Thursday, April 10, 2014

Essay on Half Wave Single Phase Converters

In Single-phase half wave converters, either the negative or positive half AC wave is blocked or the remaining half is allowed to pass. The means that only one-half of the input reaches in the output, which indicates that, the resulting voltage is lower. A half wave converter requires just single diode in case of single-phase supply and in case of three-phase supply, it needs three diodes. Converters or rectifiers yield pulsating and unidirectional direct current. However, half wave single-phase converter produces far more ripple compared to the full wave rectifier. In addition, increased filtering is required for eliminating the harmonics associated with AC frequency of the output.

ADVANTAGES OF SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE UNCONTROLLED CONVERTER:

  • A single phase half wave uncontrolled circuit converter is a simple and low cost circuit. Although the power levels of such circuit are very small, yet it is widely used and simplest rectifier.
  • The current flow through the circuit and its output voltage are highly influenced by the type of load.


DISADVANTAGES OF SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE UNCONTROLLED CONVERTER:

  • The output current carried by load also contains some component of ac current in addition to dc current. The frequency of such ac component is almost equal to the input voltage frequency. In order to controlled high ripple factor, a complicated filtering is needed in order to produce steady dc output.
  • Only half amount of power is delivered at one time, which result in low rectification and power output.
  • The transformer utilization factor is also very low.
  • Current is magnetized by the DC saturation associated with the transformer core. It also results in harmonies generation and loss of hysteresis.
  • The power supply of single phase half wave uncontrolled circuit converter is not suitable for general power supply. Such type of power supply is best suitable only for some sort of charging.
  • The simplest single phase half wave uncontrolled circuit converter is not suitable for industrial use mainly due to poor performance.
  • It requires large filter capacitor in order to obtain smooth dc output voltage.


ADVANTAGES OF SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE CONTROLLED CIRCUIT CONVERTER:

  • Single-phase half wave controlled circuit converter is widely used in the industrial applications of different types.
  • They have the ability to use both negative and positive voltage and can supply current, which is unidirectional. 
  • They have the capacity to operate in the form of an inverter or a controlled rectifier.
  • Single-phase half wave controlled circuit has an inverter mode, which blocks the forward voltage of the thyristors, which result in the negative direction of output voltage.

DISADVANTAGES OF SINGLE PHASE HALF WAVE CONTROLLED CIRCUIT CONVERTER:

  • The single-phase half wave controlled circuit has poor voltage and current from both input and power factors.
  • These circuits have lower efficiency and low dc output.
  • The ripple current and ripple voltage of such converters are high.
  • The ripple factor of single-phase half wave controlled circuit is relatively higher.
  • These converters have low utilization of transformer factor.
  • As the dc component is supplied with the input current, it results in the dc saturation in the output transformer core.
  • Single-phase half wave controlled circuit is rarely used in the practical life due to their extremely low output and dc output power.
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