightseeing, the visitor numbers are significantly low (Turoa Staff Handguide, 2000).

In order to even out the seasonal peaks and troughs it is necessary for the tourism managers to work out ways to attract more people in the off peak season. Offering reduced chairlift rates might attract more tourists and the resort could work in conjunction with local accommodation outlets to provide cheap packages. Advertising may need to be increased, as people may be unaware of the summer activities at the resort. Maybe the option of complete closure over the summer could be the most feasible solution.

The second problem that caused negative economic impacts on Turoa was the reliance on weather. Unfortunately for the last five years there has been a series of poor snowfalls. The lack of snow resulted in many closed days and with the addition of the 1995 volcanic eruption Turoa suffered financially - big time.

The first important prerequisite to buying a ski resort would be to have experience in how the resort operates or to have done substantial background research. Since the weather determines greatly how many visitors the resort receives, tourism managers should be aware of ways to cope with bad seasons.

A new idea bought in by Ruapehu Alpine Lifts (now known as Mt Ruapehu) this year is an 'Activity Pass.' International tourists purchase an Activity Pass that entitles them to a day skiing or if the weather is poor they can transfer it to money value at selected tourist attractions within the region (for example 4WD motorbiking). It is a great of retaining prospective customers until the weather clears.

Since the main economic problem in operating a ski resort is the possibility of financial hardship, the most effective management tool would be to have excellent accounting skills. If managers know where the money is being spent and areas where it could be saved they find themselves financially stable. This also included selecting the right employees and making sure they are being as productive as possible.

Having looked at three examples of socio-cultural, environmental and economic impacts of tourism, the message is clear - in order to continue to operate and develop tourist attractions tourism managers must have huge interest in all of the impacts, essentially the negative effects. If tourism managers do not make an effort to even consider these tourism impacts, it is possible that their individual businesses could in the future suffer. And these managers must also understand that not one impact is more important than the others are. In order for a tourism manager to be considered a 'responsible' manager these tourism impacts must be dealt with, otherwise there could be some serious outcomes, potentially jeopardising their businesses.


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Essay on Roberto Matta

Roberto Matta Essay

Roberto Matta was born on November 11, 1911 in Santiago, Chile. Matta was educated as an architect and as an interior designer at the Sacre Coeur Jesuit College and at the Catholic University of Santiago, from 1929-31. From 1933-34 he worked in Paris as a drafter for a famous architect named Le Corbusier. At the end of 1934 Matta visited Spain, where he met Federico Garcia Lorca, a poet/playwright, who through a letter, introduced Matta to Salvador Dali (surrealist). After meeting with Dali, Matta was encouraged to show some of his drawings to Andre Breton, another surrealist. Matta’s meeting with Dali and Breton strongly influenced his formation as an artist as well as connecting him to the Surrealist movement. In 1936 Matta worked in London with Walter Gropius and Laszio Moholy-Nagy (both architects). While Matta was employed by the architects of the Spanish Republican pavilion at the Paris International Exhibition. Matta was exposed to Picasso's “Guernica” which greatly impressed him and influenced him in his work. Around the same time, Matta was introduced to the work of Marcel Duchamp(dadaist). He later went to Scandinavia where he met the architect Alvar Aalto and then to Russia where he worked on housing design projects( ). In the summer of 1938 Matta’s work evolved from a sketch into a painting. In 1938 before the start of the war (WWII) Matta fled Europe and headed towards New York, where he lived for ten years and left his imprint on the art scene and the world.

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Before one can have an understanding of Roberto Matta’s work, one must first define Surrealism, it’s precedents, history and its origin as well as what was occurring in society and how it influenced Matta’s art during is carreer.

Surrealism grew directly out of the movement known as Dadaism, which was founded during World War I (1914-1918) as a reaction to the massive destruction and loss of life brought about by the war. The main purpose of the Dadaist movement was to ridicule culture, reason, technology, and art. Dadaists believed that any faith in humanity’s ability to improve itself through art and culture, especially after the unprecedented destruction of the war, was naive and unrealistic( ). As a result, the dadaists created works using accident, chance, and anything that underscored the irrationality of humanity: for example, making poems out of pieces of newspaper chosen at random and displaying everyday objects as art( ).

Like Dadaism, surrealism stressed the role of the unconscious in creative activity, but it used the psychic unconscious in a more orderly, positive and serious manner. Surrealism celebrated the realm of dreams and the unconscious mind through the creation of visual art, poetry and motion pictures. Surrealists were heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud. In a nutshell, Freud believed that the unconscious mind revealed itself in times when the conscious mind was relaxed such as in dreams, myths, slips of the tongue, accidents, and art. With this notion or paradigm, the surrealists invented new art forms and techniques. One of the most important techniques used to elicit the unconscious during the Surrealist movement and Roberto Matta’s signature technique was Automatism. In painting, Automatism consists of allowing the hand to wander across the canvas surface without any interference from the conscious mind. The resulting marks, it was thought, would not be random or meaningless, but would be guided at every point by the functioning of the artist’s unconscious mind, and not by rational thought or artistic training ( ). A painting that best describes Matta’s use of automatism was the "Elle s'y Gare," as well as other paintings such as the “Psychological Morphology” collection. In these paintings the viewer, can easily understand the subconscious and automatism.

First I’ll start with the span of his artistic career and how his art changed along with society. What will be analyzed mostly is the work created in 1940’s-1970’s. Matta’s artistic carreer as a surrealist started in the 1940’s and ended until the late 1990’s upon his death. His work can be divided into two epochs. The first epoch started in the 40’s during World War II and ended in 1947 when he was expelled from the surrealist movement, and the second epoch, started in the 50’s and lasted until the late 90’s. During the first epoch Matta’s work was very automatistic, very surreal, and as always dealt with something occurring in society, World War II. The work during this time was biomorphic, fluid, organic, and the landscapes or spaces he created were very dream state like. Some of his paintings that best demonstrated these characteristics were, “crucifixion(1938)” which was inspired by the cubist, Picasso and had a few parallels with Picasso’s “Guernica,” other paintings were “Psychological Morphology (1938)” and “Prescience (1939)”. During this time, in my opinion his work was very experimental and political. Due to the birth of a new movement and the war. In contrast to his earlier work (40’s-50’s), his later work which spanned 30-40yrs had more of a political and spiritual intention. His artwork seemed to represent the constant struggle between man and machine. In my opinion man and machine symbolizes war such as WWII and the aftermath as well as political system in our country as well as others. A lot of his work during this time had metallic forms appearing to be in battle, sharp edges, the color palette was much more bold, and apocalyptic; and the themes in his artwork related to events occurring in such places as Vietnam, Alabama and Santo Domingo. Paintings that expressed these characteristics: "L'Impencible(1957)”,"Le Royome de Yeux 1960,” etc…

Many artists and art movements have been inspired by Matta’s work and the surrealist movement. Such artists and art movements consist of abstract expressionism and artists such as Jackson Pollock and Arshile Gorky. Through Matta’s carreer his artwork/painting reflected and expressed the environment in which he lived in. Early on before his career stared he was inspired by great artists such as Dali, Breton, and Picasso. Later on Matta became just as important to the art world and to the surrealist movement as his mentors. He was one of the few Surrealist artists to take on political, social, and spiritual themes. Roberto Matta painted until the day he died, but his legacy and his work continues to inspire artist’s, critic’s, and society.


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Saturday, February 27, 2010

Essay on American Dream

American Dream Essay

The term "American Dream" is well established in our culture, yet it has seemingly managed to escape a clear, concise definition. It can be a state of mind, an expression, and ideological fixation, or even an idea; nevertheless while there is little disagreement regarding the existence of such a term, its true meaning is disputed. “It is the promise inherent in the idea of America itself.” Creating America or “The American Dream is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of a social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position.” The Epic Of America Both excerpts show an opinion of the American Dream. For me, the America Dream is the ability to be successful, earn a steady income, live in a land that is free and democratic, and receive a well rounded education regardless of your nationality, birthplace, country of citizenship or religion. To me, the American Dream is something that it accessible to anyone who steps foot onto American soil.

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The classic view of “the split level ranch house in the suburbs, the healthy 2.3 children, and an ever-changing model of the American made car” Creating America ties into the aspects that we equate with the American dream: money, social equality, power, success and democratic ideals”. While not every American has the aforementioned things, the distinction can be made when we realize that they have the ability to get them.

The usage of the term “American” evokes a wide array of questions. Such an encompassing term should undoubtedly speak for all Americans. Then, what is an American? Suppose we were to define an American as someone who either was born in the Unites States, has citizenship, or who is in the country at the present moment. Using that definition one must assume that ideal is consistent among all of the various factions of people that are American.

America is recognized for its democratic principles and value of freedom. Consequently many immigrants flock to the shores of the United States annually so that they may live in a country that does not oppress them, allows them to work and earn an income without lofty taxation and not only allows, but encourages them to get an education. Such ideals are rare around the world and even so the welcoming of immigrants in other countries is by far less amiable than it is in the United States.

If one was to look at the government of Saudi Arabia, then it would become apparent that power in that country is associated with lineage and family honor. In America, everyone, “regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position” have the right and the ability not only to hold an office of power, but to vote and participate freely whatever they so choose.

The American dream, while it is not concisely defined, is a value that is inherent in all Americans. It can be closely compared to the principles of freedom and equality. The American dream is to have a chance, have an education, and have a job.


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The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Essay

Essay on The Adventures of Tom Sawyer

The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain is a tale of a boy’s passage into adulthood. Mark Twain depicts this passage through a series of adventures. Tom’s adventures offered him the freedom he longed for and a chance to discover his own moral conscience while escaping the rules of society and acceptable behavior. But in the end, Tom adheres to society rules and limitations and becomes a responsible person with a desire to be a part of society.

Adult rules and expectations as well as societies bind Tom’s life. Tom is a mischievous and quick-witted free spirit who can’t stand anyone who tries to repress his carefree nature.

Tom’s life with Aunt Polly is one of strict regime of behavior, clothing, and cleanliness. Once he came home late and Aunt Polly punished him by turning “his Saturday holiday into captivity at hard labor”, (p443). Also, he has to be in bed by half past nine and say his prayers every night.

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Tom also hated Monday mornings for that meant “another week’s slow suffering in school”, (p462). He would try his best to fake an illness or wish it were a holiday of some sort just so he could go and play with his friends. And if faking an illness did not get him out of school, he would play hooky. Whenever he was caught by the teacher for playing hooky, Tom always “took his flogging”, (p486), without a care for he enjoyed his day of hooky so much that he didn’t care.

Then there was church and Sunday school, a tradition in the south, which he hated the most for he had to sit still and listen to the boring sermons. At church, Judge Thatcher pointed out to Tom that he would be a “great man” and owe it all to “the precious Sunday-school privileges”, (p458). Thus, Tom was fed up with the rules of society and wanted to have absolute freedom.

No matter where Tom was, school or church, he always yearned for his freedom. Tom finally has enough of societies expectations when Becky Thatcher rejects him by returning his brass andiron knob, “this final feather broke the camel’s back”, (p486). He teams up with Joe Harper who is in a similar situation and they both run away to Jackson Island by way of raft.

They both assume pirate names and decide to live like pirates because “they have just a bully time…[they] take ships, and burn them, and get the money and bury it in awful places [but] they don’t kill the women-they’re too noble”, (p31, Spark Notes 2002). On this Island there are no rules to abide by and no grown-ups to punish you. There first night, they eat stolen food and sleep under the stars. When they awake, they realize how peaceful and enjoyable life can be. And upon finding that their raft has floated away they realize that they are truly isolated from civilization and the ball and chain of society is finally broken.

Thus, Tom appears to be happy but in reality his conscience revolted inside. While on the Island, Tom constantly wrestled with his conscience for running away and stealing food from others. Tom felt so guilty that he couldn’t sleep, “then conscience granted a truce, and these curiously inconsistent pirates fell peacefully asleep”, (p498). Tom’s conscience haunts him throughout his adventures between good and bad. Tom takes an oath with Huck in blood never to reveal the story of the murder of Dr. Robinson lest they get killed by Injun Joe. Tom tries to ease his conscience by smuggling “small comforts” to Muff Potter in prison. In the end Tom tells the truth and saves Muff Potter. In a sense, Tom has conformed to society and become “respectable”.

Throughout the better part of the novel, Tom Sawyer can’t stand the rules that adults and society impose on him. Therefore, he dreams and schemes of ways to get out of those daily rituals that bind him. At times he is successful in escaping without punishment. When he runs away to Jackson Island, he learns for the first time how quiet and peaceful freedom was, “there was a delicious sense of repose and peace in the deep pervading calm and silence of the woods”, (p498). There were no rules to abide by, no school, no church and no Sunday school sermons to listen to. Life couldn’t be more perfect for all he did was fish, swim, and play games all day. But it would be this peace and quiet that would undermine his freedom, for he became lonely and homesick. Tom returns to the confining rules of society and becomes a mature morally conscious person when he stands up for Muff Potter. In the end, Tom wants to be a part of society and no one can join his gang of robbers unless they are “respectable”.

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Friday, February 26, 2010

Essay on Teenage Drinking

Teenage Drinking Essay

I have been carrying out some research about teenage drinking. There is an increasing concern about teenagers and their consumption of alcohol so I decided to find out how teenagers get their alcohol, why and where they drink, what the effects and consequences of teenage drinking can be. I also tried to find out what is being done to deal with the problem associated with teenage drinking.

In my written text where and why teenagers drink, I found that teenage drinking is an increasing problem. Most teenagers start drinking because they are bored and/or they want to be in with the crowd. “Teenagers think that if they start drinking they will be accepted by the popular people.” In my studies I have found that after the Government passed the law to lower the drinking age from 20 years to 18 years that a younger age group has been exposed to alcohol. If the drinking age was still 20 some younger teenagers would still get alcohol, but there would not be as many because they would not have friends old enough to buy it for them.

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The Drug Policy Research Centre in the USA says, “…that attempts to control teen alcohol consumption should focus less on prevention of initiation or any use and more on prevention of misuse.” One of the many concerns is the long-term health issues like having a stroke at an early age and serious liver damage. Another concern is memory loss and constant tiredness. Alcohol attacks the heart’s efficiency at pumping blood through the kidneys, which normally filter excess salt and water out of the blood. The blood volume can rise and cause a fatal back up of fluid in the lungs.

Lots of teenagers feel that they need to drink in social situations, where they feel uncomfortable and are not confident. Alcohol helps to relax the drinker and also helps them to be less self-conscious so they let loose and behave more sociably.

Having a drink in a social situation is acceptable but the drinker needs to know when they have had enough. They don’t need to drink a lot just so they can get drunk. Excess alcohol does not wear off in a couple of hours; it takes a long time for the body to get back to normality. Teenagers are at risk of alcoholic poisoning because their bodies are not ready for large quantities of alcohol. If people were introduced to alcohol at a young age in a socially controlled situation it would be accepted as a normal part of life and the need to binge drink would be reduced.

Young people get influenced to drink in a lot of very different ways. Advertisements send messages to young people that alcohol is fun. Many of the advertisements have humour and show that people can have a lot of fun with alcohol and come up with fun things to do. It is not just ads on TV, it is also advertisements on billboards with catch phrases, which make teenagers think that their brand is cool and want to start drinking that particular brand. I don’t think that the companies making those ads know that they are getting through to young people and just think they are getting to legal adults.

But whatever you do young teens are still going to get alcohol - one way or another. Alcohol doesn’t have to be a problem; it has been a part of society since the beginning of time!


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Essay on Schoolies

Schoolies Essay

Good morning members of the lions club. Adolescents are victims of the media. Why? Because the media has built up adolescents as being so mischievous that the viewers only want to see or read about the negatives. The media depicts the young generation of today as being hotheaded delinquents. The hoons they refer to are just a minority not the majority. Through movies and the newspaper the media targets only the malicious side of adolescents, which portrays every teenager as a dangerous individual. It is that that reinforces the ideals of adolescents today.

Before you read the article “ Keeping the peace in hot rod heaven” due to the fact that there is a rather large picture of teenagers, you immediately think that’s it about irresponsible teenagers. This article actually speaks about how an older man aged 37 lost control of his American sports car in a road race and crashed it into a restaurant injuring a ladies leg and a mans ankle. This article also talks about these hot rods gathering in the area in large numbers this has nothing to do with adolescents. Yet the media has victimised adolescents by putting a picture of 7 teenagers in the article when it was supposed to be about and older 37 year old who lost control of his car in a street race. This misrepresentation of adolescents is the main reason why we are viewed today as being untrustworthy, immature kids.

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Schoolies Week 7 days out of 365 where x students get to unwind reflect and relax. Schoolies week has become something of a rite of passage, a week in which thousands of young people head for Queensland's beaches to celebrate the end of their exams and the beginning of their new-found freedom. With all the positive things that happen on schoolies week it wasn’t long before the media picked up on the negatives. Which is exactly what the film maker of blurred did. Set over 24 hours, it follows the adventures of a group of students trying to get to the Gold Coast and features sex scenes, drug and alcohol abuse and a wrecked apartment. What they failed to pick up on was the bonding and friendships made over the schoolies week. By failing to recognise the positives the media has portrayed adolescents as being party driven delinquents.

However parties being bad is not new. Movies have always had the party scene weather it is from “can’t hardly wait” to “Van Wilder Party Liaison”. These two movies were made nearly 5 years apart but both share in the same genre. Parties. These stereotypical ideas are what reinforce that adolescents are victims of the media. With these movies showing drugs, sex and alcohol at parties parents are lead to believe that if there son or daughter were to go to a party they would be forced to take part in irresponsible behaviour. Some parents have even gone as far as to not let there children go out to parties and places therefor not allowing the children to experience a good child hood.

Fast and the furious is a movie about fast cars, delinquent behaviour and hate for authority. After watching this movie parents believe that adolescent + fast car = trouble. Because of a minority of young people in cars speeding and drag racing adolescents have been labelled hoons. But nothing is said about the 26-yr old man speeding up the highway late for work or the 56-yr old man in a hurry. Adolescents are labelled hoons because they are victimised and portrayed that way by the media. The scene I am about to show you reinforces that the movie is about fast cars, delinquent behaviour and hate for authority.

Shortly after this movie was made an anti hoon legislation was passed soli to stop street racing. But because of these new anti hoon laws adolescents have been targeted for the minutest offences. For example not to long ago a relative of mine was caught for operating a vehicle with excess noise when he was merle doing a u-turn and ran over road marking paint causing his tiers to screech.

Today I have spoken about the media manipulating the public into believing adolescents are delinquent kids through movies and the newspaper. After informing you on these points I have clearly reinforced that adolescents are victims of the media. If the media could just focus more on the positive side of adolescents then maybe the public would perceive the younger community for what they are, mature young adults not just a bunch of rat-bags. Thankyou.

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Thursday, February 25, 2010

Essay on Odysseus: Is He Really Free?

Odysseus Essay

Most people today cannot do whatever they feel like. They are limited by their religion, the government, or some other power. In the adventures of Odysseus, Odysseus leaves his kingdom to fight an ongoing war in the kingdom of Troy. When he reaches the city, he leads his troops to victory. Odysseus does not do this just because he felt like becoming a hero. He was ordered by the Greek gods to go to Troy and lead himself and his kingdom to victory. If Odysseus was able to do whatever he wanted, he probably would have said that he would not risk his life and leave his wife and newborn son just to fight a war that would most likely have no effect on his kingdom, and himself. But, he did not do that. To him, he was ordered by the gods to fight. This shows that he obviously is limited by what he is able to do. Odysseus is brave and fearless, but is not able to do whatever he wishes. His capabilities are limited by the gods; therefore he does whatever the gods tell him to do.

Since Odysseus has all of the gods to “watch is back” he would obviously have no fear since the most powerful things on earth would be there to help him if anyone or “ones” decided to pick a fight with him. Odysseus knew that with the gods on his side, not a single person in the world would be able to stand up to him. This knowledge of power made Odysseus feel, and act like he was fearless. Without fear, Odysseus could do whatever he felt like doing whenever, and wherever he wanted.

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Just because he did not have any fear, Odysseus still could not keep all of his soldiers under his control during a battle. Odysseus was also a brave man. For example when he and his men where sailing straight for the island of the Sirens, he was brave enough to sacrifice his sanity just so his men would be able to save themselves and steer the boat in the right direction and get away from the Sirens’ deadly song. This proves that Odysseus was also brave on top of being fearless.

Being brave, and being able to do whatever he wanted to do, whenever he wanted to, still did not give Odysseus ultimate power. Why? Because he is limited by the gods, the same beings that give him his fearlessness and braveness were the same that kept him from using it to gain total and complete power.

Odysseus is fearless, brave, and limited by what he can do by the gods. If any other person in the world today were given this power, fearlessness, and bravery, without being limited by the “gods”, they would most likely go and try to take out the president of the United States. They would do this just because they could. Odysseus would also do the exact same thing if he were not limited by the gods.

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Nationalism in Nigeria Essay

Essay on Nationalism in Nigeria

Nationalism is the devotion to the interests or culture of one's nation. Nigeria is a country that has been through a lot of turmoil in the years that it has existed. The root of the nationalism that has built up over the years goes back many generations. There have been lots of different areas that help contribute to the nationalism that we see in Scotland today. The people that live in Nigeria are very proud of who they are and their ancestors that have come before them. I am going to look at a few of the things that I believe have helped contribute to the nationalism that we see in Nigeria today. There are many different areas that I really want to look at including the unifying and diverse force. The first thing that I believe is very important to Nigerian nationalism is the culture that has been evolved over the years. This includes everything from literature to the sports that the Scottish plays. I also want to look at the way that the Nigerians have developed a legislative body even though it does not have all of the powers that they would like it to have.

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The first thing that I want to look at when it comes to the nationalistic ideas of Nigeria is the literature and how it has evolved over the years. There have been many different types of literature that have come out of Nigeria and the one that is most commonly tied in with the nationalism is the great poetry that has been written by some of the great poets. The most famous of all of the Poets that have come out of this land is Ezenwa Ohaeto who lived in the second half of the 1800’s. In the early years of Nigeria a lot of the languages were spoken and hardly written down so that it could be passed on from one generation to another. The earliest piece of literature that is of any great significance is called Yoruba (not the language). This poem is filled with the idea of being noble to ones country and the Great king (God) that is in charge of this country. This story was told before men were to go into battle. It explained about the freedom that shall be won in the battle. When a person reads this story they will get a sense of nationalism for their country because it talks about fighting to become a free body and being able to rule over yourself and not have somebody else making the decisions that effect your well being.

The next writer who is very important to the growth of nationalism through literature would be Abiodun Adepoju. He helped revise the poetry that had been a part of the culture that was lost when it was destroyed during the reformation period. He helped to bring back many of the traditional poems and songs that had been destroyed, even though he did put his own twist on some of them. He was considered a very strong nationalist Abiodun Adepoju wanted to keep the traditions of Nigeria alive and he helped to do this through his poems and the opening of several types of cultural learning centers.

Sports are another big part of the nationalistic culture that inhabits the land of Nigeria. Nigerians have always been interested in different kinds of sports however there is one sport that all Nigerians have come to love; football (soccer). Football is one of the greatest games in the world and it is believed to have originated in England.

This sport has taken over the country by storm and when they face another country you can see the nationalism pour from the people of Nigeria. Nigeria’s rival is South Africa and their matches can get out of hand at times. During the late 1980’s they had to play matches against each other in a neutral state because of all of the violence that was occurring. “The matches against South Africa played an integral part in maintaining Nigeria’s national identity. There was a match in 1963 that actually had over 100,000 spectators and it is the same way today in a match against South Africa. In the eyes of a Nigerian if their team loses than their country has also lost in the competition and they will be inferior to that nation until they can beat them at this game.

Nationalism is a saying that is different for any country that you are talking about and it could mean totally opposite things depending on which side of the fence you are on. The people of Nigeria have been through a lot of hard times in their history and they are still one of the most nationalistic people in the world today. It seems like most of the ideas that are nationalistic come from events that have happened in the past. “A nation is a soul, a spiritual principle. Only two things, actually, constitute this soul, this spiritual principle. One is the past” the other is in the present.”(http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ni.html). Nigerians definitely have a very rich past and they seem to have the will to hold on to all of these customs and the culture that has been handed down through the generations. Hopefully one day a Nigerian will be able to claim that he is part of his own nation and separate from all others.

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Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Paradise Lost: The Heroic Satan Essay

Essay on Paradise Lost

The stories that people today and people back in history have been taught about religion and the fall of Satan are relatively the same. God is the savior, the king, and the almighty power. He is an unseen leader whose power we worship, one who is of an understanding nature and blessed character. What we have been taught about Satan and his followers has never gone far from what the Bible has always told us. Satan is a dark character, a selfish, jealous, and powerless creature that tries to bring people to his hell and make them as miserable as he is himself. It would appear that Milton tried to disprove this assumption- it seems he instead portrayed Satan as a powerful, heroic and magnificent being. God can be interpreted as far and few choose to believe- dark, emotionless, egotistical, and unforgiving. Although this was not necessarily his aim, the way that he wrote it left it open to many different interpretations.

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Milton’s word choices and his character development make Satan's character an object of curiosity. The reader is swayed to be attracted to Satan’s appeal, if not his power. Satan's character is strong-minded, intellectual, and at times, philosophical. Milton does not portray the fault of Satan's fall on lack of intelligence, or weakness of character- it is more a simple acceptance of evil. Satan says, "So farewell Hope And with Hope farewell Fear Farewell Remorse: all Good to me is lost Evil be thou my Good," (Milton, IV. 109-111). Milton summarizes Satan's acceptance of evil best, saying that the profoundest Hell will receive a new leader, one who possesses a mind that cannot be changed. (I. 29-31)

Satan’s 'heroic' ambition and courage is shown throughout the story and are accepted as his characteristics. Milton made each character with their own distinctive and descriptive personalities. The beginning of book one is where you first see Milton begin to identify exactly
what traits will belong to each character.

The mother of mankind, what time his pride had cast him out from Heaven, with all his host of rebel angels, by whose aid aspiring to set himself in glory above his peers, He trusted to have equaled the Most High, If he opposed; and with ambitious aim against the throne and monarchy of God, raised impious war in Heaven and battle proud with vain attempt. (Milton, I. 36-49).

Satan did not like the way things were being run and he wanted to challenge authority, so he decided to make a change. These are all examples of human faults, of feelings and attempts that are made by humans. Could it be that Milton wants us to relate to Satan so he gives him human thoughts and characteristics? He is resourceful, intelligent, and an eloquent leader. He values freedom and knowledge over servitude. He is not afraid to break away from what he has been told to believe and is proud, vain and ambitious. Are those not human traits as well? Milton may have presented him in this way for many different reasons. He may be portraying Satan attractively because evil is attractive; and if it were not, then there would not be quite so much of it in the world. The characters of Paradise Lost may be interpreted many different ways, depending on what you are reading and what time period it was written in. Milton's original ambition may have not been to define Satan's character so drastically, but his works were often taken out of one time period and put into another with totally different religious and biblical beliefs and thesis.

Although on the surface Satan seems heroic and easily befriending, that very well may be one of Milton’s talents; getting him to seem trustworthy and worth following. More so, this relates humans in general to Adam and Eve and their vulnerability. Eve trusted him and believed what he said, and so easily we are also led into believing his ambition is worthy and his plight is admirable. In all reality, he is trying to take down God, the ultimate good.

Milton’s poem epitomizes human action and expression through otherworldly tales. Paradise Lost is about deception, ambition, evil, and the difference between what we are led to believe and the actual reality of things. Often we can be led into believing something due to a great leader and an eloquent speaker. Milton shows us the danger in following what we feel is right in the moment, opposed to what we have been taught for years and years.

The questions that Milton's Paradise Lost presents are open-ended and unanswerable. They are the questions that scholars and religious figures have been trying to answer for hundreds of thousands of years. However thought provoking he may be, Milton leaves us with an unsaid statement, a declaration. Since the beginning of time, humans have been susceptible to evil and deceit. They have been led into uncertainty and darkness by a friendly ally or a masked danger. In a world of seeming invincibility, the inability to distinguish the identity of a true Satan and the fear of the unknown can still humble even the strongest man.

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Religious Freedom Essay

Essay on Religious Freedom

Over the history of mankind there have been relatively few who have truly enjoyed religious freedom. Though we see definite signs of increased limitations being put on traditional religious organizations today, we here in America enjoy freedom far beyond that enjoyed by the generations before us and most of our contemporaries around the world. We take our freedoms for granted just as we take fresh air until we are deprived of it. It seems to be a fact of human nature that it is only in its absence that a particular freedom is most valued.

Let us briefly review a little history of religious freedom in Europe prior to the settling of America.

The first major breakthrough came about 1450 with Johann Gutenberg’s invention of removable type and the printing press. Not until Gutenberg’s invention was the mass production of the printed word possible. Books prior to that time were copied by hand, and a large library of even a wealthy family might be ten books or less. It is estimated that within 50 years of Gutenberg’s invention 20,000,000 books were printed.

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But with the printing press came the opportunity for rapid spreading of information, especially copies of the scriptures, which up until that time, were the exclusive possession of the Church and were kept under strict control. It was understood that a monopoly on the scriptures gave those in power the ability to "manage the news" to the people and thereby control their thinking. The closely aligned political and ecclesiastical powers of the day combined and were soon doing what they could to make it illegal to own a Bible.

The Gutenberg Bible was initially printed in Latin for the Catholic Church. Various scholars began making new translations and even dared to translate scripture into the native tongue of the people. For two hundred years, governments imprisoned and even executed those who translated, printed, or possessed illegal scriptures.

To English speaking people, the most notable was William Tyndale. He was the first to translate portions of the Bible into English while in exile, and his last wish before being executed by strangulation in 1536 was that the king’s eyes would be opened that the people might have the Bible. Within just a few years the political climate in England began to change, and Miles Coverdale printed the first complete English Bible using much of Tyndale’s work. It had to be printed overseas and shipped to England. Six thousand copies were smuggled into the country.

Those who owned them were at risk of severe punishments, but the word was spreading. And it became politically opportune to authorize an official Bible under the authority of the king. After delays and aborted attempts, the King James Bible was published in 1611 and was the first printed-in-England Bible free to circulate among the people. It was not immediately popular, as the Geneva Bible had already been spread widely among the people.

When the American colonies became populated, the king forbade them from printing their own copies of an English translation. They had to be imported from England.
The first American Bible to be printed in the English language was printed in 1776, only after the American colonies had declared their independence.

This is only part of the story of the quest for religious freedom. As you know, the Pilgrims and other groups came to this country seeking the freedom to practice their faith which did not fully adhere to the established churches of the day. These people, often out of a sense of desperation to preserve the purity of their faith and the integrity of their community, immediately practiced intolerance of other faiths. The concept of religious freedom was not yet mature, but over the follow century and a half, recognition of the value of religious liberty increased. And colony by colony, more liberal views were enacted into law.

Just days before our declaring independence from England, Virginia adopted a bill of rights which included these words:
"...All Men are equally entitled to the free exercise of Religion, according to the Dictates of Conscience; and that it is the mutual Duty of all to practice Christian Forbearance, Love, and Charity towards each other."

I do not have time today to discuss this in detail, but it is clear that the early settlers and the Founders viewed this nation as being founded for a Christian purpose but were also coming to the realization that for that purpose to prosper full religious freedom was necessary. Even so, as we became a nation in 1776, there still remained established churches in various colonies and in some places there were laws restricting public offices to only those who professed a faith in Jesus Christ.

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Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Relationship Between the Fish and the Fisherman Essay

Essay on The Fish and The Fisherman

Elizabeth Bishop's poem "The Fish" is a work in which a fisherman takes a detailed observation of a fish. With a closer look at the poem, it becomes apparent that the fisherman develops a connection with the fish on three different levels. The fisherman connects with the fish physically, in age, and mentally.

The fisherman and the fish are connected by the physical similarities between the two. The fisherman talks about the fish’s “coarse white flesh,” like the flesh of the fisherman (27). The author talks about the small and large bones in the fish, which is similar to a human’s small and large bones in his or her body. The author then goes on to compare her eyes with the eyes of the fish. The author says, “I looked into his eyes / which were far larger than mine / but shallower, and yellowed,” showing the similarities and differences between the two (34-36). The author then begins to talk about the similarities between the two mouths. The author uses the word lip giving the fish human-like characteristics, putting the fish on the same level as the author. The fish and the fisherman are connected on more levels than just the physical.

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Throughout the poem, the author notes the fish’s experience. Bishop starts by noticing the fish’s outside appearance. She writes, “… Here and there / his brown skin hung in strips / like ancient wallpaper,” showing how the fish’s skin has changed with its age (9-11). Bishop then says that “He was speckled with barnacles,” which indicates that the fish has been in the water a very long time (16). The author goes on to talk about the appearance of the fish’s eyes by saying,

“the irises backed and packed
with tarnished tinfoil
seen through the lenses
of old scratched isinglass.” (37-40)

This quotation further emphasizes the fish’s age. Bishop moves her focus to the fish’s mouth, where she notices “… five old pieces of fish-line,” (51). She describes the hooks as, “a five-haired beard of wisdom” (63). This goes on to show the fish’s age and experience. The reason that the fisherman focuses so much on the age of the fish is because it causes the fisherman to meditate on her own life and experience, which allows her to connect with the fish on that level.

Lastly, the fisherman tries to connect with the fish on a mental level. The fisherman begins her quest to connect with the fish on a mental level when she looks into its eyes. Eyes are seen as a passageway into one’s mind. The fish does not seem to have the same interest in the fisherman.

This is shown when the author writes, “They [the fish’s eyes] shifted a little, but not / to return my stare.” (41-42). The fisherman is unable to connect with the fish until oil from her boat creates a rainbow in the water. A rainbow is a symbol of good after the bad. The fisherman lets the fish go, which gives the fish another chance at life. The fisherman does this because she hopes that one day her act of goodwill will come back to her in her favor when she is in a tough spot. This rainbow in the water allows the fisherman to finally connect with the fish on a mental level.

By the end of the poem, the fisherman connects with her catch on three different levels. First, she connects with the fish physically. Then, she connects with the fish in age and experience. Lastly, with the notice of the rainbow, the fisherman connects with the fish in thought. This allows the fisherman to further understand her catch and come to the decision to let it go.

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Reflection on "The Doll's House" involving Nora's Independance vs. Dependance

The Doll's House Essay

People in the world are shaped by experiences they encounter. Therefore, every moment in a person’s life is significant and contributes to the character someone would make of himself or herself. In the play “A Doll’s House,” Nora goes through experiences that mold her into a more independent person, which changes her life completely. It is a perplexing theory that every moment in your life matters because people often take for granted the significance of these moments. Nora starts off as a dependant individual. There are many incidents that slowly manipulate Nora into the more independent person she becomes in the end.

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Nora grew up in an environment in which she was not taken seriously and living in her husband’s house, Nora is treated in the same ways. She also thinks herself as a independent individual. For example Nora says, “Yes, please, Torvald. I can’t get on without you (page 164).” However, throughout the play Nora begins to recognize the treatment she receives. In the play she states, “While I was at home with father he used to tell me all his opinions and I held the same opinions. If I had others I concealed them, because he would not have liked it. He used to call me his doll child, and play with me as I played with my dolls (page 204).” Nora’s ability to identify the treatment alone is a very big step in the development of her character because you can only change what you acknowledge. This statement by Nora also validates the theory that Nora was never taken seriously. Nora grew up within this household not being exposed to different treatment. While she went to look for a husband and settled down, it was a probable result that she was treated the way she was by Helmer. When someone is in an environment in which they are treated in a specific way, it becomes comfortable and familiar so it makes that environment hard to leave. Nora was naive to the fact that her life could be different; therefore she became very dependant.

Even though Nora had been treated unfairly, she finally gets the courage to stand up to Torvald and express her true feelings. Nora says, “There’s another problem to be solved first-I must try and educate myself. You are not the man to help me do that. I must set about it alone. And that is why I am now leaving you (page 205).” This statement expressed by Nora reveals the fact that she has recognized the path, which will lead to a more fulfilling lifestyle. This is the first step to independence for Nora and it truly shows a character growth within her.

While witnessing Nora’s life learned lessons, it arouses motivation in recognizing aspects of my life that I need to grow in. Nora started from being a very naĞ¿ve and dependant individual to a strong, opinionated, and independent individual. There are many incidents in Nora’s life that shape Nora into the independent person that she becomes. The whole experience with Torvold is her miracle because it allows her to distinguish that she can become a person taken seriously in the world.

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Monday, February 22, 2010

Career in Nursing Essay

Essay on Career in Nursing

The career that I have chosen is a R.N., or registered nurse. A registered nurse has many different occupational specialties. Some of them are general duty nurses, occupational health nurses, office nurses, and private duty nurses, plus a few more.

Registered nurses have the opportunity to work in many places such as hospitals, institutions, department stores, and medical offices. The jobs entail providing nursing service for patients in hospitals institutions, offices, and nursing care for on-duty workers if needed. An R.N. is expected to work with people often during their day. So if you’re looking into being a registered nurse, being a good people-person is defiantly a plus.

In order to become a registered nurse, of course, you must go through the proper schooling and training. A two year school offers programs that will let you become a registered nurse, as well as some four year schools. To become a registered nurse an individual must graduate from an approved school of nursing and pass a state exam. Nurses may receive a diploma from a hospital school or nursing, an associate’s degree from a community college nursing program, or a bachelor’s degree from a four year college. You can get this schooling and training through many different colleges. One college offered in New Jersey, is Rutgers in New Brunswick. This college allows you to get the right training and degrees, and also offers a hospital nursing program through the college.

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Of course, college doesn’t come free. In order to attend the Rutgers in New Brunswick, in-state tuition would cost me 5, 000 dollars. Extra Fees are about 1, 333 dollars. And Room & Board which would be the best bet for myself, would cost about 6,312 dollars. Books and expenses average about about 717 dollars. So just for that alone I am looking at about a little over 13, 000 dollars to earn the right training and degrees. Though this is a lot of money, becoming an R.N. is however, very rewarding in the end. According to a salary survey taken in 2002 by the National Association of Colleges and Employers, those graduating with a bachelor’s degree in nursing were offered a starting salary of 41,413 dollars per year. Those with master’s degrees were offered 57,240 for their first year. With this, an R.N. receives paid vacations, holidays, sick days, life and health insurance, and retirement benefits.

The job market for this type of a career is in demand. Employers are looking for desperately for registered nurses, and because of this, they are willing to pay more. It is said that employment is expected to grow faster within the years. You could apply for this job in medical offices, hospitals, nursing homes, and even through an agency that allows their registered nurses to travel to their patients homes and take care of them there. Becoming a registered nurse could often lead to going to more school, and eventually becoming a doctor.

I would be interested in this type of career for many reasons. I enjoy helping people and becoming a R.N. is a great way to take care of many others and offer your services to them. The pay is excellent and would defiantly help me in my future years. There is not too much schooling involved so I could start my profession much earlier than those who are attending a four year college, and then going for more schooling afterwards. I enjoy working inside, so staying in an office, or hospital all day would suit my wants.

I thought learning about this was extremely helpful. I am actually considering becoming a registered nurse myself. I was told from a friend that some registered nurses are offered 30 dollars an hour to start, and that I feel is incredible. I thought it was neat to learn that they do in fact administer.

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Rabbit Proof Fence Essay

Essay on Rabbit Proof Fence

The film Rabbit Proof Fence is reminiscent of a war story as the country has been invaded and taken over. The invaders are taking away the children and placing them in camps. Only three manage to escape on their epic journey home they must cross through enemy occupied territory, never knowing friend from foe.

The movie Rabbit Proof Fence and the book The Stolen Children: their stories edited by Carmel Bird aims to impose its values and attitudes on the responder, which compels the viewer to adopt this perspective, thus leading to a change. Both these texts use the language of empathy to impose their perspectives on their audience. This is effectively achieved through the use of a visual and oral medium as it allows the director to use empathetic language thus allowing the audience to enhance the power of understanding and imaginatively entering into another person’s feelings. There are many techniques used to enable the audience to embrace this perspective.

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Phillip Noyce, director of Rabbit Proof Fence not only portrays the colonial setting of the time but also treats the story with respect and understanding of the cultural protocols that are required. The Film is authentic as it is based on a true story. The authenticity of the film can be proven as it has been recorded in the local press as well as in the archives of the department of Native affairs. Furthermore Molly and Daisy are still alive and footage of them is shown at the end of the film. This footage gives the film a sense of reality. The director Phillip Noyce ensured that the film was culturally appropriated, by employing Pilkington Garimara, Molly’s daughter who is also the author of Following the Rabbit Proof Fence, which the movie is based on. Molly can speak from personal experience, as she was part of the stolen generation. Phillip Noyce uses the universal language of emotions to change peoples perspectives of the stolen generation. This is achieved not just domestically but internationally.

The audience becomes emotionally overwhelmed during the children’s epic journey home. The audience are able to strongly identify themselves with the three girls due to the fact that they are young, innocent and powerless. The audience can easily connect with the girls for we have all been children. The viewer soon finds themselves on the children’s side, in their shoes and identifying with them, the viewer takes on the perspective of the stolen generation.

Carmel Bird has used a written text that contains a report of separate oral accounts of the indigenous peoples past she seeks to detail the differing situations and outcomes of these people. The film Rabbit Proof Fence stands as one story that represents them all. The distinct importance of the individual voices in The Stolen Children is replaced in the film by an intense visual. This visual representation emphasised through the use of symbols, such as the fence and the eagle, which symbolises Molly’s freedom. Rabbit Proof Fence stands as a cinematic analogue of Carmel Bird’s Stolen children.

The director uses film techniques to manipulate the audience’s perception to his liking. During the emotionally charged scene where a local policeman tears the girls from their mother’s arms, Phillip Noyce uses ground level camera angles that keep up with the action, furthernore emersing the audience in the traumatic action. Another film technique used is the first person film technique that has the effect of portraying the events of the stolen generations as if they were not witnessed out side the view of history, thus accurately capturing the brutality of government policy towards the indigenous population.

Another technique is the use of music to create the mood and atmosphere. Peter Gabriel’s soundtrack Long Walk Home draws power to the scenes. Gabriel has successfully blended traditional aboriginal instruments such as the didgeridoo with the modern instruments to withdraw dramatic emotion.

Molly’s perspective of the camp “I hate this place, makes me sick” drives her to take her siblings and commence a 1600 kilometre long journey back home, all they had to guide them was the rabbit proof fence a 1800 mile long landmark that bisects Western Australia from north to south. Ironically the same people who wanted to keep them from home had built the fence that guided them home. The decisive moment in the chase that structures Rabbit Proof Fence is the confusion between two rabbit proof fences. The girls have unwillingly found themselves on the wrong fence this mistake miraculously saved them from being recaptured by Mr Neville. The Rabbit Proof Fence is used as a device to enact the defeat of the unalterable linear of aboriginal people, over the attempt at systematic genocide. Thus drawing a parallel between Aboriginal liberation and incarceration.

A.O. Neville the protector of aborigines represents the opposing perspective of the government; he is portrayed as a cold but ‘rational’ character that believes in his cause. A British actor plays this character in order to highlight that the racist perspectives are remnants from the British Colonial era. Neville administrates the governments “assimilation” program that’s aim was to separate half-cast aboriginal children from their families and culture to then convert them to Christianity and domesticate them. The perspective of the white people at the time was that by integrating them into the white society and breeding them out they would be saved from their own “primitive savagery”.

“By the third generation the aboriginal has simply been breed out“

“in spite of himself the native must be helped”

“The problem of half cast is not simply going to go away. If it is not dealt with now it will fester for years to come. These children are that problem.”

These quotes provide sufficient evidence that the forced removal policies were an attempt at systematic genocide.

The loss of identity. culture and family that is so profoundly emphasised in the voices section of The Stolen Children is also seen in Rabbit Proof Fence. The mission is where the indigenous people are stripped of their linear; this is depicted in several ways. They are not allowed to speak their own language this lead to loss of language culture. The longer you seem to be at the mission the more of your culture you forget.

“They have no mothers, no body have got any mothers.”

This quote creates a visual image of daughter cut off from connection with mother. This imagery is also use on the front cover off Carmel Bird’s text. In the introduction she talks of a severing from the umbilical cord.

This is a powerful movie that strikes at the heart of Australian history and its current values. Furthermore is has effectively changed the perspective of the viewer and internationally informed many of the suffering of the stolen generations. The movie has also brought up the issue of a national apology.

“Something needs to jolt our political leaders into action on Aboriginal reconciliation. Hopefully this movie proves to e the catalyst.” John Hewson. former national Liberal leader.

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Sunday, February 21, 2010

Aristotle Essay

Essay on Aristotle

Aristotle was born in 384 BCE, In this place called Stagirus it was a Greek colony by the seaport on the coast of Thrace. His father’s name was Nichomachus. He was the court physician to the king Amyntas of Macedonia. From this Aristotle began to get involved with the Macedonian court, this really had an impact in his life. While Aristotle was still small his father died, and was taken care of by his guardian Proxenus. Later when Aristotle turned 17 Proxenus sent him to Athens to continue his education there. There Aristotle was taught by Plato for about twenty years.

Aristotle later started teaching there too; the subject he concentrated on was rhetoric. During this time this was one of the best intellectual center of the world. At the death of Plato (347) Aristotle tried to continue Platos work at the academy but couldn’t keep up so Platos nephew Speusippus took over his work. The Aristotle moved to Mysia for three years and there met a girl Pythias and married her. Later Aristotle also married another girl Herpyllis and had a son name after his father Nichomachus. Later Aristotle became the tutor of Philips son Alexander (later world conqueror). For five years Aristotle did this. Aristotle was well paid by Philips for teaching his son.

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While Philips was dying, his son Alexander was getting prepared to be the next king. Aristotle then return to Athens after teaching Alexander everything he knew. When Aristotle arrived to the school it was being run by Xenocrates so Aristotle sets up his own school at a place called Lyceum. Aristotle then had a habit to walk about as he was teaching. While he was teaching Alexander died in 323 BCE then the Macedonian government in Athens was overthrown and anything that had to do with Macedonian was disliked. Since he wasn’t wanted there no more he moved to Chalcis in Euboea. In Chalcis where Aristotle was living his normal life he began to have this painful stomach illness and died in 322 BCE.

Most of Aristotle’s writing was very important. Some was secretly put away by one of Aristotle’s student Theophrastus. The student passes the books down to some people he knew and put them in a vault to try to keep them in the best shape possible. Later in about 100 BCE the books and writing where discovered by this guy named Apellicon a book lover, and brought them to Athens. And later where taken to Rome in 86 BCE there in Rome it got the attention of several scholars. The works of Aristotle fall under three headings. One is dialogues and other works of popular characters. Two is the collections of facts and materials from scientific treatment; and. And finally, systematic works. Some of Aristotle’s systematic treaties were; logic, physical work, psychological works, works on natural history, and philosophical works.

In Aristotle’s logic work, logic and reasoning was the chief preparatory instrument of scientific investigation. Aristotle uses the term “logic” as equivalent to verbal reasoning. Aristotle’s list of propositions were substance, quantity, quality, relation, place, time, situation, condition, action, passion. This list is arranged according to the order of the question we would ask. Aristotle simply says logic shows forms the show truth and false. Other work Aristotle did was Metaphysics, which Aristotle starts by sketching the history of philosophy, and Philosophy of Nature, which talks about matter and motion. In The soul of Psychology Aristotle talks about the perfect expression or realization of Natural body. In Ethics Aristotle attempts to find out our chief end or highest good. In Politic is a completion and verification of Ethics. And finally Art which Aristotle talks about the realization in external form of a true idea.

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Racial Profiling Essay

Essay on Racial Profiling

Racial profiling is a method used by local and federal law enforcement agencies to determine whether a person may be suspect of a criminal act. Racial profiling is wrong and is a form of racism, and it also goes against the basic parameters of the Bill of Rights. Racial profiling has been used for decades by law enforcement agencies, dating back to the early sixties during the civil rights movement. One of the most famous accounts of racial profiling was the arrest and incarceration of Rubin “Hurricane” Carter, who was arrested for murder. The way Rubin Carter was detained by APV that two African American males in a white car were suspects of murder; out of all the African Americans in white cars in the city how could the cops possibly determine which car to pull over, in that caser every white car with two African American males should have been pulled over.

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Many people have been victim of racial profiling or the infamous title “Driving while black”. Though the car may not be stolen an African American driving a Mercades Benz in Beverly Hills dressed in casual clothing, not business attire is suspect of grand theft auto. Since the area is predominantly white being black just looks out of place and you had to have only been there for one reason. How can someone determine just by look if you are guilty of stealing a car, there is no way possible to do this. An African American woman in Chicago was stripped down to her tampon at O’Hare International Airport to prove that she was on her period and not smuggling drugs through states. This does not only occur in ghettos or rich neighborhoods but in every city, on every street, in every state in the United States of America. Even though a percentage of a race may smuggle drugs through airports or across national and international borders does not necessarily mean that every single person does that. The U.S. Customs service is among the worst offenders of racial profiling, a study proved that nine times more black women were x-rayed for drug smuggling that their white counterparts; and the males were not that far off.

A method used by the New York police department to crack down on subway violence was to strongly enforce the minor offenses in the subway, what they found was that the people arrested or detained for the minor offenses were either carrying weapons or had warrants out for their arrest. These same methods were applied to drug trafficking stop vehicles on the highway for minor traffic offenses were often found with drugs or were wanted for other serious violations.

The main reason for this was the assumption that certain races are responsible for certain offenses and crimes. Does this study prove that there is a valid reason for racial profiling, no. No one should be pulled over or stopped for crimes that their race is associated with.

Racial profiling violates our constitutional rights and should be outlawed. There should be legislation against racial profiling and there was some but President Bush vetoed it for reasons unknown. No matter how affective it may be it is a total violation of our human rights.

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