America in the Arab World Essay
The Middle East history springs from the time of human civilization origin. During its long history the Middle East remained one of major political, economic, religious and cultural centers. Three world religions - Judaism, Christianity and Islam appeared in this region. On the Middle East territory there were the most ancient states Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, and also more young Persian and Arabic empires. The modern political map of the Middle East was formed after the First World War, when the Ottoman Empire was parted on the row of the separate states. The considerable resources of oil gave a region a new political and economic value in XX century.
After the Ottoman Empire failure in the World War I Great Britain and France got the special “rights” for the preparing the Middle East countries for their future independence. But the USA hadn’t any conflicts on the territory and any colonial ambitions in this region. The highest point of such interrelations between the Middle East and the USA was President Woodrow Wilson’s induction for the self-determination of the region. They saw in the USA the balance and protection of the predatory ambitions of France and The United Kingdom.
The situation become strained after the Second World War. The United States determined three major interests in The Middle East: growing value of oil resources (after 1945 in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Kuwait, Iraq, OAE is conducted active oil production); to posing obstacles to the Soviet Union in its colonial ambitions; the third was the Arab-Israeli conflict. In modern history of region the formation of the state Israel in 1948 was an important political event.
The USA remained the permanent strategic ally of Israel in his confrontation with Arabs. Israel is the main political and military "base" of the USA in the Middle-Eastern region.
Thus, the exploitation of the Arabic oilfields in 80th-90th remained the main area of American capital investment in this region. It served one of basic stimuli for continuation and activation the USA work both in economic and in political and military areas. The saving of Persian bay area as West oil reservoir was one of the Bush administration arguments by which he justified the dispatch of troops to Saudi Arabia in August, 1990. At the same time in 80-90th the correlation of potentials in an internationally-political binomial “the USA-the Middle East” clarified itself with a few factors.
The USA strategy was directed on further introduction in these countries, with holding them in the affected zone by close attachment in a military-political and economic plan. Tendency to internationalization of world economy and international relations, especially increasing in a this period, also made the drawing together influence, supported the personal Arabic side interest in development of relationships with the USA, facilitated the realization of their strategy in a region, in spite of its orientation, which hurt interests of the Arabic countries in many important and sensible for them aspects. The USA activity was supported (although in a different degree) from the side of their Western-Europe allies.
In addition the USA examined the Middle East as one of the major regions of the world from the strategic point of view. Here, on the border between Europe, Asia and Africa, major communications that connected the European countries with their colonial domains in the nearest and distant Eastern countries foremost with India.
The USA consider that The Middle East is very important region, and situation there can create a direct threat to the American interests and economic security of the country. Events in the Middle East are in focus of whole world attention and any problem related to it is always urgent. Although a great deal was known about those processes which took a place there and about co-operating of the Middle-Eastern countries with an international environment, but many questions did not get answers and in particular it concerned the war in the Persian bay.
The Iraq annexation of Kuwait was the examination for all of world society. The will of most countries to stop the Saddam Hussein regime taking found the expression in the decisions of Security of UNO Council, demanding to remove the Iraqi troops from Kuwait and calling on the economic approvals as respects to Iraq.
A new situation created the favorable pre-conditions for permanent American interference in the Arabic world coming from political and strategic interests of the USA in the Middle East.
At the same time the USA aimed to insulate the Middle East from Soviet Union, and the last years they try to convert it into the area of their individual control and not allow Russia to confirm the political, economic and military presence in a region. The Persian Gulf War brought the stable military presence of USA in the Middle East.
It should be reminded, that after completion of the Second World War and to the middle of 80th the Arabic order, from USA point of view, carried in itself a threat to American interests in a region (oil, safety providing of its sources and opposition against Soviet Union and etc. After disintegration of the USSR the new threats were designated to American interests in a region. The main problems were the fight against religious fanaticism, extremism and terrorism, settlements of Arab-Israeli conflict, establishments of stability, arrangement of regional collaboration and transformation of Israel in the full-fledged "member of family" of the Middle-Eastern states.
The September, 11-th became one of the bloodiest days in the world history. The Al-Qaeda, the creator is Saudi Arabian Osama bin Laden, attacked on the United States.
Consequences: as a result of both sky-scrapers, abuted on them buildings, and also one part of Pentagon were destroyed; about three thousand persons perished. This event was the beginning of new epoch, when full-scale wars can go not only between the states but also between the states and international organizations, which do not have a state structure and public liability. The New York exchange stopped its work on two days. The near district, including well-known Wall-street was under the ash. Government institutions were evacuated. The President of the USA declared a martial law. This event was the motive of the war between the USA and Afghanistan and later with Iraq.
America and its allies began so called “War on Terrorism”.
War on Terrorism, named also “Global War on Terrorism” or “War on Terror”, is geopolitical conception, developed by the republican administration of George Bush the junior right after the events of September, 11, 2001 with the purpose of fight against international terrorism. After July, 2005 administration of Bush does not use this term any more, speaking now about a global struggle against violent extremism. In Russia the similar chain of events officially is called an anti-terror operation. The first step in this operation engaged the assets of terrorist organizations and associated groups. They were frozen. The United Nations Security Council also adopted United Nations Security Council Resolution in which all States must to criminalize assistance for terrorist activities. NATO began Operation Active Endeavour on October 4th, which made wider security checks in the Mediterranean. The United States and NATO allies began air strikes against Taliban and al-Qaeda targets on October 7, 2001. On the 20-th of March 2003 the USA simultaneously the United Kingdom and coalitions encroached to Iraq. The motivation was the possession of Weapons of Mass Destruction.
On November, 5, 2006 the Higher criminal tribunal of Iraq sentenced Saddam Hussein to death penalty through hanging.
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