Friday, April 3, 2015

Essay Writing on Reverse Discrimination

Reverse discrimination is a principle to create inequality in order to establish equality, by allowing some preferential treatment. It is seen as a way to restore equality of opportunities compromised by two phenomena: generalization or the persistence of racist or sexist practices on one hand, and accentuation of the socio-economic inequalities on the other hand. Depending on the first or the second case, using reverse discrimination brings two very different logics: when it comes to eliminate racist or sexist practices, this requires the definition of a "target population" from inherent and indelible features, belonging to the identity of the individual (sex and race in the United States gender and foreign origin in France); on the other hand, when it comes to socio-economic inequalities, the beneficiaries are to be defined by the criterion of their socio-economic situation. There are therefore two forms of affirmative should not be confused.

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The problem of reverse discrimination that arises today way increased due to increasingly diverse ethno cultural society. 

This is a problem that is part of the group known under the catch-all terms 'multiculturalism' or 'ethno cultural justice.' To begin with, we have to mention a fundamental distinction between 'multinational societies' and 'multi-ethnic societies.'

A 'multinational' society is a society in which several nations coexist within a given State. In this case, it is the incorporation, voluntary or not (by formation of a federation) or by a process of conquest, of various nations within a larger political entity, which is the source of cultural pluralism (examples: Canada, with the case of Quebec; the European Union if it becomes a federation in the future).

A multiethnic society, on the other hand, is a society where the source of cultural diversity refers to immigration. Cultural pluralism arises then from the fact that a country has accepted or even agree to welcome immigrants; they do not occupy a defined territory, but are more or less dispersed throughout the national territory. However, the aspirations of these two types of minorities are fundamentally different: in the first case, we are dealing with 'national minorities' whose primary concern is to protect themselves as 'separate society' side of the majority culture (their main claim is therefore autonomy); in the second case, we are dealing with 'ethnic minorities' who want to integrate into the society. Thus, the question of "reverse discrimination" is in the domain of "pluricultural" societies, i.e., in the second case.

The problem then is how we will integrate these 'ethnic minorities' to these multi-ethnic societies. 

Two competing models of integration coexist: in the first, the model Republican (but which is also, in this specific case, that of the liberalism political), the separation of the State and ethnicity prohibits legal recognition of ethnic groups and any reference to an ethnic criterion for the allocation of rights, resources, and obligations. The State is neutral, "blind" to the differences, including to the skin color of its citizens, which it is responsible for (the principle of "color blindness"). All individuals should be treated equal, uniform, without taking into account, for example, their ethno-cultural affiliation or gender.


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