Monday, January 31, 2011

Essay on Lewis Carroll Quotes

How one responds to this quotation is dependent on how one interprets it. When Lewis Carroll says "is true", in what way does he mean it? Does he mean that it will become a truth for me because as it is repeated, I will begin to believe it is the truth? Could he mean that as he repeats it, he himself is brainwashed into believing it is true? Or is he insinuating that by speaking something three times, it will automatically become THE TRUTH? Also, could it be as simple as him saying that if something already has the quality of being classified as truth, then he will reiterate it three times in order to get that idea across? This final idea more or less asks whether an idea can be true before it is stated as such, or if it must be verbalized as a truth before it can take on that quality.

Plato postulated that there are three characteristics of truth. First, that truth is public, and is true for everyone. Second, that it is independent of anyone's belief, it can be true even if no-one believes it to be true, or false even if many people believe it to be true. Third, that it is eternal - if something is true, then it was and always will be true. However, a statement does not necessarily have to be true for a person to believe it to be true - a statement can be entirely untrue, and yet people can believe in the statement and think it true, shown in the second criterion of truth. People repeatedly told that something is true can come to believe in it even if does not meet the three criterion of truth, as the quote by Lewis Carroll suggests. There are many instances and ways through which this could happen.

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Particularly in Mystical paradigms, but also in most religions, the religious leaders control their follower's beliefs, by telling them what to believe. This is paramount to telling them what to think, as Antonio Machado says; "Under all that we think, lives all that we believe, like the ultimate veil of our spirits." As religious beliefs do not rely on empirical knowledge, "facts" that are repeatedly drilled into congregations and religious followers become accepted as the truth. For example, during the crusades, which occurred from the 11th to the 13th centuries A.D., thousands of people died because of their belief that the Saracens (Arabs, non-Christians) should be evicted from Jerusalem and the Holy Land, which was a belief instilled by the church. Of course, for non-religious people this does not apply. However, through the faulty use of authority, it is still possible for figures in positions of power (those with "authority"), to preach to the masses of their beliefs, and in turn sway the masses beliefs to match their own. This can occur in relation with the appeal to fear, where the masses fear what the authority figure is capable of, as well as because the authority figure hammers his beliefs home, and he must be right, because he is in the position of power and authority. An example of a non-religious figure of authority instilling beliefs in people through repetition is Fidel Castro, who led a revolution against Cuba's dictator at the time, President Batista, and instilling the population with his belief of freedom from America. Again, of course, there will be always be people who refuse to listen to people in positions of power and authority, and who thus shape their own beliefs. They more or less respond to the person in authority by saying, "you reiterated this fact, I now believe that you believe it to be true, however, I will hold out until more proof is provided." On the other hand however, people in authority quite often don't even require 3 repetitions of something for other people to believe them, people will simply take their word for it on the first utterance. Soldiers, for example, have this sort of obedience drilled into them from the time they join the military - Obey your commander and don't question him at any cost is the precept drilled into raw recruits. Eventually, the theory goes, that if their commanding officer tells them something, they'll believe it without questioning.

One way of getting people to believe something other than the truth is through perceptual filtering, often seen in propaganda, where facts about an event are "filtered" - only selected facts are given to the targeted individuals, and the facts given are usually governed by an individual in a position of authority. Of course, the most typical perpetrators of this sort of perception altering are the media. Quite often, people in power who fear a rejection of their ideas by the public and want support for events they want to carry out, give a typically one-sided view of an event (the side they believe will gain the most acceptance by the public). For example, during the Vietnam war, through multiple presidencies, the people of America were subjected to faulty emotional appeals in order to gain their support to fight to free the South Vietnamese from the communist North. Also, that the war would be short in duration and was going as planned. Later on, when Vietnamization was the new plan, to nudge the South to do their own fighting with only the aid of American equipment, the American's were told that the troops would be returning soon, but it still took a few more years until the troops were returned home. It was later learned that the Vietnam war was not necessary to prevent "the dominos from falling" due to communist victories. It also became apparent that it was well known that the troops would not return as quickly as the government was promising, but many in the government were too proud to admit defeat and pull the troops out.

It is also possible that they may have come to believe they were doing the right thing, and on the path to victory through the repetition of reasoning. They knew they were losing a lot of soldiers in the war, but kept telling themselves that there was going to be a good outcome, and they were doing it for the right reasons, as if to justify their actions in their own mind. Thus, through telling themselves something repetitively, they came to believe it as if it were the truth, and a more complicated version of the quote "What I tell you three times is true." proves to be true.

There are many things, however, which require no repetition at all to make them true for an individual. These things are so self-evident that they require no one to state them to make them true for a person - such as a Christian's belief in God. Certainly, they have to be told about the existence of God to know about the existence, but they do not require repetition to know that he exists - to them, it is a self-evident truth that he exists and watches over us - it is the interpretation of the Lord's commands that need to be reinforced and repeated, by people such as priests. Likewise, a person looking at the sky can know that it is blue, or clouded over, or the black night sky, without having to be told the fact. They may not know the cause for it, but they know that it is so, thus showing that belief cannot solely be determined by repetition alone.

There are also areas of knowledge which, through no amounts of repetition, could a belief about what is true be formed. Take the arts for instance. Is there really a truth in art? Art has many purposes, which are personal to the artist, as well as the viewer. As long as a response is brought about by the artwork, it is my opinion that the artwork has served its purpose. The artist may have made the artwork to ease stress, or express an emotion, which is also the reason a viewer will view a piece of work.

The formula for determining belief suggested by Lewis Carroll's quote, "What I tell you three times is true", or more complicated interpretations of it, can be shown to be true in some cases, but not all. Through an examination of examples, including examples of authority, perceptual filtering, and reasoning, the truth of the statement has been proved for some cases. In some cases however, the statement does not hold true, as shown through several examples of self-evident truths and areas which have no truth.

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Essay on Lewis and Clark Expedition

Captain Lewis notices some horses, and using his spyglass discovers several Indians with them. This was a very unpleasant sight. Captain Lewis decided to make the best of the situation and approach the Indians in a friendly manner. The Indians noticed the mean and began to run about in a confused manner. Even tough the situation did not look good to Lewis, he continued his approach. When they were about one hundred yards away from each other, all of the Indians halted except for one, who continued towards them. Lewis approached the Indian with two of his men, they shook hands. Lewis asked by sign if the Indians were the Minnetarees of the north, they answered affirmatively. He gave gifts to the three chiefs, and they seemed satisfied. They decided to camp together. With the assistance of Drouilliard they had conversation. That night the men kept watch of the Indians to make sure they did not try to steal their horses, there was no trouble that night. The next morning Captain Lewis was awakened by the noise of his men arguing with the Indians. The Indians had attempted to steal the men’s guns, Captain Lewis’ included. They got their guns back and Lewis forbade them to kill the Indians because they did not appear to want to kill them. As soon as the Indians saw that the men had their guns back, they ran and tried to drive off all the horses. Lewis’ med pursued the party attempting to drive off the horses, while he himself went after the man who had taken his gun. Lewis got into a gunfight with one of the Indians and shot him in the belly. He did not have his pouch so he could not reload his gun. He began his return very cautiously, meeting up with some of his men on the way back to the camp. They took the supplies that they needed and left in a hurry, sure that the Indians would return for them with a large party. They traveled well into the night, finally stopping at 2 am. The next day they met up with their canoes coming down the bank of the Missouri. They continued on trying to find Captain Clark.

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Captain Lewis writes of setting out early one morning to the Burnt Hills in the northern most point of the Missouri, to take its latitude. They spotted a large herd of elk and some of the men were instructed to stop and kill some of them while Captain Lewis continued on. He arrived at the burnt hills about 20 minutes after noon, and was unable to take the latitude. He spotted a herd of elk in a thick willow bar and since his observation was lost, was determined to kill some of them. He set out with Cruzat only to fire at the elk. During the hunt Captain Lewis was shot in the thigh. He thought that Cruzat had accidentally shot him, but when he yelled out to Cruzat in the direction where the bullet had come, there was no reply. Captain Lewis was now persuaded that it was an Indian who had shot him. He began to run and call out to Cruzat hoping to warn him of the Indians. When he arrived back to the pirogue he yelled to the men to arm themselves and an Indian had wounded him. He returned, the men following, to fight the Indians and retrieve Cruzat, who he thought had been captured. He was in so much pain that he had to stop. He returned to the pirogue and waited anxiously for the others to return. When they did return, Cruzat was with them and they reported that they had found no Indians. Cruzat said that he was sorry if he shot him and that he did not intend to. The ball that he found in his breeches was the same kind that Cruzat’s rifle held. He believed that Cruzat had shot him, though unintentionally. At about 4pm they passed an encampment that had been evacuated that morning by Captain Clark. Captain Lewis found a not from Clark that said he had left a not for him at the entrance of the Yellowstone River, but that Sergeant Pryor had taken it. It also said that sergeant Pryor had been robbed of his horses and had overtaken Captain Lewis at this encampment.

Captain Lewis was anxious to overtake Captain Clark, who he thought could not be very far ahead of him. He was informed by the boatsman that there was a canoe and a camp of white men on the North East shore. Lewis directed his group to go there, where they found it to be the camp of two hunters from Illinois, Joseph Dickson and Forest Hancock. The hunters informed him that Captain Clark had passed them at noon the previous day. The men also told him that they had been robbed by Indians and unsuccessful in their voyage. Lewis gave them directions to streams and remarkable places on the river where they would find beaver to hunt and trap. While visiting with the hunters, two of his men rejoined him, Cotter and Collins. He was very sore from his wound, but it was not as inflamed as he thought it would be. That afternoon Captain Lewis overtook Captain Clark and his party. He was very pleased to find them all well.

Hwui Shan was a Buddhist Monk, who somewhere between 450 and 499 A.D. who traveled across the Pacific Ocean from China to the coast of Mexico and California, from Los Angeles to the Yucatan, specifically around Chichen Itza. The group of Monks was seeking new souls for their monastic system. They called the land Fu-sang. The monks told of plants that looked like bamboo but produced an edible fruit, corn. Hwui Shan told of civilized people in Fu-sang, they new of writing and though they had no iron they had plenty of silver. Historian Henriette Mertz says that this fifth-century visit to Mexico changed the entire course of Mexican history. In Hwui Shan’s story there is a Chinese nobleman named Tiu-lu and Mayan history books tell of a leader who had the title Tutul Xiu, who cam from the west. According to Mertz, Tutul Xiu is described as a Chinese Quetzalcoatl who taught the Mexican’s the oriental knowledge of the calendar, astronomy and many other disciplines.

Giovanni da Verrazzano was an explorer for France, though he was an Italian. It is assumed that Verrazzano was born around 1485 in his family’s castle near Florence, Italy. He moved to Dieppe, France, where he began a maritime career. In 1525 Verrazzano was sent on an expedition by King Francois-premier of France to investigate the east coast of modern day United States. The ship that made the crossing of the Atlantic was La Dauphine, it had a fifty-man crew. The only other member of the crew that is known aside from Giovanni was his brother, Girolamo, who was a mapmaker. Girolama’s 1529 world map was one of the first to show Verrazzano’s discoveries. They departed in January and reached Cape Fear in March. From there they sailed south but returned to an unknown point north of Charleston because they feared running into the Spanish. Verrazzano was different from other explorers of his day in that he preferred anchoring out at sea. He sent a boat to shore and had a meeting with the natives. He then traveled north to a beautiful place that he called Arcadia, probably Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, where he kidnapped a child. He also attempted to kidnap a young woman, but failed. Next, Verrazzano discovered New York Harbor where there is now a bridge named after him. The voyage continued east to Block Island, because the natives there were very friendly he anchored near the shore. He stayed there for two weeks with the Wampanoag’s, whom he described very positively. In Maine they encountered the Abnaki who shot arrows at them when they tried to land. He described the people crude and with evil manners, though he thought the land itself was very beautiful. Verrazzano next reached Newfoundland, since it was already known he returned to France. In 1528 Verrazzano crossed the Atlantic again, this time reaching Florida. From Florida they followed the chain of the Lesser Antilles. Anchoring away from the shore of one of the islands, Verrazzano set ashore in a boat to greet the natives. Unfortunately these were not friendly natives but cannibals, the killed and ate Verrazzano while his brother watched from a ship that was too far away to help.

Francisco Vasquez de Coronado was born in Salamanca, Spain in 1510 he was an explorer and governor. In 1535 Coronado accompanied Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza to Mexico, where he married and had five children. In 1538 Coronado was appointed to the city council of Mexico City and to the governorship of Nuevo Galicia. In 1540 Coronado set out to lead an exploration to the Seven Cities of Cibola (the Seven Cities of Gold.) The expedition included 340 Spanish, 100 Indian allies, 1000 slaves, both Native Americans and Africans, also cattle horse and sheep. Departing from Culiacan, he followed the Gulf of California to the Sonora, upstream the Sonora, crossed the Gila to Cibola, in present day New Mexico. Upon reaching Cibola Coronado was met by disappointment, there was no gold it was just a simple pueblo of the Zuni Indians. Coronado conquered Cibola and explored other Zuni pueblos. Coronado was the dominant Spanish explorer of the southwest. His party explored the Colorado River and discovered the Grand Canyon. His expeditions also brought the first horses to the Indians. Coronado met an Indian, who he called “the Turk”, the Indian told him of a rich country in the northwest called Quivira. Intrigued, he decided to look for Quivira taking the Turk as his guide. They traveled through the Texan panhandle moving further north. Coronado believed the Turk was lying about the route, so he had him executed. Eventually Coronado, with the aid of other guides, reached Quivira-present day Lindsborg, Kansas. Once again he was met with disappointment, there were no rich people at all. The Village consisted of huts and not even the smallest amount of gold was found. In 1542 Coronado returned to Mexico using essentially the same route he had come. Only 100 of his men made the return trip with him. Coronado retired to Mexico City, where he died in 1554.

Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca was another Spanish explorer. He was born into Spanish nobility in 1940. There is very little known about his early life, except that his career was in the military. In 1527 Cabeza de Vaca left Spain on an expedition to occupy the mainland of North America. The expedition encountered a hurricane, which damaged their fleet near Cuba, after securing a new boat they departed for Florida. In 1528 they arrived in present day Tampa Bay. The leader of this expedition was Panfilo de Navarez, who claimed the land as lawful possession of the Spanish empire. Navarez decided to split his land and sea forces, which proved to be a very bad decision. The ships were not able to meet with the land expedition. The Apalachee Indians of northern Florida dwelled in this area, the party upset the Indians by taking their leader hostage. The party was soon reduced to a few survivors, they were expelled and pursued by the Indians, they also suffered from numerous diseases. They were forced to dwell in a coastal swamp and live of the flesh of their horses. In 1528 the remaining members of the expedition formed rafts from trees and horsehides and set off hoping to reach Cuba. They ended up on the Gulf Coast near present day Galveston, Texas. The party was reduced to only eighty survivors, many perished from storms, thirst and starvation. Upon reaching Texas, they were initially welcomed by the natives, however Cabeza de Vaca would recall, “Half of the natives died from a disease of the bowels and blamed us.” Over the next few years, Cabeza de Vaca and his companions resided in Texas, where Cabeza, a conquistador transformed himself into a trader and healer. By 1532 only Cabeza and three of the other members of the expedition were still alive. They traveled south and west hoping to reach the Spanish Empires outpost in Mexico, they became the first old world men to enter the American West. Their travels took them through the land that is now, Texas, New Mexico and Arizona and through the northern provinces of Mexico, the exact rout is not clear. In 1536 near present day Sinalo, Mexico they finally encountered a group of Spaniards. Cabeza de Vaca recalled that his countrymen were “dumbfounded at the sight of me, strangely dressed and in the company of Indians. They just stood staring for a long time.” In 1537 Cabeza de Vaca returned to Spain. He published an account of his experiences and urged the crown to implement a more generous policy to the treatment of Indians. He was appalled by his fellow Spaniards treatment of Indians. He served as a Mexican territorial governor, but was accused of corruption. He returned to Spain and was convicted of these charges. In 1552 a pardon allowed him to become a judge, he held this position until his death in 1556 or 1557.

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Sunday, January 30, 2011

Essay on Medical Ethics

Essay on Medical Ethics

Moral management is always important in organizations, especially nowadays people are more sensitive to the issue of ethical behavior on both organization level and individual level in workplace. Healthcare today has become an increasingly complex and troubling enterprise for patients, families, healthcare professionals, and society. Moral management of healthcare organization, human treating human anatomically, physically and mentally, is more different and important than other the other common business. A real ethical story that was happened in U of M was presented here that involved some ethical issue on the individual and organizational behavior within the healthcare organization.

Moral management is always important in organizations, especially nowadays people are more sensitive to the issue of ethical behavior on both organization level and individual level in workplace. Healthcare today has become an increasingly complex and troubling enterprise for patients, families, healthcare professionals, and society. Advances in scientific technology and changes in the delivery of healthcare have made it increasingly evident that optimal healthcare requires more than scientific excellence. High quality healthcare also demands attention to ethics, including issues of human values, law, and public policy.

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The case I am presenting here is a real ethical story that happened in the University of Michigan.

Dr. Joseph Oesterling was a division head of the Division of Urological Surgery in the University of Michigan in the mid 90's, and he was a young, energetic and fast rising "star" in prostate cancer field in the nation. After his residency and specialist training in the John Hopkins University under the internationally renowned Urologic surgeon Patrick Walsh, he, at the age of only 36, joined and became head of the Urology at the U of M in 1992. He worked tirelessly in both treating patients and doing clinical research. He quickly became nationally recognized leading surgeon in the prostate cancer field and editor-in-chief in the international journal Urology (Advisory regarding Dr. Joseph Oesterling's resignation, 2003).

He treated his colleagues with warm and personal feeling. Indeed, just as what he claimed, he "works 15 hours a day, seven days a week, and hasn't taken a vacation in three years". But how can such a promising doctor perform the acts that don't seem to be ethical? Did he really do anything wrong? What exactly did he do wrong?

One day in 1996, a temporary secretary sorting mail for the Urology chief Oesterling opened an envelope and found a $5000 check. Unsure what to do with the check, she gave it to a boss. The check and an accompanying letter from a drug company alarmed the supervisor. The letter also mentioned an earlier $7500 contribution to the National Prostate Research Foundation at the U-M. But the boss soon learned no one at the U-M had heard of the foundation. Where would the money go? The check triggered an eight-month investigation on Dr. Oesterling and what they found was much more than what they could have expected.

They found Oesterling had established three Florida-based foundation/companies, not at the U-M. One of them was the National Prostate Research Foundation Inc. The foundation was Oesterling's primary company for attracting thousands of dollars in contributions from drug and medical device companies. Most of the money that was intended to contribute to the foundation for prostate cancer research was actually sent to Oesterling's home. Some of them were never deposited to the foundation's bank account but instead were cashed by him.

The report of the investigation showed Oesterling did not disclose any of his business contracts with outside companies to U-M, which is required, or fully described them to the American Urological Association, as the association requires when a doctor presents research at conferences. He received hundreds of thousands of dollars from more than a dozen drug companies that he failed to report. Such as in July 1996 he deposited $117,144 in his bank account, only $19,293 of that amount was from a U-M payroll check. Additionally, in several occasions, Oesterling double- and triple-billed to U-M, drug companies and medical device companies, and urological associations for the same trips, cab rides, hotel bills, and other expenses(Kamins, 2003).

Oesterling's research and prescribing practices also were in question because he made thousands of dollars from companies whose products he studied or promoted. For example, Oesterling wrote to pharmacies at U-M and the VA hospital in Ann Arbor to recommend a prostate cancer drug just three days after he received $25,000 to his prostate cancer foundation from the drug manufacturer. Oesterling served as a board director in a medical device company, VidaMed Inc., and received stock options for 10,000 shares while conducting a clinical trial study on two procedures using the device made by the company for treating enlarged prostate glands. The study required that patients be assigned randomly to receive treatment by either this device or the traditional procedures. But Oesterling selected patients in a nonrandom manner that might result a biased outcome in favor of the device. He presented his findings to the American Board of Urology; he praised the new procedure without disclosing his financial interest in the company. He also falsely claimed that none of the 20 patients treated with the device were anesthetized during the procedure, although all had been anesthetized (Kamins, 2003).

One side of this issue in the case is the individual ethics. Oesterling obviously behaved unethically in many situations. He knowingly and willingly allowed his clinical researches to be affected by outside force while pretending the researches were still unbiased. He took the matter of serious science that is directly related to human health in a rather indiscreet manner. He turned the serious medical performance into a money game, the money to feed his endless financial desire that is. Although it is very hard to fully understand what's in the back of his mind and why he did what he did in the double- and triple-billing episode, one thing that could be drawn out from it may be that his extravagant money desire is out of his moral control, or he had already lost it.

Although Dr. Oesterling is already in the leadership position within the division of a large medical school, he is still clearly lacking the basics of right medical ethics knowledge that every medical doctor should have in order to practice in medicine. He should re-learn the values and principles of what is right and what is wrong when treating patients. He should be advised to strengthen his cognition on the special importance on human being when using medical tools on them. He should deeply recognize that patients are not only customers in hospitals, also they are human and the objects they are dealing with are human body, not just a lifeless object, so the abuse of doctors' power would not only cause damages on them financially, but also may harm them physically, even loss of lives. He should strongly realize the medicine is not just an any kind of sciences; it's a very unique and serious science. It should be dealt very seriously. He should be taught that to mistreat patients just for increasing his own personal financial interest is absolutely unacceptable, unethical, even illegal, and will face severe consequences. Obviously the unethical acts of Oesterling's had been investigated by multiple agencies, he would be judged in the court of law and be penalized. After all these are over with satisfied results, Oesterling may be given second chance to practice in medicine under close supervision.

This case not only showed the individual unethical behavior in medical field, also revealed some unethical and immoral management in medical equipment companies and drug manufacturing companies. The higher authority in medical field should send a strong message to the top management team in these companies to ask them to change their organizational behavior to comply with ethical behavior in medicine. These top management teams should go through similar educational classes in ethics as what have been advised for Dr. Oesterling. All top executives as well as group managers in those companies should be taught and become vigilant on that the business they are in is not just an any kind of common business; it is directly related to human health and their product can be very powerful and even harmful if misused. These companies should clearly realize the nature of their products and the nature of the end customers of their products. Any serous offenders or repeat offenders in these businesses should be removed, fined or facing jail term.

"Cognitive moral development is referring to an individual's level of moral judgment with regard to right and wrong. People seem to pass through stages of moral reasoning and judgment as they mature." (Hellriegel, 2000, p. 55). In this case, Oesterling showed immaturity in his moral judgment in that his judgment was still very much influenced by outside illegitimate force and still was self-centered, as his behavior was saying "It's right because it's right for me".

His moral judgment needs to be re-evaluated and his level of cognitive moral development needs to be re-established and pushed higher. As a healthcare provider, this is basic requirement. Without the basic moral development and moral judgment, a performance with ethically justified behavior would be impossible, let alone to deal with the more difficult and complex ethical dilemmas faced by healthcare providers in recent years.

The other side of the ethical issue in this case is about the ethics and decision making in organization. In order to either quickly get their products out on the market or increase the sale of their products, many drug manufacturing companies and medical equipment and device companies would choose to influence doctors or researchers with financial incentives to intentionally prescribe more of their drugs or buy their product over the competitors. Simply speaking, they are buying their way to achieve their goals. By paying money, very often a huge amount of money like in this case, to a leading individual or individuals for a research project on its product, the organization is actually trying to tip the scientific balance leaning toward to its favor. In medical field, how a patient should be treated, or in clinical studies how they are conducted, should strictly be based on the medical science and should not be affected by any other influences and forces. In this field, very likely any business misconduct would not only hurt consumers financially but, more seriously, harm them physically and even lose their lives. This is not only unethical on organizational behavior, but also illegal on business practice. The behavior of the VidaMed Inc. Company as well as other unnamed companies in this case falls into this category.

I believed that healthcare organizations should create or reinforce an ethics monitoring committee to closely monitor staff members in their medical practice, clinical researches and basic medical researches. They should inspect and curb any unethical practice and unethical influences, especially from outside through improper financial grant support or any kind of financial incentives by healthcare product manufacturing companies. A code of ethics may be developed to support the staff in setting ethical goals and making ethical decisions.

Financial incentives in medicine, unfortunately, create a paradox that complicates the ability of health service providers to always make the judgment calls in favor of patients. This kind of immoral management by a company may exist in much wider latitude within drug companies and their distributors. These organizations almost always, either consciously or unconsciously, uses the financial incentives to tilt doctors' decision-making balance in favor of the business but not necessarily in favor of, sometimes even harmful to, patients. Therefore, the immoral management in medicine related field is not only immoral, but is particularly harmful and dangerous to humanity. "The opposite extreme from immoral management is moral management". "Moral management doesn't mean lack of interest in profits. However, the moral manager will not pursue profits outside the boundaries of the law and sound ethical principles" (Nelson, 1999, p. 56). Top executives, managers and employees in these companies should particularly recognize this significance at all time and raise their business moral standard to a higher level. If the immoral management in medicine related companies were allowed to continue, the long-term results of it would be that almost all human population, including those who work in these companies, could be its victims.


Healthcare has it own culture, own dynamics and involves a special passion and concern that makes it both intellectually fascinating and emotionally rewarding. The doctor-patient relationship is held by trust. Trust is one of the primary ethical issues that complicate the doctor-patient scenario. If the healthcare providers don't hold higher ethical standard, the trust is often challenged by the inevitable asymmetry of the power in the relationship between physicians and individuals seeking care. The sense of responsibility carried by the physician in the doctor-patient relationship is significant, as he or she uses a specialized, learned set of skills to respond to the needs of others. Medicine, inherently, is an altruistic act. Without high ethical standard, however, there won't be altruism, therefore, there won't be medicine.

Good ethics have a surprisingly positive effect on organizational activities and results. When organizations pursue "system wide ethics", performance improvement and business success should be significant. Moral management of healthcare, human treating human anatomically, physically and mentally, is more different and important than other the other general business. By fulfilling the highly moral obligation of helping others and providing a service, the efficient provision of medical care adds to the moral goodness in the world. The results of such moral actions, in the realm of modern medicine, make the world a better place by fighting against disease and promoting a focus on healthy living.

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Essay on New Zealand

Essay on New Zealand

A countries national identity is the way a nation perceives itself in relation to the world. Three of New Zealand’s main national identity features are the migrant society, the sporting nation and the arts culture. Each of these features are special to New Zealand’s society in different ways. By the end of this essay you will see why these are important to the identity of New Zealand.

The migrant society of New Zealand is an important identity feature. New Zealand is made up of many diverse ethnic groups. They come to New Zealand from many different countries for example, Asia, Pacific Islands, European countries, Middle East etc. Migrants are important to New Zealand for various reasons. They bring different cultures, which help new Zealand people experience different ways of life. They also bring knowledge, different types of food and business, which help with the economy of New Zealand. For example generations of New Zealand people now grow up and experience new and diverse cultures everyday because New Zealand is now such a multicultural country.

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Migrants continue to migrate to New Zealand because of our clean and green environment and our loyal and respectful reputation. This causes our ethnic diversity to keep on growing and is becoming a greater part of New Zealand’s identity everyday.

New Zealand is known to be a very sporty nation and is defiantly a main aspect of our nation identity. We have many different sports that we are well known for such as Rugby, Netball, Sailing, Hockey, Basketball and Soccer. However our national sport that we are well known for is Rugby. Our recognised Rugby team ‘ The All Blacks’ is one of the top teams in the world. In 1906 the All Black returned from a worldwide tour with a triumphant 31 out of 32 wins. And over the last few years they have been in the final or semi-finals for the world cup. Being such a small country, an achievement as great as this is definitely something to be proud of. Other than Rugby New Zealand does well in other various sports for example in 1953 50 years ago from now Sir Edmond Hillary (now a well known New Zealander throughout the world) was the first man in history to conquer the highest mountain in the world Mt Everest.

Another sporting event that New Zealand takes pride in is The America’s Cup which in 1997 and in 2000 we victoriously won. Overall New Zealand sporting is very important to our identity more than other aspects because we are a very competitive country and are determined to always do our best also because of our size we strive to be recognized by the rest of the world. We do this best through our sport.

Another main aspect of our national identity is our art culture. Many of our artists show deep subliminal messages about the cultures of New Zealand, through different types of art. Behind each piece of New Zealand art work there is a story to be told due to most artists using the lands natural sculpture as a base to their artwork since that most New Zealand artists are very in touch with our beautiful innate surroundings. For example as you can see in the picture below by Robyn Kahukiwa he uses significant symbols of New Zealand Tapu (sacred) Objects such as the moko (Maori face tattoo) the greenstone tiki, the flax piupiu (traditional Maori skirt), the feather cloak that only Maori chief wore and the New Zealand flag in the background.

Robyn Kahukiwa - Woman In Piupiu
And this is only one of the many artists of New Zealand. The art culture is so important to the identity of New Zealand because it is what carries on the legends of New Zealand and makes us all remember our ancestry and our beautiful country.

In conclusion New Zealand has many identities but
- The migrant society
- The sporting Nation
- The art culture

are the ones that stand out as the most important national identity aspects. These are the most important because our main qualities as New Zealanders are our accepting, competitive and creative personalities and these compliment our 3 most important national identity features.

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Saturday, January 29, 2011

Essay on Indonesia

Essay on Indonesia

When Sukarno and Suharto were presidents of Indonesia, they did many things that changed their country. Some of these things were bad and others were good. There were similarities and differences in the way that they ruled.

The first similarity between Sukarno and Suharto was that neither of them was elected to be president, they were both appointed. On August 17, 1945 just after the Japanese surrender Sukarno proclaimed Indonesia’s independence. He was then appointed to be the countries first president. He then led the new republic of Indonesia in their fight against the Dutch, who had reinstated themselves as the power in Indonesia. When the Dutch formally surrended their power over to Indonesia in 1949, Sukarno continued to be president. Suharto came into to power when there was an attempted coup on September 30th 1965, led by himself, and he forced Sukarno to give power to him in 1966 and in 1968 Suharto replaced Sukarno as the president of Indonesia.

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Both Sukarno and Suharto relied on the army when they were in presidency. They relied on them to keep the order in Indonesia, to help them keep their rule in Indonesia and to keep the people from rebelling against their rule.

A difference between Sukarno and Suharto was that Sukarno took Indonesia out of the United Nations and Suharto put them back in. Indonesia was brought into the UN, United Nations on September 28th 1950 so that they could gain international recognition. When Sukarno was obliged to share power with the armed forces, he used the communist party to counterbalance them. Sukarno became suspicious of the United States and other Western countries, this was because he was for using communist parties and he knew that the western countries were against it. He then took Indonesia out of the United Nations in 1965 as a protest against the election of Malaysia being brought into the United Nations. When Suharto came into power he put Indonesia back into the United Nations.

Another difference between them is that Sukarno seemed to want to cut Indonesia off from the rest of the word while Suharto saw the importance of keeping good relationships with other countries. Sukarno was very anti- Western. Indonesia used to be a democracy but Sukarno said that western government was not suited to fit Indonesia’s needs, so he changed the government to a guided democracy. He then wanted to get rid of the parliament, because the political parties pursued their own interests. In 1959 he managed to bring in the old constitution. After this the parliament still existed but they became much less important. From 1960 to 1965 Sukarno ruled by himself. Something else that he did was to make a confrontation with Malaysia. He objected to the forming of Malaysia. There was fighting and things like trade were cut off. When Malaysia had a nomination to get into the UN, Indonesia pulled out of it. This again cut them off from other countries. He also made restrictions on the Non Indonesian Chinese, who had a very important role in the business life in Indonesia. The Chinese were banned from trading in the rural areas and so the economy suffered and the prices rose. This would have made a bad relationship with the Chinese. Another bad relationship that he made even worse was with the Dutch. Things were already not good between the two countries, but then he demanded that Irian Jaya be given to Indonesia because it was a part of the Dutch East Indies. There was a small fight but then the Dutch just gave the country up to Indonesia. Suharto had a more open view to the rest of the world. He reversed many of the policies made by Sukarno. When he came to be president he put Indonesia back into the United Nations. He stopped the confrontation with Malaysia. He did not like communism, and under Sukarno’s rule they had become more powerful. There was an attempted coup by the communist party but it was crushed by troops under the command of Sukarno. An estimated 80 000 communists were killed. Although there were many deaths, Suharto thought that better than for Indonesia to become a communist country. Suharto was pro-Western. He improved relations with the United States, Britain and Australia. A reason for doing this was so he could have good trade relations. Suharto also made Indonesia a part of the ASEAN, Assosiation of the South East Asian Nations. This was the most important regional organization.

All these points show the similarities and differences between Sukarno and Suharto.

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Short Essay on Belgium

Essay on Belgium

Belgium has one of the most highly developed economic systems the world. The impact of the nations geography, climate, and natural resources lead to this economic development.

Belgium has three geographical regions: the central plateau, the coastal plain, and the Ardennes highland. The central plateau us a gently rolling, slightly elevated area. Its irrigated by may water ways and contain a number of wide fertile valleys with a rich, alluvial soil, caves, grottoes, and ravines are found in parts of this area. Extending inland a out 15 to 48 kilometers is the central plateau along the northwest.

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Along the North Sea is a w-lying area consisting mainly of sand dunes and polders. Polders are section of land reclaimed from the sea and are protected by dikes. They were developed between the 13th and15th centuries. A flat pastureland lies inland and is drained by canals. The Ardennes highland, a densely wooded plateau, extends across southeastern Belgium and into northeastern France. The highest peak in Belgium is located here in Botrange. Schiede and meuse are the Chief rivers in Belgium. They both rise in France and are for the most part navigable throughout Belgium. The parts of Antwerp, Ghent, and Brussels are the principal waterways of Belgium. Belgium also has many tributaries.

Near the sea in Belgium the climate is mostly humid and mild. Most summers and cold winter alternate in the Ardennes region. The highlands are mostly confined to heavy rain. They have fog and drizzle too. The rain is mostly confine to April and November. The average temperature in Brussels at the center of the nation, ranges from –1 to 4 degrees Celsius in January and 12 to 23 degrees Celsius in July. On the cost of Oostende the average range is 1 to 5 degrees Celsius in January and 13 to 20 degrees Celsius in July. The yearly average of Brussels rainfall is a bout 34 inches. Precipitation in Oostende is about 24 inches.

The natural resources of Belgium are almost entirely of mineral. Coal was mined in abundance fore may years but more accessible supplies were exhausted and many mines have closed since the lat e 1950’s. Zinc, lead, copper, and manganese deposits are also exploited but are of little commercial significance. Some natural gas is also extracted.

Forming gages in only 3 percent of the labor force and an produces sufficient quantities to make Belgium a net food exporter. To move that possible, thy have rich alluvial soil to cultivate crops and they have livestock for dairy and meat production.

The forest’s wooded areas are mainly for recreational use But timber is need for Belgium’s paper industry. That’s another impact on dev development.

The Belgian chemical industry led the work in the production of cobalt and radium salts and also ranks high in the production of fertilizers and plastics.

The nonferrous-metals industry furnishes metallurgical, chemical, and other industries with a variety of metal like: copper, zinc, platinum, lead, uranium, and germanium. The bulk of the metal engages I the production of machinery, which is a great impact on the nation development.

In summary, Belgium’s geography, climate, and natural resources have a great impact to Belgium’s development. The result of the impacts led to the country being so highly developed is an issue to consider. Since 97 percent of the population is urban it is even more possible for such a development.

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Friday, January 28, 2011

Essay on Determination

Essay on Determination

It is true what they say about how ability is less important than determination. Determination takes pride, ambition, aspiration, and strength. People that have the ability to do something should take the initiative to put determination into it. A person’s ability is no match for determination because determination takes willpower and effort.

I have an ability to write creatively. My mother wants me to become a writer, yet I do not feel comfortable yet expressing my views and feelings to the world. I lack some skills of writing in my schoolwork because I do not have the determination it takes. Yet, I do have determination in how I want to plan my future. I am determined to hopefully achieve an internship at Court TV and work my way up. I hope my success shows my endeavors and how determined I was to get to that point in my life.

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Everyday I wonder where I will be when I get out of college. What will life throw at me at that moment? I look up to my big brother and it hurts to see what position he is in. My brother is a computer genius. He can do almost anything with computers. The problem he has is due to the country’s economy and he is not able to find a job. He is determined to go to each and every interview he can get, yet there is still no luck. This has be going on for about 6 or 7 months now, but still he keeps trying to strive for the job he needs to carry on with his life and be happy.

I hate this school. I have an ability to keep my mouth shut, do my work, and stay here like I am subjected to. I am determined to gain a 3.0 GPA and study abroad in Australia just to get away from here. For when I return to the grand old United States, I hope to finish my courses and receive a B.A. in Communications, with a minor in Criminal Justice, my two most favorite subjects. I have the ability to do all of this in a short amount of time, but what I need is more determination to do so. Determination is the one thing that keeps me going each day, to finish and complete all that is required. Once I finish, I might have enough strength to become a graduate student. Yet, I have to see what life gives me.

Determination is a wonderful thing. You do not want to give up because you know you can do it. Determination requires positive support from all aspects of your life, no matter what. You can have the ability to do it, but are you determined to make it happen? I know I am.

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Essay on Desiree's Baby

Essay on Desiree's Baby

In the story "Desiree's Baby" we see a deep contrast in ArmandŌ‘s emotions, and ways of expressing these emotions. It says near the start that “Armand is the proudest father in the parish” and that “he hasn’t punished one of them” to “an awful change in her husbands manner, which she dared not ask him to explain” and “the very spirit of Satan seemed suddenly to take hold of him in his dealings with the slaves.” This implies that he was very happy then he changed to very angry and upset. He also changes his manner towards Desiree, as if she has a disease, he avoids her when ever possible and talks to her with “averted eyes”. The strange thing about this is that Armand’s mother is Black (but he didn’t know it at the time) but surely Armand’s father would have taught Armand to be at the very least respectful to Black people.

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When Armand refers to the baby he uses the word “the”, this shows that he does not associate himself with the baby and feels emotionally unattached, we assume this is because the baby is black, this shows his deep racism against black people. Also his dramatic change of attitude may be because he had formed an unconscious emotional bond with the baby and as it says the baby and Desiree give him a “unconscious injury”. Meaning that they betrayed him. When Armand talks to Desiree knowing that the baby is not totally white, he does it very coldly, like he was numb from pain, this is also expressed when it says “in a voice which must have stabbed him, if he was human” meaning that he was emotionally void or unattached. Armand rejects the baby because he feels hurt or betrayed by the baby, which he put his faith and love in the baby, and the baby, through no fault of its own, hurt him and humiliated him. He also put his faith into Desiree, this may sound like it is unemotional but its not, by marrying lower down the relative hierarchy and then, in his mind, she brought “unclean” blood into the family.

I feel some of the sympathy in this story should lie with Armand because (even though its because of his own actions) he loses his wife, his baby and then has to deal with his hatred of himself. Desiree seems to have an emotional roller coaster in the story she goes from having “a glow that was happiness itself” to being “miserable enough to die”. Which shows another contrast in the story it shows the difference between Desiree that is soft and non-violent just bottles things up inside, and Armand who will regardless act upon what he feels.

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Thursday, January 27, 2011

Essay on Ancient Egyptian Civilization

Essay on Egyptian Civilization

Ancient Egypt is well know for its rich history and culture, yet no one really understands what daily life was like, how the government was structured, or they were taught that Egypt was built on the backs of slave labor. There are those people that believe Ancient Egypt may have been ruthless and uncivilized, and then there are the others that want to see how it contributed to modern Western Civilization. Either way it goes Egyptian life cannot be looked at as easy-going or hard working without answering a few questions. Where is Egypt? Who were the Egyptians? What was daily life like? Questions like these and more need to be answered in order to gain a full understanding of this empire.

Many Egyptians centered their lives on the Nile River. Before and during the use of canal irrigation in Egypt, the Nile could be separated into two parts: the River Basin and the Red Land. The River Basin is also known as the flat alluvial, which consisted of black land soil. Furthermore, it was rich in wild life and waster fowl "depending on the waxing and waning cycles of the Nile." The Red Land contained red desert land, which was scarce of most wild life and water, regardless of the season.

Agricultural crops were not the basis of Egyptian diet because the Nile provided a continuous quantity of fish which were tended year round; not only was fish cultivated year round, cattle and water fowl were also. Geese were also raised to supply eggs, meat, and fat. Cattle, the Egyptian staple diet, were often used for grazing land at the times the Nile receded; however, during the inundation, cattle were brought to higher land and were often fed the grains that had been harvested from the previous year.

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Many may speculate that the Egyptian diet consisted of nothing more than tree crops and vegetables or animal and vegetables, however this is completely false. They also farmed and harvested crops such as barley, emmer wheat, beans, chick peas, flax, and many other vegetables; the farming of grains was not entirely for consumption and was usually turned into one of Egypt‘s most prized possessions, oil. Oil was often used as payment t workmen employed by the province or state. It depended on what type of oil it was as to what value it possessed; certain oils possessed a very high value, such as Sesame oil.

Grain was essential to the Egyptian diet because it was extremely difficult to raise grazing animals because of seasonal conditions; therefore they relied heavily on grains that they harvested throughout the year. Beef was only eaten on special occasions because of the arid land and the very expensive price only made conditions worse. Grain was vital because it offered an endless supply of food and it rarely spoiled. Each community had a special storage unit for the grain called a granary. Grain was stored in this facility until it was ready to be used for making breads, cakes, or pastries.

Little has anyone realized but to turn grain into flour for pastries, cakes, or breads is a long, daily process. First the grain must be pounded then ground; afterwards, it t would put into a basic mill that would refine the grain even more until it became the consistency of flour. One of the most common breads that were made by this method was sour dough. It was often used in replacement of yeast and even barm from the last brewing of beer would be used as a replacement. Using honey, fruits, nuts, and oils to the dough before baking often flavored breads.

Another important part of the Egyptian diet was fruits and vegetables. They were grown year round because of the hot climate and irrigation, thus there was an abundance of food. The Egyptians grew various vegetables, which included onions, leeks, garlic, lettuce, cucumber, radishes, cabbage, and raphanus (a wild radish). Onions and garlic were the main source of vegetables for them because they believed it had very powerful health benefits. Cabbage, like beef, was considered a delicacy. It was boiled and eaten before the rest of the meal.

The most popular fruits grown at this time were grapes, melons, figs, pomegranates, and dates. These were the fruits that were able to withstand the Egyptian climate. If one were rich then they could other fruits imported, such as coconuts, peaches, and pears. But if you were poor, or “common”, then you rarely saw such fruit. In later years some imported fruits, such as peaches and apples, became staple crops.

The common people ate meat only on special occasions, because of the high price and scarceness of cattle. The rich could afford to have meat with every meal, and did so. The different kinds of meat include beef, pork, duck, various birds, sheep, and goats. Meat would be prepared in many different fashions like boiling for stew, roasting, salting, drying, and smoking.

Honey was a great addition to the Egyptians diet, used for many different applications. It was commonly used as a substitute for sugar, and would be added to different breads and cakes to enhance their sweetness. Honey was also used in many different medicines because it was believed to have healing powers. The bee’s wax was also used for mummification, medicines, ship building, and for other bonding purposes.

Of course growing crops to farm would have been impossible without tools to work with and thus many inventions (and jobs) came into effect. Around 5000 BCE, Egyptians began figuring out a way to control the overflow of the Nile River. In doing so, they created the world’s first irrigation systems and they also created the very fist official position in the Egyptian government called the “Canal Digger.” They began digging canals to direct the floodwater to distant fields and later, they would construct reservoirs, or lakes, to save and contain water for use during the dry season. Fayum was a low-lying area of the desert and it also happened to be the world’s first reservoir. During the flood the Fayum would become a lake; the Egyptians constructed about twenty miles of embankments around the low-lying vicinity. When the embankment, or dike’s, gates was open, water flowed through the canals and dampened the fields. The tops of the dams were usually level and were used as roads; during flood season, however, the dams were broken so that the waters could rush into the canals.

Another invention that came along was the Shaduf; it was constructed around the sixteenth century BCE. The Shaduf was a long pole equalized on a horizontal wooden beam. At one end of the pole was a weight and on the other was a bucket. The weight was helpful because it was made easier to raise less than three liters of water for irrigation or drinking purposes. Some researchers believe the Egyptian civilization may have been the first to use a plow. Early hieroglyphics show a bow-shaped stick that was dragged across the ground; later on, humans could be seen harnessed to the plow. One wall painting depicted several people hauling and one directing the tool. Around 2000 BCE, oxen had taken over the heavy workload. A harness was slipped over the animal’s horn and a neck collar was later invented that did not disrupt or interfere with the animal’s respiration.

It appears likely that most of Egypt’s adult population spent some time farming. Although there were full time farmers, during the inundation most men were drafted through forced labor by the government as taxation, or corv’ee, to amplify the personnel available for scouring irrigation canals, surveying land precincts, and preparing the ground for planting. Evasion of corv’ee carried stiff consequences for the individual and occasionally his family. People such as Noblemen and scribes, the literate upper class, were the only people excluded from the corv’ee. The majorities of noblemen were inevitably involved in the agricultural system because they possessed farms and administered royal or temple agricultural land.

Most importantly, there was family; family was important to Egyptians because life was short and difficult. In fact, newborn children were not expected to survive their first year. The infant mortality rate and the rate of women during or after childbirth was around sixty to seventy percent. It was seen as special blessing from the gods if they survived their first year.

At about five years of age boys and girls were separated in their "learning experiences", in other words, they began to take on gender roles. If the boy came from a wealthy family then he had the advantage of being taught in school; if the boy was poor then he had to help tithe the men's jobs in the fields or whatever occupation his father held. They boys' education lasted between the ages of twelve and sixteen; this is about the time the adolescent male was considered grown and could begin work for himself. This was also the earliest age for men to marry but they normally would not seek a wife until they reached the ages of seventeen through twenty. A man could have more than one wife, but he had to be able to support each of then and their children. Consequently, only the wealthy members of the community usually did this. Most men continued to work until their death; unfortunately the average life span was approximately thirty years of age for the underclass. Men who made it past the age of forty received a special blessing and were greatly rewarded. Each year the men were contracted a stipend, or take-home-pay, from the government that consisted of vegetables and grain. The ration was smaller than what he would have earned than if he had continued to work, but it was enough to keep him alive.

Girls’ lives were centered on the home and family. There were no formal schools for girls; therefore the mothers educated their daughters at home. At the age of four, girls began to learn how to maintain the house, how to sew, make foods, and spend hours at a time doing domestic chores with their mother. The hours that the female spent doing domestic chores were far longer than that of the educational hours of the boys. The females had to also learn to make cloth and sew it into clothing and tend the fields and crops along with other countless chores.

Women did attend professional schools, such at Heliopolis, a school for medicine and Sais, where they learned to become doctors. Egyptian women did seek employment outside of their homes and many of them worked as dancers or musicians in temples and during festivals. If the woman belonged to a wealthy family, she would hire a nanny or a professional mourner for funerals.

Other women spent their time and resources on operating a small business out of their home; these businesses would include things such as perfume or linen manufacturing. Such businesses increased the household income because such things were in great demand for funeral rights.

Those that attended the medical schools sought employment as a midwife, gynecologist, or physician. Those that took up dancing and music became the director of a dancing or singing troupe. Most women chose the occupation of being a gynecologist and their skills included cesarean sections, more commonly called a C-Section today, and the surgical removal of a cancerous breast.

As soon as a girl began menstruating around the age of twelve or thirteen, she was expected to marry; they were also expected to have a child within the first year of marriage. Marriage was a secular activity and was regulated by custom instead of law. Instead of a marriage contract, men and women drew up property agreements at the time of marriage in the event that there would be a divorce or a death. Women would then travel to the home of their new husband. Pregnancy was a widely celebrated occasion among ancient Egyptians; even if the girl was not married, her pregnancy was celebrated.

Women did, and needed to, have the same legal rights und the law as men who were away from home for much of the time due to recurrent projects or warfare. Many responsibilities, legal rights, and status were divided among class lines rather than gender lines. In certain classes women were allowed to enter and execute contracts, file lawsuits, and free to buy and sell property. She could also gain possessions, property, and debt separate from her husband through either inheritance or labor. A woman was entitled to one third of their joint property on the death of her husband and the remainder of the property would be divided among their surviving children and siblings of the deceased man.

Under Egyptian law, women were equally accountable for their actions and misdoings as the men were. A woman who was convicted of a capital crime in a court of law, was sentenced to death, but only after the court determined whether or not the woman was pregnant. If she was, then her execution was stayed until she gave birth to the child, then she was executed.

Women’s lives were relatively short and averaged about the same as a man’s (about thirty years); if the woman or man were rich, then their life expectancy was slightly higher. When a female retired she was taken care of by her sons, if she had no sons she would be taken care of by her daughter and son-in-law. This was very rare and only happened if the daughter married into a wealthy family; other than that, the mother would be forced into living as a beggar.

Just as society was divided into classes, so were the house; there were two types of homes : the workers' and the town houses.

Houses were built out of bricks made of mud, straw, and stone. The mud was collected in a leather bucket and taken to a building site. This is were the straw and stone were added to the mud to reinforce or strengthen the bricks. They, the bricks, were then poured into frames or molds and left in the sun to dry and cure. These dwellings were not very stable and would often crumble or deteriorate after a certain amount of time; when this happened a new home was built on tope of the crumbled material, called tells or hills.

If the building was meant to last forever it was built out of stone, other than that the houses were made of mud and covered in plaster. This technique was similar to that of the adobe used in the American Southwest. The workers' homes were usually four meters by twenty meters. The interior of the house was usually painted with geometric patterns or scenes of nature; windows were often placed close to the ceiling to keep the inside of the house cool. Unfortunately, with such high windows, very little light was let into the home.

The workers' home ranged from two to four rooms on the ground level, and enclosed yard, a kitchen at the back of the house, and two underground cellars that were used for storage purposes. Niches, or slots, in the walls were often used to hold religious items; the roof was also considered to be a living and storage space. There was very little furniture. The most furniture a worker would earn would consist of a bed, a chest for clothing, and a table that stood on three or four legs.

Most of the villagers spent their time out doors and often slept, cooked, and ate on the top of their houses; this was possible because the roofs of the houses were flat. Upon entering a person's home there were steps that led to an entrance hall with a cupboard bed (there is no known use for this object); the next room contained a pillar in the middle of the room. This pillar was used to support the roof. This was the main room, or entertainment room, that was used for receptions or as a shrine. The master of the house had his own chair, called a dais, that atop a raised platform. There were several stools and one or two tables that were designated for guests; there was also a false door within the room that was accompanied holy images along the walls, and a table with offerings.

In the town house features were very similar to that of a workers’ home, the only difference was it was a lot more spacious, it was usually three stores high, and more comfortable than the workers' house. Stones were often used in the first floor for more strength at the base. The first level of the house was more commonly used as a working area to conduct business and where the servants remained. The second and third levels of the house were used as living quarters. The food would be prepared on the roof and brought down to the rooms by servants because it was considered dangerous to cook in an enclosed area. It also kept the house cool, as did the windows, which were close to ceiling, as they were in the workers’ homes. Mats were also kept on the floor to keep it cool.

Only the rich could afford a toilette; the toilettes would be carved out of limestone and proper sanitation was considered a luxury. Sewage was disposed of into pits that were located in the streets. Among a toilettes, the wealthy also owned a stool that was curved upwards in the corners; when sat upon a leather cushion was provided for support of the back. This was the most typical piece of furniture that a wealthy family owned. Chairs were considered rare only the “elite of the elite” could afford. Small tables and chairs were frequently made of wicker or wood and had three to four legs. Beds were made of a woven mat and placed on a wooden frame standing on animal-shaped legs. At one end of the bed was a footboard and at the opposite end was a headrest that had a curved neckpiece that sat on top of a short pillar on an oblong or quadrilateral base. As one can imagine, the elite of ancient Egyptian society lived quite comfortably compared to the low-income families that they often employed.

Who was there to run Egypt? The ancient Egyptians had a government ruler called the Pharaoh, who today would be considered a king. He was believed to have received his authority from the gods. He was both political and religious leader; His job was to help keep balance to what the Egyptians referred to as Maat; according the people of Egypt, Maat would be in tact as long as the Pharaoh and the people kept their religious ceremonies and obey the laws that were set for them.

As political ruler, the Pharaoh he had to do things such command the army and settle legal disputes. The Pharaoh Menes is credited with uniting Upper and Lower Egypt into one nation, and thus earned the Pharaoh the title of “Lord of the two Lands.”

He, the Pharaoh, was also known as the “The High Priest of every temple”; it was his duty to lead sacred rituals and he also decided what religion was right for his people. Egypt was regarded as a polytheistic society; this was true until the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten. This Pharaoh imposed a monotheistic religion on the people of Egypt; he tried to make them worship the god Amen. After Akhenaten’s death, Egypt returned to its polytheistic religion and tried to remove every trace of Akhenaten’s existence.

Beside every Pharaoh was his beloved wife. In fact they are often regarded as the most important characters in ancient Egyptian. Some of these women were destined to take throne and rule as Pharaoh or they were very highly respected among the people. In most cases the “Great Royal Wife” of the Pharaoh was either his sister or his daughter. The Pharaoh would marry someone of his blood to keep the linage pure. Most surprisingly, the Great Royal Wife was not really expected to bear her husband’s children.

Egyptian troops were drafted into the military, unlike today’s volunteered soldiers. “Recruiting” agents were sent from village to village to look for young, able-bodied men, who had not be conscripted or drafted, to help defend them in times of combat. After the agents were done recruiting, the young men were sent before a governor who set selected a set number of qualified looking men; the rest were sent back home. This is the way Egyptians built their infantry.

Later on the Hyksos introduced chariots, during their occupation of Egypt. It had become customary that men of the upper class become charioteers. By the New Kingdom, the military was divided into archers, infantry, and charioteers. Around the year 1275 BCE, Ramesses II, divided his army of twenty-thousand, into four divisions; each division was named after an Egyptian god. They were divided into four sets of five thousand and called Amen (or Amun), Ra (also spelled Raa), Set, and Ptah. The divisions were then set into twenty companies of two hundred fifty men; from there the companies were divided into five platoons of fifty men each.

Weapon development is crucial to any military force. During the Old Kingdom, weapons were small and crudely mad than the weapons of later years. Clubs, stone-headed maces, daggers, and spearheads of copper were extremely common; when the Hyksos invaded Egypt, they produced a “renaissance in military technology.” At this time the composite bow was introduced, as well as the horse and chariot. The composite bow could shoot a lot further and was sturdier than the bow that the Egyptian were using at the time.

Egyptians began making changes to the chariots, just as they had done with their bows. They left the back of the chariot open for quick exits, if needed, and the driver’s area was moved closer to the axle, which helped reduce weight. This, in turn, took a lot of weight off the horse and the horse could now move faster. The chariot was by far one of the most formidable components of the Egyptian military.

A skilled driver could elude enemy lines while a bowman shot brandish a large quantity of arrows at a short range; at the same time, the driver would carry a shield to protect himself from the arrows.

In the heat of battle, the charioteer could crash right into the fray and wreakhavoc on condensed masses of enemy troops and set the bowmen and the spearmen apart. The military of the Egyptians continued this way for the next 1500 years before it was engulfed by foreign mercenaries.

Around 30 BCE, the Battle of Actium, was the end of ancient Egyptian civilization. Egypt had fallen to the Romans and the polytheistic ways and Pharaohs disappeared forever.

Armor was improved around the time of the military build-up. Before the Hyksos invaded, no body armor or head protection was used by the Egyptian army. Once again the Hyksos introduced several more inventions: the skull-cap, metal helmets, and leather body armor.

As one can see, Egypt is rich in history and culture. It was one of the few countries or nations of the time that gave women some type of equality. Most nations of the epoch gave women very little of no power at all. Egypt has given the Western world many useful tools for both farming and the military weaponry. Irrigation still exists in many parts of this world and has helped farmers for many centuries with their crops. The hoe and the plow are still used to help plant crops for the growing season. The horse and chariots used gave way to modern day technology such as the tanks used today. Helmets and weapon-proof vests were even used during their time and are still used today to help protect our soldier’s head during training and in times of war. They also contributed to the division of military as far as the infantry and the platoons go.

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Essay on Henry V by Shakespeare

Essay on Henry V

The way Shakespeare wrote his plays were constructed on what was happening at the time. When he was doing the play 'Henry V' queen Elizabeth the 1st was on the throne (1558-1603). Like Henry she was a strong and powerful leader an excellent ruler of England but she spent a lot of time at war with the French and the Spanish.

Shakespeare then decided he needed a great monarch who was well respected that’s how he came to choose 'Henry V'.

Shakespeare's version of Henry V was so influenced on the audience which made them wish they could of fort for Henry in the great battle of Agincourt. Shakespeare describes Henry v as "the mirror of all kings"(act 2 line 6) shown in the chorus , throughout the play the Chorus acts like an narrator to help us almost paint a picture in are minds of what a type of leader Henry really is. The play clearly describes Henry been a very religious person like before battles he would stand up in front of his men and say a prayer to God and tell his men that God is with them and make his men feel like there playing a big part for there country .

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Henry is displayed by Shakespeare as a model King and military leader, and in comparison the English are portrayed as the better side as opposed to the less than adequate French side. Shakespeare was obviously somewhat biased when it came to his own country. Although Henry’s duties as a King seem flawless we question his character at certain points of the play when his friends become complications in his duties. He shows no favoritism towards Bardolph, who is caught stealing from a church. Henry had given orders for no looting and lets the execution proceed. Also, when Falstaff falls ill, the hostess certainly believes that Henry has acted in an unfeeling way to Falstaff: “the king has killed his heart” This could be considered cold hearted or it could be argued he is fair and firm.

Earlier on in the play Henry is betrayed by 3 of his most noble knights Cambridge , Scroop and Grey "we are no tyrant but a christian king….."-again referring to God illustrates the betrayal. (p.15l.241)

whenever he calls upon him. He also passes his glory on to God after winning the battle for when Montjoy tells him the day is his, Henry replies “Praised be God, and not our strength, for it”. This also shows how Henry feels God is always there for him, and he truly and sincerely depends on him. In these religious times, the fact that the King was a strong believer of God was good, for it influenced and helped his people’s faith. But Henry is only serious; he also has fun side, which consists of his humor and his wits.

These display his mental sharpness. At the beginning of the play Henry replies to insult with wit and intelligence. He replies to the Dauphins insolence by turning his sarcasm into a metaphorical speech.

The assault on the town of Harflur ends in glory after a speech spoken in words powerful enough for his men to gain morale and fight for Henry and their country. Henry is effective in his speeches, he uses sound and vivid images such as "set the teeth and stretch the nostrils wide..." which adds strong feeling to his speech. He gives merit to his men in his speech's "on , on you noblest English" in patriotic language. He compares his men to (greyhounds).

Henry delivers the rousing St Crispian’s Day speech before the battle of Agincourt and fires them all with enthusiasm (Act four, Scene three)

Henry gives an impression to the audience that he is loyal king to his people and country his talks before his battles are so meaningful his prayer b4 the battle of agincourt (act 4 scene1 , line 287)"o God of battles steal my soldiers hearts. Posses them not with fear . Take from them now" and as I mentioned earlier on immediately after the battle he would go straight to god and thank him . Shakespeare gives the audience the impression that Henry believed that his victories were in God hands.

As well been a strong powerful ruler he is a good influence to all his men (act4, scene 3 line 19) "whats he that wishes so?". He respects his men and calls them his brothers and will make them feel proud when the years to come of old age showing people that they were there on Saint Crispins day by showing there wounds and scars. When Henry said (act4, scene 3 line 60) "we few , we happy few, we band of brothers-for he today that sheds his blood with me shall be my brother; be he ne'er so vile This day shall gentle his condition-And gentlemen in England, now abed". In away the audience could tell that he was under pressure but not at one moment did he show this to his men he makes his men feel confident and willing to fight not to be scared and worried. At the battle Henry very bravely was the only one wearing he kings armor he didn’t have any decoys. (people who would wear the same armor as the king but not actually the king to attract the target to the enemy)

I personally like Henry V because of his attitude towards things like with a good friend Bardolph he is a man for his word. I also admire how he is king and doesn't see himself more important than his men he considers himself just the same (soldier, warrior) when he uses the famous phrase "BAND OF BROTHERS".

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Wednesday, January 26, 2011

Essay on Healthy Eating

Healthy Eating Essay Example

Healthy means having or indicating good health in your body or mind. Being healthy means feeling good. Being healthy is one of the better things in life. When a person is healthy, that person would be able to do or achieve anything in his or her own way. A healthy person is a happy person. Even if a person is healthy, they could still become ill. Being healthy is everything dealing with you in body and mind. In body, the person could be strong and healthy. In mind, the person has a feeling of goodness and achievement towards themselves. They feel good about themselves and people can see a good change in them. The person will have positive thoughts and not negative thoughts.

Eating the right kinds of food keeps your body healthy and makes you feel good. When a person is healthy, they tend to feel good about themselves and their body.

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Eating healthy, being active, and feeling good about you are the key ingredients to having a healthy lifestyle. When a person eats healthy food, like one of their daily food groups in the food pyramid: grain, poultry, dairy, and etc. they will be able to have enough strength and energy to last them a whole day.

When you keep your body strong, well, and clean, you are being healthy. In order to be healthy, the person will have to eat the right kind of food, exercise daily, take a shower, keep him/herself clean, and stay well. People who are healthy are likely to have the background of being and staying drug free. Junk food is not one of the things people eat to be healthy. Eating junk food affects your body and can make you sick.

In order for a person to be healthy and stay healthy, they have to exercise daily, eat the right kinds of food, staying clean, and that person would feel good about themselves in the inside and outside. In the inside, they will feel good about themselves. That person won’t be worrying about their weight or how their appearance may look like because they feel beautiful in the inside just by staying healthy. In the outside, the person will feel good and strong. They will have a positive self-esteem about themselves. They can be able to do or achieve anything that comes into the person’s way without having negative thoughts.

If a person were to eat a lot of junk food, drink a lot of soft drinks, and do things that could destroy their health, they are destroying their body. If they don’t eat the right kinds of food, exercise daily, and stay clean, they could kill themselves faster and they could easily catch a sickness and die from it, because they don’t have enough strength to fight the sickness. In their mind, they will have negative thoughts and not positive thoughts. They will put themselves down and also everyone around them, including their loved ones. They won’t have the strength to do anything, except just sleep, eat, and talk. In other words, they will become very lazy, because they won’t have enough energy to do anything.

So, in order to stay healthy, we have to eat the right kinds of food, exercise daily, and stay clean so that we can feel good about ourselves inside and outside. If we don’t eat healthy and stay healthy, we might become lazy or catch a sickness really fast and die. So, I leave you with this quote “ Healthy Me, I Feel Good”.

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Essay on Basketball

Essay on Basketball

Basketball has been apart of my life since I was the tender age of 5. Ever since the day my dad put that round leather sphere into my hands I haven’t been able to get enough of it. To me basketball isn’t just a sport, but an outlet from schoolwork, a basis of enjoyment, a place where I can socialize and obviously a source of exercise.

Anytime I start to feel the stress of school and work, I always basketball as my way of winding down. The moment I step out onto the concrete paved court in my front yard I feel released.

Whether it is the swish sound of nothing but net or the rhythmic bounce of the ball when I’m dribbling. Whatever it is, for those 10 or so minutes I’m out there, I feel completely refreshed, and feel that I can take anything on. It’s almost, eerie how much better it makes me feel. But I positively believe that is something in my blood. Both Mum and Dad played, so they’ve rubbed off on me somehow.

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I play both representative and domestic basketball. Representative is a great deal more competitive and serious than domestic, however I find playing representative much more enjoyable. I guess it’s the fact that I’m playing with girls of the same age as myself, that have the same interests as I do, and are all as serious about basketball as I am. It’s also nice to have that separate group of friends away from the group of friends at school. I sometimes find it easier to talk to my friends at basketball than those from school, I presume it’s because we all spend some much time together, with us training three days and playing twice a week.

I don’t really look at basketball as a way of getting exercise, but it is. Playing in VC (which is the highest level you can get to in Victoria) you have to be in pretty good shape. Our trainings are very demanding. We run, non-stop, for 2 hours on a Sunday. This keeps our fitness levels up to the standard expected of us. To be perfectly honest, I don’t mind this sort of torture because I know that it’s keeping me from becoming ‘chubby’. Although at times I question myself on why I continue to literally run myself into the ground. On Thursdays and Tuesdays our trainings usually consist of skill drills and running through strategic plays for our games on Friday nights. It’s pretty full on.

Last but not least. I play because I LOVE to! I get some much enjoyment out of it. The best part of my week is on a Friday afternoon when the final bell of the day rings at five past three, I become anxious and excited about the game I will be preparing myself for, for the rest of the afternoon. But the most enjoyable part of playing basketball would have to be the finals you get to play in at the end of the season. Grand Final Day is so much fun! Everyone is so pumped to be there, being able to play in the grand final and knowing that if you win or lose you get a trophy, having your parents and friends cheering for you on the bench. Every time you score a goal everyone roars with excitement and the sound echo’s through the stadium, it’s the most motivating thing when your on the court, having your team and crowd yelling out to you it’s extremely uplifting.

So you now know why basketball is a big part of my life and why I feel so strongly about it. I know you might think it’s only a sport, but to me, it’s a way of life.

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