Wednesday, December 30, 2009

Francisco Ribalta Essay

Essay on Francisco Ribalta

Francisco Ribalta was a well-known artist of the 17th century in Valencia. According to Jusepe Martinez wrote about Ribalta, "He gave his soul to God and was venerated that he was held almost as a saint; he sought no advantages in this life but as always honourable in his dealings. His works, effort, skills and paintings had a great impact on the history of Spanish paintings".

Ribalta was born in Solsana, Lerida on June 2, 1562. Between the years 1571 and 1573, the Ribalta family left their home in Solsona for Barcelona. Francisco Ribalta was influenced by the paintings of Isaac Hermes. After his parents' death in 1581, his family decided to move to Madrid in seek of apprenticeship. During those years of studying and working, he studied paintings of royal collection. He also developed his early style, which was strongly influenced by Italian Mannerism. Mannerist style is an artistic style that takes emotions and attitude through the paintings/drawings. Ribalta's earliest works include the Crucifixion- The Nailing To The Cross (1582/1566; St. Petersburg, Hermitage), which shows his interest in Venetian coloring and the use of light.

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Francisco Ribalta developed a family of his own later in his years with Ines Pelagyo and soon had two daughters and a son, Juan in the year 1597. His family life didn't interfere his career and his passion he had for paintings. Once came to Valencia in 1598, throughout the years 1599 to 1620, he made many accomplishments which were a step closer to his career in art. Which was also the place he began the effect of shades of darkness. He painted Fray Domingo Adadon on his Death bed (1603) and Bishop Miguel de Espinosa in the same year. There were also portraits of Margarita Augllу in 1600 and Hermano Francisco del Nino JesuЬ. In 1603, Ribalta received his first major commission to paint the alterpiece for S Jaime Apostol, Algemesi. In the same year, he was also commissioned to paint Christ Appearing to St. Vicente Ferrer (1604-1605). By 1607, he was den assigned by the Gremio de Plateros to paint the altarpiece, dedicated to St. Eligius. The idea of Colegio de Pintores revived later in his years; Ribalta made a decision on taking a role in the management and signed the petition to Philip III in 1616 and 1617. A year before 1616, Ribalta developed a Baroque style using tints of light and shade (one painting was St Bernard Embracing Christ in 1620-28).

After the 1620s, Ribalta shows his understanding and his passion of naturalism through his artworks. As a matter of fact, the works that were done during those years were of the highest quality.

The Ribalta is a Spanish family of painters. Francisco Ribalta's son, Juan (1596/7-1628) also became a painter in Carayaggesque, unfortunately he died at a young age. During Francisco Ribalta's generation, he was a successful painter and was well appreciated. Not only many people approved his artworks, but also his artistic skills and his spirit. He dedicated more than half of his life and throughout his career on his works, which were mostly paintings of religious subjects and spiritual beliefs. His death took place in Valencia on January 13, 1628. "he was deeply mourned by the whole city and its inhabitants, who gave him an honourable burial." Jusepe Martinez said.


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Drama Essay

Essay on Drama

Ancient Greek drama was mainly for the honoring of gods and to portray a tragedy or a theme. The Greek theater is much like a modern day sports stadium. The seats were built so you could look down at the performance. Behind the platform were the actors, where they would change their clothes and relax. This was called SKENE.Painted backdrops were also used for decoration. PERSONA to portray who their character would be.

Roman and Greek dramatists influenced the Elizabethan theater by classical traditions. Many plays were testament stories such as David & Goliath, Noah’s Ark, and Christ Crucifixation. The performances were presented on church steps, or PAGEANTS which is a movable stage or wagon. William Shakespeare was very popular during the Elizabethan era. The theater was made for the audience to have an imagination. There were no intermissions during Shakespeare’s plays unless it was a musical interlude.

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Modern Theater was performed under roofs with candles so the play could be seen at night. The plays were performed on a PICTURE-FRAME STAGE. The stage was close to the audience so that the actors could use more jesters and facial expressions for the performances. Eventually technology progressed and electric lighting and microphones became an important factor in modern theater. REALISM was a new revolution during the nineteenth century. This new idea of staging was to be accurate and to show the smallest details within a performance.

The setting in the play Triffles reveals its theme because of where the play takes place. It takes place on an isolated farm during the winter. The setting gives us the theme by showing us how the setting was the right place for this immoral crime to happen.

Babe was the youngest of the three sisters. She had internal problems she needed to resolve within herself. Babe shot her husband because of an affair she was having with a fitfteen year old black boy. The expectation Granddaddy had for her was to get married to someone rich. She soon got over granddaddy’s expectation when she realized she was not alone she had her sisters.

Meg was the middle sister who thought of herself most of the time. Meg was a single woman who was afraid to love anybody because of her past relationships. Meg thought of her grand father as a pest. His expectation for her was to become a singer. It was when Meg hung out with her past lover; she realized she could love someone other than herself.

Lenny was the oldest of all sisters. She was a very hyper and energetic woman. She was also shy. Her grandfather’s expectation for her was to take care of him for the rest of his life. Lenny had shrunken ovaries so she thought nobody would be interested in her. Lenny gets over her grand daddy’s expectation by calling the man she loved.


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Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Issey Miyake Essay

Essay on Issey Miyake

I observe that Issey Miyake the Japanese fashion designer desires not so much to transgress boundaries in his clothing design as to maintain them as transparent walls.

An Issey Miyake design is neither wholly Eastern nor Western; his garments seem to simultaneously inhabit different temporal and geographic spaces. A piece (for Miyake’s clothing begs one to refer to them as art pieces) may look futuristic, but it is also rooted in the ancient feudal tradition of Japan’s samurai warriors.

Born in Hiroshima in 1938, Miyake was seven years old in August 1945, when his mother, suffered serious burns during U.S atomic bombing, lived another four years after the attack. The American occupation of Japan gave Miyake a first-hand view of what the west had to offer – Marilyn Monroe, Mickey Mouse, TV, Frozen Diners – and is surely a source of Miyake’s East-meets-West aesthetic.

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In 1959 Miyake enrolled as a graphic arts student at Tokyo’s prestigious Tama Art University. His true desire, however was to study fashion design, and in 1965 he went to Paris, where he studied at Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne, and learned the ropes under French couturiers Guy Laroche and Hubert de Givenchy.

At the Miyake design studio, a kind of laboratory the designer opened in Tokyo in 1970, he researched fabrics and design techniques, producing innovations like moulded plastic bustiers and clothes made out of oilcloth. Using a 5th century Japanese peasant technique to distress hemp like material, Miyake was able to create full bodied flowing forms that still described the body’s natural contours.

Miyake also pioneered a polyester jersey fabric, which, cut in squares and other geometric forms, enveloped the body in what he like to call a “ second skin”.

Issey Miyake continued his radical design philosophy into the 80s but his clothes became more practical. He opened the “Plantation” store in Paris in 1981, selling affordable clothes in natural fibres designed for “real living”. The pleating that has become his signature look first surfaced in the 90s. During this period Issey Miyake designed the official pleated jackets worn by the Lithuanian Olympic team at 1992 Barcelona Olympics and produced the “Pleats Please” spring and summer collection in 1994.

In Issey Miyake’s three decades in design, he has worked at the intersection of art and fashion, nature and technology, innovation and tradition and notably, East and West.

It may have been one of the fashion world’s more bizarre recent happenings. On a cold evening in Paris, several hundred people gathered on the lawn of the Cartier foundation art gallery, where they watched Chinese artist Cai Guo_Qiang sprinkle gunpowder over an assortment of dresses, trousers and t-shirts created by Issey Miyake. Cai then lit a fuse, and it all exploded like a string of firecrackers. The clothes riddled with holes and burn stains, were then put on display in the Cartier gallery along with other examples of Miyake’s collaborative efforts with artists.

In Issey Miyake’s own words “I had chosen one idea “express energy”. Cai proposed to burn a design of a dragon on my pleats please, with gunpowder. In China, the dragon is a symbol of energy, and gunpowder is energy.

I made the clothes according to how Cai was going to use them. He laid 65 items on the floor, in the shape of a dragon. Then he put gunpowder on them, covered the gunpowder with cardboard stencils also in the shape of a dragon. He lit the fuse at the end of a trail of 65 garments. In 2 or 3 seconds you could see the result, each piece of clothing has a mark of a dragon.

“ I have always considered my job as a new way of making things. Creating new fabrics or coming up with a new technique or process, going forward, looking for new possibilities.”

Issey Miyake does not tend to go back in time or history to him the weight of the fabric on the body makes the shaped. He has never used crinoline or corsets or padding to force shapes.

Issey Miyake tends to have a different expression and process, and tends to have a different way of looking at and understanding clothes. He also does not seem to be constricted by the traditional rules of French couture. He also seems not to concern himself with current trends.

He seem to be more detached from the normal concept of clothes, which allows him not to be confined by current trends and colours which so often dictate a designers collection, also allowing him to fully exploit the fabric and the design possibilities.

When asked is fashion and art? Issey Miyake replied “No I’m disturbed when people call me an artist. When I make something it’s only half finished. When people use it for years and years then its finished. The pleasure comes when people use my clothes. I may work with artists, but what I do is make things to be used, not looked at, like a picture or sculpture. You can not use art.”

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Henri Matisse Essay

Essay on Henri Matisse

His studio was a world within the world: a place of equilibrium that, for sixty continuous years, produced images of ease, refuge, and satisfaction. Nowhere in Matisse's work does one feel a trace of the alienation and conflict which modernism has so often reflected. During Matisse’s period there were many things happening around the world that inspired artists, most were ones that were deep with meaning or exploitation such as war and depression. However Henri Matisse never painted paintings of anger, repression and dejection he painted what was important to him, comfort, happiness a kind of sanctuary from current issues. Matisse literally lived through two different worlds, he was born in 1869 and died in 1954, and he saw the most horrible wars, the biggest slaughters and the most demented rivalry of ideology in recorded history, all without being tempted to depict them on a canvas.

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In 1907 Matisse's partiality for the Fauvist freedom faded and his interest in the work of Cezanne was rekindled, he begun experimenting with various figure/background relationships, also perhaps relating to some of Van Gogh’s portraits. The Girl with Green Eyes is one of those compositions. The figure and background compete for dominance, yet they are formally linked. The curves all over the painting link together, the embroidery on her robe, the sculpture in the background and the soft curves of her face.

The brush strokes are free and expressive as the figure almost blends into the background, there are arabesque patterns all over the canvas but because of the brushwork they are made somewhat blurred and suggested. It is the happy, bold color of this portrait, which makes the initial impact. Matisse has taken his Fauvist palette and made it richer, the open areas of bare canvas are gone, which cheered up and de-formalized his landscapes and figures in his work of 1905-6. In The Girl with Green Eyes, complementary colors are adjoined and loud, and closely hued areas are contrasting.

There is a correlation in this painting, it relates to many of Van Gogh’s portraits, there is the use of outlines, a very common trait in Van Gogh’s art, the background and composition, although probably inspired by Cezanne, shows traits from Van Gogh’s portrait of his art dealer.

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Monday, December 28, 2009

How to Build a Computer Essay

Essay on How to Build a Computer

First you buy a case. Stick in your mother board and power supply. Plug in the processor, put a fan on top of it. Plug in your RAM and IDE cables. Install a hard drive and cd-rom drive. Plug in their cables. Set your motherboard jumpers. Turn on the computer. Install an operating system. Whallaa!

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Now you can play games on your computer, such as Warcraft III and Unreal 2003. To do this, first you need to go to a store and buy a copy of one of these games. Then, you need to drive back home. Once you get there, put the CD in your CD-ROM drive. To do this, press the eject/open button usually located right below the cd tray. The tray will extend, allowing you to place the cd inside. Once in position, push the button again to close. Hopefuly you have autorrun, which will bring up a setup screen for your game. Follow the instructions, typing in your cd-key and choosing the install path. Wait a while for the game to install. Afterward, you might need to install DirectX and restart your computer.

After it's restarted, find your game in the start menu and click on it. This should start the game. Move the mouse around the menu to navigate through your options. change the controls to suite your preference, then start the game either multiplayer or single player. Kill your opponents and try not to die. If you keep your kill/die raitio high, you should do fine.


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HDTV Essay

Essay on HDTV

The television industry would have you believe it’s the second coming. Retailers preach the scriptures of higher resolution and digital video and audio quality, while consumers are shepherded by consumer magazines looking out for their best interests, providing previews and coming attraction for the self-made home “theatre-phile.” What is the excitement about? High Definition Television or HDTV for short.

High definition television broadcasting is sending ripples throughout the television industry’s pond. Since 1988, the industry has been developing a system of high definition televisions in order to receive digital quality broadcasts, the next revolutionary step in home entertainment.

After a decade of research and development, the television networks thought that the world was ready for HDTV broadcasts--perhaps a bit premature; as yet there are still several bugs to be worked out. On November 8, 1998, America’s first HDTV broadcasts aired. CBS (through New York City affiliate WCBS-TV) broadcast a Buffalo Bills vs. New York Jets football game in the HDTV format, even though the number of digital televisions in the market could be counted on one hand. (The History of Color)

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Even though the viewing experience was well, less the revolutionary, an indelible impression was made. The idea behind HDTV is to increase the quality of the video picture by increasing the lines of revolution projected. The national standard for video display, the NTSC (National Television System Committee), uses 525 of interlaced video running at thirty frames per second. (Cripps 23)

Interlaced video:
Each frame of a video image is divided into two fields consisting of odd and even numbered lines. To display the frame, an electron beam scans each line of the first field across the face of the cathode ray tube (TV screen), then goes back and scans the line of the second field in between the lines of the first field. The new, digital format allows for 1080 lines of interlaced resolution or 720 lines of progressive resolution at 24, 30, or 60 frames per second.

Progressive video:
Each frame of video is scanned sequentially, through one pass of scanning. This option is unavailable in the standard NTSC format. Bottom line, this means that the picture quality of digital television is far beyond any comparison to any video medium now in use (film not included as a video medium). (HDTV Introduction)

These enhancements are only available through high definition video feeds. In order to produce a high definition video feed, the program must first be filmed in high definition, and then broadcast via the UHF band (that’s right, grab your rabbit ears). Standard NTSC video can also be broadcast over high definition airwaves, but without the same enhancement of video seen in high definition broadcasts. The way this is done is by “up-converting” the NTSC format for analog broadcast. This conversion is done at the broadcast tower and is translated at home by an up-converting receiver that must be purchased separately from the digital TV (usually costing at least $3000).

Also analog broadcasting allows several different signals to be broadcast simultaneously from the same tower. As CBS prepared for the upcoming game on November 8, they broadcast soaps and daytime programming through different channels, creating several different digital viewing options from CBS to be viewed at the same time. In the long run, this means that individual networks will have several different channels to place programming, thus giving the public that much more to watch. But now, in the early stages of this new technology, this benefit cannot be fully appreciated.

Also now in the early stages of HDTV, there are some severe weak points that need to be addressed soon in order to make HDTV a possibility. The main issue that needs addressing is the broadcast itself. Because the signal is broadcast through the UHF band, it is subject to atmospheric interference. For instance, the WCBS-TV tower in New York is stationed atop the Empire State Building. The broadcast from the tower bounces off the other buildings around it in the city, causing an effect called “multipath.” In digital television, multipath creates multiple “ghost images” on the screen, disrupting the viewing experience. Another problem dealing with the UHF broadcast is that the broadcast signal is a directional signal. Strong signals coming from proxy stations could disrupt one another, and since all stations will be looking to place their towers atop the highest masses (for clearer broadcasts), there will be considerable interference until antennae are created that will be able to discern the different signals and translate them into desirable pictures. However, these problems are small compared to the one glaring problem networks are facing.

The main problem to contend with is a lack of programming from the networks spearheading the conversion to HDTV. This lack of programming has been caused by the haste of the industry to put the product out before working out the bugs; leaping before looking so to speak. Unfortunately, this has caused major annoyances for those fortunate enough to have been exposed to HDTV related programming. Some of these annoyances could be construed into skepticism, which will be either erased or indulged over time. It may seem that there is nothing good to come out of this desired conversion to digital programming, but there are some extremely positive points that may outweigh all of the early disappointment that has been experienced with HDTV. Obviously, the picture quality is so enhanced that television viewing will become an entirely new experience. One viewer said that HDTV would force make-up artistry change in order to keep up with the detail that the new sets present. Another said that it made watching television like “viewing through a screen door.” But there is more to it than that.

Now networks will have an explosion of time that needs to be programmed for because of the expansion of channels that a tower can broadcast. Whether the amount produced proves to be a godsend, or the pike that television impales itself upon remains to be seen. Hopefully, the viewer will be exposed to a variety of programming never experienced before instead of being subjected to copycat programs and infomercials. Only time will tell.

Apparently, there will be a second coming; an evolution in entertainment, which is far more complex and grossly more expensive than anything the industry has faced to date. But like the transfer from black and white to color, the industry hopes to bring to the audience a picture so captivating that it will be hard to move from our seat once we sit down and start watching. And that’s the goal of television. These new HDTV, once standardized, will make it even easier to tune in and tune out.


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Sunday, December 27, 2009

ERP Essay

Essay on ERP

What is an ERP?
ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning. ERP is a system of business management that integrates all resources of a business, including planning, manufacturing, sales, and marketing.

How do such systems differ from older, traditional business information systems?
Older, more traditional information systems assess each resource individually and on separate basis. For example, marketing would be investigated separately and not combined with any other resource such as sales. Looking at marketing and sales together would help a company to see what methods increase and decrease sales. Rather, the older systems might judge each individually and not realize that they may be related. The traditional methods would not show how one resource affects another, or how to combine resources for maximum profit. The newer ERP systems help to combine all of the company’s assets into one by seeing how they are related and can work towards one goal. The newer systems also help to come up with the best way(s) for the company to grow and make decisions.

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Who are the suppliers of ERP software?
ERP software suppliers would be those companies that are in software development. They would help to create a system that would best fit the needs of the business and help to organize its operating system, as well as support its business processes.

Why are the companies investing millions of dollars implementing ERP software?
Companies are investing money in implementing ERP software to integrate their businesses. Many companies want to be nationally known, if not internationally recognized. ERP software also helps to organize the company or business so that it has necessary information on hand through networking for whoever may need it at any time with easier access. Networking helps to stay organized and up-to-date on what is happening throughout the company so that one department is aware of another departments need or progress, and vice versa. This is critical for the growing companies, or companies that intend to broaden their products and/or services.

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Saturday, December 26, 2009

Hydrogen Essay

Essay on Hydrogen

Hydrogen was discovered as a separate element by Henry Cavandish in 1766. The physical properties of hydrogen are as follows. Hydrogen is categorized as an alkali metal. In Hydrogen’s physical state (at 20°C & 1atm) it is a gas. Its crystal structure is hexagonal in shape. Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1.00794 atomic mass units, making it the lightest known element. Hydrogen has a boiling point of 20.268 K, 252.732°C, and 422.918°F. It has a melting point of 14.025K or 434°F. Also it has Heat of Vaporization of 0.44936kJ/mol.

Hydrogen will also become a liquid at -240°C and a pressure of 13atm. Hydrogen is slightly soluble in water. This element also has a density of 0.0899g/L @ 273K & 1atm. The electron configuration of hydrogen is 1s1. Hydrogen is tasteless, colorless, odorless, highly explosive and extremely flammable.

Three ways of obtaining hydrogen are electrolysis of water, displacing it from the water molecular by the use of a metal, and the production of hydrogen by bacteria.

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In the electrolysis of water, an electrical current is passed through water to cause it to decompose, is one of the most common methods of obtaining hydrogen, it is also the most dangerous. Another method of obtaining water is to displace it from the water molecule by using a metal such as zinc or iron. Bacteria and certain types of algae can also be used to produce hydrogen. An enzyme of certain algae absorbs the sun's solar energy, these acts as a catalyst in splitting water molecules. The bacteria that produce hydrogen produce hydrogen in the same way algae do, but they differ in that bacteria need a substrate to grow on.

Hydrogen has many useful and interesting applications. Hydrogen can be used in the food industry to convert liquid fats to into solid shortenings (hydrogenation). The majority of hydrogen is converted into ammonia (by the Haber process). About a third is used to reduce copper and other metals from their ores (hydrometallurgical extraction). Hydrogen is also being experimented with as a new means of fuel for transportation. Also hydrogen’s isotopes were used in the creation of the hydrogen bomb and are one of the main ingredients in the “take off” propulsion system for NASA’s space craft.

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Dystonia Essay

Essay on Dystonia

For the past 5 years, my child John has been experiencing twitching in his neck and his shoulders. When he was younger me and my wife thought nothing of it, we just thought it was a bad habit that he had to break out of. He was a normal young boy with that small problem. He had many friends on our block that he would play stickball and ride bikes with that saw nothing wrong with John just like us. He is now 16 years old and is in a regular High School.

When John was 11, he started to have sudden spasms where he would twist his neck and a rapid movement in his shoulders. We were concerned about it at this time and consulted a pediatrician but he said that he never saw anything like it before, but just to be safe we could give him trihexyphenidyl. The doctor said that he could go on this medication but I was a little eerie about it so we decided against it.

Through his entire life, John was a good child and a bright kid. He good grades and was just like any normal young boy. He was very popular all through elementary school but once these problems starting getting worse in High school other children thought of him as somewhat of an outcast. When I was brought up to his school to have a talk to one of his teachers, I was shocked to hear what she was to say to me.

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John was very disruptive in class, he would me moving his neck in all disoriented types of ways and his peers would make fun of him disrupting the entire class. When I was told about this, I brought John to another doctor for another opinion with the same results. It was not until I went to a total of 4 different doctors until I found out the problem with John. He was suffering from a mild case of Spasmodic Torticollis. Spasmodic Torticollis or ST “is a condition that causes the neck to involuntarily twist to one side. The mechanisms of the condition are not completely understood but the affliction is neurological in nature. (BRYANT, MC)” This disorder is also known as Focal disorder and fits into the category of Dystonia.

The doctor said he could give John one of two things for his disability, he can either dampen the neural activity with either tranquilizers or brain surgery (brain surgery was not an option that we would choose). Since it was not a very severe case and John was not suffering any pain from this, we decided that it would be best for him to be given Botox injections as recommended by the doctor. Also he would have to go through physical therapy to help fight the disorder.

After the first few months of being on Botox, John started to show signs of the disorder weakening which made us very happy for him. He was able to go to a normal class again with no disruptions. The only time that John does start to get problems is when he is faced in a stressful situation when he would start to twitch his neck but not as much as he normally would. We spoke to the doctor about it and he said that sometimes when he is faced with a stressful situation, it can trigger the disability. The best things for John to do would be to stay active and avoid stressful situations.

Now our problem facing John is whether he should be put back into a regular school next year or if he should be put into a special education school for people with the same/similar disorders as him. This has been one of the toughest decisions me and my wife have faced since the original diagnosis for our child. We gave the decision to John but he said that what we think is best for him would be a good choice.

Since our Medicaid covers for John’s physical therapy, we decided to leave him in a regular classroom with all the other children as long as he is still in the same state and is not suffering. We both knew that we would have to go through a lot to have John put in a school for special education. Therefore, if he is doing well now in a regular classroom then it should be no problem for him.

If, for any reason, the medication does not work as well as it has, then me and my wife have decided to refer John to Pupil Evaluation Team (PET). We learned that special education services are educational services that are specially designed to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability. These services are provided at no cost to us as the parents. There are also supportive services for children with a disability. This might be better for John because supportive services are designed to assist a student with a disability to benefit from special education services. If John is succeeding in the regular education program and only needs supportive services, he may not be eligible for special education services.

After my wife and I learning more and more about Dystonia on the internet, we found out that more and more children with a physical disability are now attending mainstream schools. “The great majority of pupils who have physical problems or disabilities are now attending mainstream schools. If the pupils’ difficulties mean that they cannot attain their maximum potential in a mainstream setting, then placement is available at St Giles School, which has a full range of medical, nursing and therapy services as well as a full National Curriculum. There is also provision for deaf/blind pupils.” (Croydon Council, 2001)

Also, seeing that John has already completed 2 years in High School already it would be better if he stayed in the same school with people that he knew rather than put him in a new school where he would not know anyone. The teachers that he has classes with already know his disability and can accommodate it.

All in all, besides special education and services that can be provided, my wife and I feel that John should know that he is loved no matter what type of problem or condition he has. To us, it is more important knowing that he has a family that loves him very much and would do anything to help him overcome any problem that he may have.

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Dyslexia Essay

Essay on Dyslexia

Many teachers may overlook children with disabilities or think that they just might not be trying hard. They need to realize that they're are kids that have problems and eventually they are going to have to teach one. A man named David Raymond had this very same predicament. Throughout the first years of his life at school he cursed at himself and felt as if he wanted to die. He could not learn like the other kids and began to feel discouraged as everyone else around thought of him differently. David had a form of dyslexia, which is a learning disorder that effects the way a person learns to read. Even though he had this disease, he was still able to succeed in life and become a business owner. He gave a speech to many people called Being 17, Bright and Unable to Read, which explained a little about the disease known as dyslexia.

David Raymond had many thoughts on his life living with dyslexia. When he was a young child in the first years of school, he would come home from school screaming of how dumb, he was and of how he wanted to kill himself. When he was in second grade, he started to receive testing to see what exactly was wrong with him. He began to get tired of the testing. He just wanted people to stop upsetting about him. When he was 17 years old, he was only able to read at a fourth grade reading level. His parents started sending him to a special school for kids with learning disabilities. He would take a bus from his regular school to a different school across the town in which he lived. He did not like riding the bus because he rode with the kids that had anger issues and with retarded kids. He did not like being labeled like this so he despised the whole fact of needing help. He soon found other things in which he could do outside of school. He excelled at running for the track team and on the cross-country team, receiving letters in both. He also started working in pottery and was found to be a pretty good sculptor. His teachers soon understood and starting being easier on David. This pleased him since they did not make him feel like an idiot.

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David could not have made it through life on his own. He was given help by numerous people. His parents helped David with whatever they could. His mother would read novels to him along with his father helping with homework. The use of a tape recorder was needed. David would talk into a recorder then give it to his mom to write it down for him. His parents forced him to go to a summer camp for kids that cannot read one summer. David dreaded going to a place like this. Again, he did not want to be classified as a kid that could not read. He ended up having fun at the summer camp. He met many kids that had similar problems as him. He made some friends while also realizing that he is not the only one with this trouble. One of the counselors that David has at the camp told him that he had an IQ higher than 90% of the population. David did not really listen to this because he did not believe it to be true. David soon learned of famous scientists and artists that had problems in their lives. Albert Einstein did not speak a word until the 4th grade. He also flunked math, when he grew up though he became one of the most esteemed mathematicians throughout history. He too learned of a painter named Leonardo Divinci that was believed to have had dyslexia.

Throughout his life David Raymond was laughed at and helped with his problem of dyslexia. He soon realized that it was not so bad and excelled at whatever he could. He tried despite his reading problem and quickly became a successful business owner. Giving this speech must have altered the minds of many parents and teachers, which have kids with dyslexia. They may have changed their minds and gotten their kids help or learned of dyslexia by listening to David Raymond.

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Thursday, December 24, 2009

Simon Martini Essay

Essay on Simon Martini

Simone Martini was a Sienese painter during the thirteenth and fourteenth century. Martini was born in Siena, Italy in 1283. He attended the Sienese school in Italy. Martine died in 1344, in either his birth place of Siena or at Avignon, in France (Columbia, Seventh Edition).

Martini being a direct pupil of Duccio di Buoninsegns was one of the most original and influential artists of the Sienese school ( Lengmuir, 440). He introduced the fresco technique into the school. Building on techniques developed by Duccio for indicating three-dimensional space, Simone developed his own method, characterized by refined contour of line, grace of expression, and serenity of mood ( Encarta).

Martini’s earliest authentic works is his great fresco in Siena of the enthroned virgin and child, which was an altar piece panel, this one was painted originally in 1315, and restored by the master himself in 1321( Catholic, Vol. IX). In 1317, King Robert of Anjou invited him to Naples to paint, and created alter pieces for the Dominicans of Pisa and Orvieto (Columbia, Seventh Edition).

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Simone lived in Assisi for a time, where he produced one of his greatest frescoes, illustrating scenes from the life of St. Martin (Pioch, 1). In 1340, at the request of Pope Benedict XII, Simone traveled to Avignon, in the service of the papal court then resident in that place, and there he decorated various portions of the cathedral and several chapel rooms in the papal palace ( Catholic, Vol. IX). Among his works are Saint John the Baptist, and The Annunciation, considered one of the greatest achievements of the Sienese school (Lengmuir,441).

Simone’s Road to Calvary, which is a panel fresco and is 9 7/8 x 6 1/8, shows the figures not equal in size to their surroundings. The style of clothing appear to be fashioned after the styles of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. But the colors used in their clothes are bright and some or most are detailed in gold. One of the things that you will notice the most are the many different facial expressions.

Gowing, the author of Paintings in the Louvre writes this about this magnificent work of art: Scrambling down the precipitous road out of Jerusalem, as it is depicted in this to Calvary. It is the bitter intensity of the color from the figure of Mary Magdalen onward, miming as usual her own distraught crucifixion, that sets the ritual progress on its way. Sienese painters had a vivid sense of community, its momentum and style. Here each follower or vicious persecutor presses as urgently about Christ as the rest (Gowing,36). The author of History of Art, points out influences of other artists techniques that exist in Simone’s Road to Calvary, He writes: in its sparkling colors, and especially in the architectural background, it still echoes the are of Duccio. The vigorous modeling of the figures, on the other hand, as well as their dramatic gestures and expressions, betray the influence of Giotto. While Simone Martini is not much concerned with spatial clarity, he proves to be an extraordinarily acute observer; the sheer variety of costumes and physical types, the wealth of human incident, create a sense of down-to-earth reality very different from both the lyricism of Duccio and the grandeur of Giotto (Janson,350).

In 1330 Simone created an egg tempera on panel called Saint Luke the Evangelist. This painting is to me less detailed than his other works that I have seen. Martini still uses bright color and a dominant facial expression on his subject. In Simone’s egg-tempera portrait of the patron saint of painters, the form has been created by many parallel strokes of color (Carr, 67).

The Annunciation, created in 1333 which is a panel painting is of the Virgin Mary and the Archangel Gabriel. Simone positions them in very natural poses, because the Virgin Mary appears timid and almost worried by the words written in gold which face her, and her hands are held in a similar way to those of her visitor, who brings her a twig as a reminder of her mission (Pioch, 2). The eyes are also drawn to the vase of flowers in the center and to the dove of the Holy Ghost higher up( Pioch,2).

Simone’s Annunciation is a condensed cathedral faзade, Gothic this time, with a deep gold border (Hartt, 412). The angel’s message, Ave gratia plena dominus tecum ( “Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord is with thee”; Luke 1:28) is embossed on the gold background. Mary, “troubled at his saying,” recoils elegantly, her face clouded with apprehension. This is an extraordinary and unexpected style, but graceful in the extreme, with all the characteristic Sienese fluency of line translated from Byzantine Geek into Flamboyant French ( Hartt, 413).

Because of Simone’s separation from the Byzantine tradition in favor of the more fashionable courtly French Gothic style of the early fourteenth century he was able to bring back the latest French imports( Hartt,412). His art is admired for its Gothic spirituality combined with a vibrancy and a great elegance of line. He was also introduced the fresco technique to the Sienese school (Columbia, Seventh Edition). And in doing these things he was able to open the door to many more ideas and options for the artists to come after him.


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Self-Evaluation Essay

Essay on Self-Evaluation

I had taken Introduction to Acting last semester and I enjoyed it so much that I decided to take Advanced Acting this semester. The closeness the class develops after they have worked together is something you can hardly experience in another class at college.

I came into the class with some knowledge of acting and I expected to learn as much more as I possibly could. I had done some plays in junior high school, but they were all not the kind that I could say I did with experience. I wanted to know how to connect to my character. My main concern was knowing how to portray myself as the person I am playing. We definitely worked on that in class. I think all the questions that were asked to be answered painted a clear picture of who our characters are. For example, making a history for our character, why is he/she saying this?, who is he/she talking to?, what kind of setting?, etc... All these questions helped me to personalize my characters and to therefore do a better job at performing them.

I think from the time I first came into class till now, the end of the semester, I have definitely changed. We did our first performances without knowing much about what was expected, but as we went along it was explained that what was missing or what needed to change to make the scene work. By the time I was doing my final scenes I already knew what was to be expected. I am not saying I became a professional because I know that takes years (or just plain talent), but I did learn a lot and I am more knowledgeable that any one else at Baruch.

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Along with the professor I have to say that I had a lot of help from my various Self-Evaluation (Cont’d...)

partners. When two people think about the scene the result is much better than if I were doing it myself. Your partner can tell you where your lines might not be working the way your saying them, whereas for you alone it might be difficult to tell. You can also play off your partners emotions better than you can play off the reactions of some imaginary person on the wall. I also have to say that our partners were chosen almost very accurately for us. When the scene partners get along the scene becomes more enriching.

What pleased me about this class is that we had a lot more performing to do than the last class. I thing that is a challenge; to remember all those lines and emotions and not get confused. I like the fact that we did monologues. That was definitely something I have never done and it was a nice experience.

I don’t know if I want to pursue acting as a career, but it is something that I would like to consider part time. Not so much television or anything, I know I can’t do that, but theater is definitely an option I’d like to keep open. What I’ like best are the comedies. I would love to do more comedic plays. I feel I can do my best in those rather than serious plays.

I feel theater has an important role at Baruch because Baruch is a business school. What I mean is that students can get bored really easily of all these classes about accounting and financing, and to make their experience at Baruch more fulfilling, so they won’t turn out like zombies, I feel there should be theater classes at Baruch. Theater is like real life. People need to experience at least some type of theater, if not acting then watching a performance, so they can understand real life a little better.


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Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Breast Cancer Essay

Essay on Breast Cancer

According to the National Alliance of Breast Cancer Organizations (NABCO, 2002), breast cancer is the second most common form of cancer in women in the United States, falling only behind skin cancers. This is why it is such an important disease to understand. Throughout this paper there will be information about various issues which deal with breast cancer, in an attempt to give better insight to the disease. First there will be a brief discussion on the normal and altered physiology of the breast followed by the etiology and possible causative factors. Next there will be signs and symptoms which result from these alterations. Finally, the paper will be ended with some complications and the prognosis of this disease.

Although breast cancer occurs in both men and women the prevalence is low in men. Out of every 100 women who are diagnosed with breast cancer only one man is which is why this paper will concentrate on the disease process in women. (ACS)
(American Cancer Society [ACS], 2002)

Please refer to the illustration above for help in understanding the structure of a normal breast. The female breast is primarily made up of lobules, ducts, and stroma. Lobules are milk producing glands, ducts are the milk passages that connect the lobules to the nipple and stroma is fatty and connective tissue that surrounds the ducts, lobules, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels carry lymph, a clear fluid containing waste products and immune cells. There are also lymph nodes along the lymphatic vessels; these nodes are bean-shaped collections of immune cells. Most lymphatic vessels of the breast connect to axillary lymph nodes which can be found in the armpit. Other nodes, such as internal mammary nodes and supra/infraclavicular nodes can also be found inside the chest or above and below the collarbone. (ACS, 2002)

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According to NABCO cancer is a group of more than 100 different diseases and occurs when cells become abnormal and are without control or order. The cells then continue to divide if when new ones are not needed. During the change from a normal cell to a cancerous cell, however, the cells requires many different gene alterations.

Eventually these altered genes form a tumor which may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). A benign tumor can damage local tissue but fortunately will not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors on the other hand spread to other areas of the body damaging and destroying healthy tissue. (NABCO, 2002)

A gene that is commonly found in breast cancer patients which have a high incidence of familial causes is the BRCA gene. Unfortunately inherited breast cancer only accounts for 10 % of the approximately 200,000 cases which are diagnosed each year. Molecular biologist, Masaaki Hamaguchi, of Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory has developed a theory that may give insight to the other 90% of breast cancer cases. While comparing healthy and cancerous cells of 200 women diagnosed with the disease his team noticed that a gene called DBC2 had been completely deleted in the cancerous cells of seven women. The team then looked at 56 more cancerous and 19 more healthy tissue samples for messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA showed up in all of the healthy cells while the mRNA was missing in 58% of the breast cancer tissue. This recent discovery may aid in the detection of the underlying causes of breast cancer. (Beckman, 2002)

As stated earlier the gene which causes inherited breast cancer is better understood. BRCA is a tumor suppressor gene. This gene is normally programmed to slow down cell division or cause cells to die at the right time. In the case of breast cancer DNA mutations cause the BRCA gene to “turn off” allowing cancer cells to multiply. (ACS, 2002)

There are believed to be many risk factors of this disease, unfortunately, the reasons for the many of the risks are often unclear. The most validated reason for breast cancer is estradiol exposure. For this reason, being a woman is the greatest risk factor of all. Women have many more breast cells which are constantly being exposed to growth hormones. White women are also higher risk than their black counterparts, though the reason for this is not known. (Apantaku, 2000) (ACS, 2002)

Due to estradiol, an early onset of menses or the late development of menopause puts a woman at greater risk because there are an increased number of menstrual cycles leading to extra estradiol production. For this same reason, women whose cycles are shorter than 25 days; women who have used conventional animal estrogens or synthetic hormone for more than five years; and those women who used birth control before their first pregnancy, before 20, or for more than five years before 35 double and possibly triple the risk for developing breast cancer. (Samet)

Hereditary, dietary and lifestyle factors are also contributors to beast cancer risk. Women whose mothers had breast cancer are at twice the risk for developing this disease, generally the younger the mother is at the time of diagnosis the greater the risk. If a sister has breast cancer or a brother has prostate the risk can increase even more. Diets high in fat are also linked to this illness; because more fat cells produce more estrogen, high fats promote early onset of menstrual cycle, and there are hydrogenated fats from trans-fatty acids found in margarine which are considered cacogenic. Increased alcohol consumption also promotes increased estrogen levels. Lack of regular, physical exercise can also be a risk factor, because exercise directly decreases estradiol absorption and improves immune response. (Samet)

Now that some of the risk factors are known, can breast cancer be prevented? While it is not possible to completely prevent the disease it is possible to reduce the risk with a hormone called Tamoxifen. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen drug which is most often taken in pill form for approximately five years. This hormone is not only used as a preventive treatment for development of cancer in those people who have not had it , but it is also used to prevent a second episode of the disease and to prevent further tumor development during the actual disease process. After taking the hormone for five years 49% fewer women were found to havebreast cancer than women with the same risk factors who did not take the hormone. Unfortunately, this therapy does not come without side effects. The use of this drug increases the risk for developing uterine carcinoma, a rare and potentially serious condition. Other side effects include weight gain, mood swings, hot flashes, blood clots and cataracts. Because of these serious side effects it is important for a patient to weigh their options, but more often then not the benefits prevail. (ACS, 2002)

Symptoms found with breast cancer are masses, pain, erythema, nipple drainage, and enlarged lymph nodes. The most common complaint which causes women to seek medical attention is a breast mass. Approximately 90% off all masses found are due to benign lesions. Masses that are smooth and rubbery are usually a result of fibroadenoma and occur in the 20s or 30s while cysts are what are commonly found in women in their 30’s and 40’s. The etiology for fibroadenoma is unknown, but the pathogenesis is a clonal stromal component. There is proliferation of both the ducts and the stroma, numerous fibroblasts of the stroma can be seen along with a pale eosinophilic cytoplasm. The typical duct epithelium often lines the glandular spaces which may lead to compression because of this fibrous proliferation. (National Breast Cancer Foundation [NBCF]), (Sanders)

There are two types of breast pain, cyclic and non-cyclic. Cyclic pain is related to a woman’s cycle. Non-cyclic pain however, is often only experienced in certain area of the breast. This pain may sometimes be caused by injury or trauma to the breast such as after a breast biopsy. It is associated with both pre and post menopausal women and is most common in 40 to 50 year old. Although these pains often subside after a couple of years and are not usually associated with breast cancer the possibility still exists and therefore should be discussed with a physician. (Imaginis, 2001)

Another symptom is erythema, an abnormal redness of the skin. There is dilation of the superficial capillaries of the skin which then leads to inflammation and redness. The tumor or cyst may cause this hypersensitive, inflammatory reaction, although it is not known for sure.

Yet another symptom related to breast cancer can be nipple discharge. The majority of nipple discharges are associated with non-malignant changes and are often caused by hormonal changes. Discharge is a concern when it is bloody, sticky and clear, brown or black, is spontaneous, or unilateral. About 90% of bloody discharges are the cause of papilloma or infection; a papilloma is a non-cancerous tumor that has a branch or stalk which reaches into the breast duct. This tumor is also malignant almost 10% of the time occurring unilaterally, so further diagnostic testing should be preformed. (Imaginis, 2000)

Finally, discussion of the last symptom of breast cancer is enlarged lymph nodes. The enlargement is due to the production of additional white blood cells which helps ward off infection. The infections that cause this inflammation are often benign, but can be caused by the presence of cancer cells. Unfortunately, the only way to find out whether the cause of the swelling is cancerous or non-cancerous is to perform a biopsy. However, some signs are more associated with being benign, such as, a node that is less than one centimeter in size, and is soft, rubbery and tender. (Imaginis, 2001)

Lymph nodes are also the key factors in staging breast cancer and determining the prognosis of a patient. Stage one show a tumor which is less than 2 cm in size with no lymph node involvement or metastasis. In stage four the tumor size is not applicable, nor is lymph node involvement, but there is metastasis of other tissues. In stage one there is a 98% five year survival rate while in stage four there is only a 16% five year survival rate. For this reason it is important to perform self breast exams and receive yearly mammograms after the age of 40. The sooner the cancer is detected the quicker treatment can be started, and early treatment dramatically increases chances of survival. (NBCF, 2002)

Complications of this disease of course include death, but also fatigue which is usually associated with the treatment of the disease. Death caused by rapidly metastasizing cancerous agent is nearly unavoidable in later stages of the disease which again is why early detection is so critical. Fatigue related to treatment, which is due to the loss of so many cells and important energy producing agents can be helped. A recent study showed that exercise during treatment dramatically improved the energy levels of the patients, both physically and mentally. (NBCF, 2002)

As one may see from the above information of etiology, signs and symptoms, and potential complications of this disease, breast cancer is a serious disease that should not be taken lightly. In order to prevent complications, it is important for women to perform self exams, get regular mammograms, and maintain a healthy lifestyle, so that if the disease does occur there is optimal prognosis.

Case Study
Mrs. M is born 11/23/51. Past history: Scarlatina at age 9; hepatitis A at 21; tubal ligation at35; Valley fever at 29; two normal vaginal deliveries.
Personal history: therapist married with two children 21 and 23. no smoker, no alcohol or meds, take vitamin and mineral supplements. No known drug allergies, allergic to wheat and dairy.

Physical Examination: 5’4”, 110 pounds; BP 100/64; P 80; Temp 97.4; 46 year old female that looks older than stated age, facies pale, c/o weakness, right breast pain, and weight loss of 5 lbs. Head and neck: HEENT normal, no palpable nodes or thyroid. Trachea is midline. Respiratory: Clear percussion and asscultation in all fields. Cardiovascular: normal PMI, normal S1 and S2, no murmurs, or extra sounds, peripheral pulses present. Breasts: Firm tender mass 3 x 2 cm in upper outer quad of right breast, mass is fixed, no gross inflammatory response, no nipple discharge, left breast is normal.

History of present illness: It was first discovered in 1996 when she noticed changes in the contour of her right breast. A mammogram and breast ultrasound indicated discrete lesions in the retroareolar area which were consistent with fibrocystic disease. NO biopsy was done. Within the next few months she became fatigued to the point were she could not walk or perform ADL’s without resting. She also noticed cracking of the nails and a change in hair growth over her temples. Over the next year her condition continued to worsen, she began having night sweats and nightmares; she also developed pain in her left hip and lower back. In July of 1997 she noticed a thickening and hardening of her right breast, extending to her clavicle. She also began to feel episodic pain in the breast mass with radiation up the right side of her neck into her ear. On August 28 she had another mammogram and breast ultrasound, followed by and excisional biopsy of the breast on September 4. The mass was not completely excised, because the patient insisted that only the amount of tissue needed for a diagnosis should be taken out. Diagnosis was ductal adenocarcinoma. She refused treatments that would cause physical and bodily damage and chose Insulin Potentiation Therapy.


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Anti-Abortion Essay

Essay on Anti-Abortion

After watching a live abortion on the Internet, my opinion of abortions has drastically changed. I used to think that it was ok in certain situations such as rape, or if there was something immensely wrong with the pregnancy or the child. But now, I have a different outlook. I don’t agree with abortion, whatsoever.

Right now in the United States, abortions are legal, and are happening all over the world. This act is killing innocent babies, and also harming, if not killing the women who are taking part in the act. If people understood more about the act of an abortion, there would be a drastic change in the number of women making the wrong decision.

According to abortionNO.com and abortionfacts.com, there are 33,545 abortions in the United States each year. Worldwide, there are 1.37 million abortions each year. 3,700 abortions every day, 155 abortions every hour. Every twenty-two seconds, another baby is aborted. Are there actually that many different reasons for this killing act? Some of the most common reasons women decide to have an abortion are: She feels unready for the responsibility, she can not afford a baby, her concern for how the baby would change her life, relationship problems, feels she is not mature enough, she already has all the children she wants, her own health, her baby’s health, rape or incest. Most of the reasons are made by a selfish decision when the mother is only thinking of herself instead of a helpless little baby inside her. Every year, more unborn children die than Americans died in the Revolutionary War, the Civil War, both World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Persian Gulf Wars combined. Yet, this is legal in the United States.

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There are many different types of abortions. They are divided into three different categories: invasion of the uterus using instruments, induced labor following administration of drugs, and invasion of the uterus by abdominal surgery. Most are painful to the mother, but all are painful to the baby. Each trimester has a different method for types of abortions.

The most common abortion performed on a child up to twelve weeks is a suction abortion. The earliest type of abortion, called Menstrual Extraction is usually performed before a pregnancy test is even taken. Evacuating the Menstrual blood from the uterus by using an airtight, hand-operated suction device performs this abortion. Menstrual Extraction can also be used in cases of very early low risk pregnancy, to perform abortions without anesthesia and with lower risk of infection and complications than the standard dilation-curettage method.

Another type of a suction abortion is the Suction Aspiration. This abortion usually takes place around the twelve-week period. During this abortion, the mother’s cervix is forcefully dilated. A suction curette that is attached to a vacuum machine is inserted into the womb. The vacuum machine is about twenty-nine times more powerful than a household vacuum cleaner. The suction tube then tears the placenta and the baby into tiny pieces. The contents are then emptied into the trash, and forgotten.

Similar to the Suction Aspiration, the Dilation and Curettage method is harsher. The curette cuts the baby into little pieces. The pieces are then scraped out through the cervix, and once again, forgotten.

Another type of an abortion using dilation is the Dilation and Evacuation method. Forceps are inserted into the womb. The forceps grab part of the baby, and twist and tear away the bones until the baby is completely broken. The spine is then snapped in half, and the skull crushed in order to remove it from the cervix.

Second trimester abortions are rarely used now due to so many complications the mothers had following the procedures. In the 1970s and the 19980s, the most common of them was the saline amniocentesis abortion. Usually after the sixteenth week this type of abortion is performed. In the Saline Poisoning process, a large needle is inserted through the abdominal wall of the mother, and into the baby’s amniotic sac. A concentrated salt solution is then injected into the amniotic fluid. The baby is poisoned from breathing and swallowing the salt solution. Struggling to stay alive, the baby starts convulsing. The baby goes into shock, hemorrhages, then dies due to hypernatremia, or acute salt poisoning. One to two hours later, the mother goes into labor, and delivers the lifeless baby. Once again, the remains are thrown away and forgotten.


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Monday, December 21, 2009

Globalization Essay

Essay on Globalization

Globalization can be defined as the ongoing global trend toward the free flow of goods and services and the creation of a world economy. Through global trade and cooperation, Globalization aim to benefit everyone who partakes in it. While it provides a great number of benefits to society, they are provided at the expense of others. Since it is argued for the greater good, it has become one of the most heated topics in international business

Benefits
One of the most practical benefits that has resulted from globalization is the tremendous increase in the speed of communication. The prime example would be the Internet. The Internet is a global medium that instantaneously provides swarms of material containing information uploaded from various parts of the world. Since this information is shared worldwide, everyone with access to the Internet can take full advantage of it. Globalization also provides for cell phone companies to use such slogans as “anywhere, anytime” minutes. As a result of sharing technology across the globe, people can communicate with just about anyone.

Another practical attribute that a global economy brings is lowered transportation costs and reduced tariffs. Under the theory of globalization, all barriers to trade will be lowered, allowing foreign products to compete directly with domestic products. Consumers benefit when the cost to import a product is lowered since foreign goods are in turn more affordable. The producers of these goods also benefit from the larger consumer market.

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Globalization attracts firms to invest in lower developed countries where labor is cheaper. As they make these investments, a few benefits arise in that host country. First, the economy is lifted due to the sudden rise in the workforce. All the employees hired would be residents of that host country. Next, the government can collect taxes on everything produced and exported from the host country. For major apparel and car manufacturers, this figure can be rather substantial. Finally, the technological and managerial know how used to run the corporation is brought to the host country, providing knowledge and insight for many other domestic businesses.

In addition to boosting the economy, globalization benefits the environment as well. Such global agreements as the North American Free Trade Act, and organizations including the European Union promote environmental regulations throughout their respective regions. In creating a global economy, world wide environmental standards can be created. Through cooperation and regulation, globalization could be the answer to cleaning up the environment.

Disadvantages
While it seems that globalization has many positive attributes, those who oppose it have a strong argument as well. Globalization widens the gap between the rich and the poor. While it does indeed create wealth, the people who reap that wealth are already wealthy. A United Nations Report by Joe Lauria states, “the richest 200 people in the world more than doubled their net worth in the four years to 1998 to $1 trillion, which is more than the gross national products respectively of Canada, Belgium, Spain, South Korea, Brazil or Russia.” When companies invest in foreign nations, the money that they earn is invested back into the firm’s home country. The only use of the foreign country is for cheap labor. In addition, despite of the increased economic prosperity that the firm creates, the foreign nation becomes dependent upon the company for employment, revenue, and technological improvements. Without the firm, the country can no longer be self-sufficient.

Since companies seem to seek out the cheapest labor on the globe, foreign governments have decreased their human rights standards in order to attract investment. Some of these decreased standards include no child labor restrictions, no minimum wage laws, and unsanitary working environments. Furthermore, foreign governments also recede any environmental standards to make themselves more marketable towards large firms. As a result, companies do in fact have lower costs, however, they result from the exploiting of both people and the environment.
In addition to the effect that globalization has on foreign countries, the effect that it has on the home country is also substantial. When a firm decides to manufacture its products in a nation with cheaper labor costs, all of the people employed in the home country loose their jobs. This has a tremendous effect on the economy, especially when the firms employ tens of thousands of people.

Every nation ends up giving up freedom with respect to globalization. For globalization to work, all participating nations must promote trade by reducing or eliminating any trade barriers. In turn, every nation’s sovereignty is put into jeopardy. When international organizations force countries to carry out an action, such as reducing tariffs, individual governments no longer have absolute control of their nation. In addition, as consumer goods of various different nations slowly permeate throughout the world, they will diminish the traditions and cultural identity of nations through universality.

Conclusion
Since the first time that two countries traded with each other, globalization was born. Now, it is on an ever-growing path towards a free world market and a global economy. Despite the practical and inescapable benefits that globalization has brought, it has also provided a way for the rich to get richer, at the expense of the poor. It would be unreasonable to think that globalization could be stopped. The world is far to integrated to try and turn back now. Yet, it is obvious that the entire process needs to be reformed. Instead of trying to benefit everyone, globalization should try to benefit everyone more equally.

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Antarctica Essay

Essay on Antarctica

Antarctica is one of the world most pristine and delicate environments. Through this, tourism has become a major factor in recent years as Antarctica use to be inaccessible to tourists but now technology has made it possible to normal everyday people to visit the white continent. The effects that tourism can have on Antarctica are numerous and can lead to devastation. Threats are mainly pollution, oil spills, increasing tourism which all, in there own way, have, and will continue to have significant effects on the environment. Antarctica is also unique in the way that it has less pollution the anywhere else in the world obviously due to the lack of civilization and people, but as more and more tourists flock to Antarctica is has a gradual effect on the natural environment.

The reasons why it is so important to protect Antarctica is due to its unique features that are not found anywhere else in the world and if this us taken away, it will probably be gone for goof. It has a variety of unique and rich sources of flora and fauna, which has in the past lead to scientific medical discoveries ad is crucial for scientific research.

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As it was stated previously, tourism has played a big factor in the changing environment of Antarctica in the last few decades. The tourists flock to the area mainly due to the whole new sceneries never seen before which includes its unique wildlife and amazing scenery. Tourist numbers have increased over the last decade from 2000 to 14000 every year. Every single tourist that visits Antarctica counts as the environment is so delicate and human presence will usually result in some sort of negative impact, which accumulates to a big problem over time. Current ways in which Environmentalists are helping this is that they are informing the tourists and other people on how important and fragile the environment is and what they need to do to minimise the damage they are causing when visiting. It is expected that if something more drastically is not done within the next few years, tourism to the area will continue to grow significantly.


Some ways in which tourists disrupt the natural environment includes that they invade the animals protected areas, and in some cases litter is left behind and environmental souvenirs crucial to the environment are often taken. These problems, in recent years, have been dealt with accordingly as the problem continues to worsen. It is possible for governments to limit tourism from their countries but many are reluctant. In years to come the strictness of authorities will continue to rise as Antarctica becomes a more popular place to visit but at the moment there is no way for tourists to be prevented from visiting their countries territories in Antarctica. In recent years the negative effect that tourism has had on Antarctica has concerned certain Government and environmental organizations. Certain breeding grounds involving Antarctic species has shown a decrease in breeding habits ever since tourists have flocked to see them. Research was done into non-visited and visited areas and evidence showed that the visited breeding grounds have decreased I size and the amount of animals being bread.

Cruise ships are the ships used to make their way to Antarctica and as tourist numbers increase, so do the amount of boats being used and therefore increasing the likelihood of an oil leak which would be absolutely devastating the Antarctic flora and fauna. These ships also damage the continent itself breaking through the ice destroying icebergs in their way. The measures being taken to improve these ships includes new designs and operations being done on the cruise ships, which, include increased fuel efficiency resulting in less pollution as well as the crew must be extremely experience in their job and everything they do.

There are many concerns and factors today that are affecting the natural environment of Antarctica. Probably the biggest problem is tourism and this problem is on the rise and at the moment can only get bigger unless something drastic is done to stop the amount of tourists visiting and destroying the natural environment slowly and gradually. The past decade population numbers have tripled and the constant use of ships around the area breaking all the ice and the risk of oil spill put further pressure and havoc on the stability of the environment. Antarctica’s environment is extremely delicate and the slightest change can affect everything that’s why it is important for the government and environmentalists to do as much as possible to preserve the unique habitat. Global warming has also become a big problem and is occurring today as more and more pollution goes into the air we breathe. We must learn to understand how important this fragile environment is before we do anything about it because once it is gone it may be gone forever which could have devastating effects on the rest of the world.


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Sunday, December 20, 2009

Social Work Essay

Essay on Social Work

As far back as I can remember, I have always wanted to be a social worker. Even at a young age, I was always helping people in whatever way possible. I had to grow up and learn responsibility at a very young age. My mother who was a single parent, became extremely sick during my childhood, so becoming the support for her and my younger sister was inevitable. This allowed me to grow and learn in ways other children may have never imagined, and I believe that because of my childhood, it has contributed to a lot of my successes in life. Growing up learning about different cultures, different theories and basic human differences, makes it easier to relate to people from various backgrounds. Spending one month in the Dominican Republic also opened my eyes to many different social constructs, and social realities.

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An important experience dealing with social work was when I began working for Stewart Homes. This is a home for disabled children. Each child I worked with had various physical and mental problems. The children represented countries from all over the world, which gave me a greater understanding of cultural diversity. This was not just an eye-opening experience, it was also a real personal challenge for me, as I was basically forced, with minimal training, to somehow establish common-ground with people who were experiencing abuse, and distress. Some of my life’s most incredible experiences took place while I worked for Stewart Homes, and found it so uplifting to be able to know I might have made a tiny difference at just the right moment for a handful of people.

The most significant experience that I feel made the largest impact on my decision to study social work, was when I began volunteering for a Counselling Service. Of course I was not able to sit in session with these clients, so I decided to start a teen help group. I let each client know that I was a student interested in the field of social work and just someone who loved to help people in any way possible. I met many different people, each with their own problems and unique characteristics. Being around the same age, this opened a door of comfort and equality. A registered social worker sat in during these sessions, just to monitor and to give feedback when the sessions were over. These meetings occurred twice a week, and as the weeks grew so did my desire to become a social worker.

A social issue that is of importance to me is education. I find it extremely unfair that our society determines who is eligible for education based on access and financial stability. A person coming from a family where education was unknown and unheard of, the value of going to college and university would not be familiar. Also, what are we teaching our future generation? That the best judgement of character is the size of a persons wallet. These social issues and many more need to be dealt with in a positive way, or else we will loose what is important to human beings, our human dignity, social equality and finally social care.

I believe that I was meant to be at Ryerson University in the Social work program.

I am a leader, and strongly believe in working hard to obtain your goals and standing up for what you believe in. I am a committed student, a compassionate human being and very determined to achieve my goal of becoming a Social Worker. I will be none other but an asset to the Social Work program, and will make myself, and others, including the Ryerson very proud. Thank you for your time and consideration.


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