Wednesday, June 27, 2012

African American History Essay

African American History Essay

The concept of struggle for freedom had always been central in the culture of the African Americans. This concept was viewed differently in different periods of time, though it always stayed central, no matter if passive or reactive. Pursuit of freedom by people differed in tactics, though was carried out commonly over the long history of enslavement.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on African American History for You!

In the colonial times when obtaining of freedom was impossible African Americans did everything possible to preserve their unique culture no matter how much the masters forced their culture on them. It is due to those people who fought in that way for their freedom now we have access to a great hoard of this culture. In the years prior to and of the Civil War African Americans fought actively for freedom that they knew they were entitled to by law. Surely, the end-result freedom of the African Americans were not achieved only because of their efforts, while it was joint effort, of two poles apart societal group to get rid of a devastating institution of slavery. Nevertheless I believe that it is the persistent zeal of African American people to preserve their cultural values that forced the change in attitudes towards them within the rest of Americans. Not only had African Americans proved that they were capable of equal achievements, but even when assimilating in the already free American society, they managed to enrich it with precisions touches.

It is vital to learn about African American history and culture due to several reasons. First of all, it is a culture rich in authentic qualities, many of which the European cultures borrowed. Second of all, African Americans had made an immeasurable contribution to the foundation and development of the United States of America. Learning about the history and traditions of these people should be seen as a tribute to the effort they had put in into turning the United States of American into what it is right now. Finally, it is important to learn about the history of African American people in order to learn about the horrible unforgettable crime that had been done to them and understand that this should never be repeated in the future.
Get Custom Essay on African American History
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on African American History now!

Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Essay on Hewlett-Packard

Essay on Hewlett-Packard

At present, Hewlett-Packard is the world’s biggest IT-company with operations in 170 countries and 304,000 employees. With a long history of 70 years, the company is one of the leading global developers of hardware and software. HP competes in consumer and business segments in three main customer categories: computers and computing devices, printing machines and supplies, and equipment for IT-needs in business (Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P., 2010).

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Hewlett-Packard for You!

In order to analyze the current position of the company in the market, let us turn to the SWOT analysis and examine the environment. The strengths of the company are characterized with its stable position in the market and trust of many corporate and individual users. At first, Hewlett-Packard is the biggest player in the IT-market operating with $114.6 billion of revenue, $13.4 billion profit and $60 billion supply chain by the end of 2009. This made it fifth best performer on the Dow Jones Industrial Average and ninth in US rating of Fortune (Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P., 2010; Connie, 2009). It impresses with its sizes and scale of operations, which extends to all six continents. Global presence of HP is a significant competitive advantage because it doesn’t depend on any specific segment. The company’s product catalogue numbers approximately 160 pages being one of the biggest in the whole industry (“Hewlett-Packard Company”, 2008). At second, according to the corporate brochure HP in Brief (2010), the company in recent years is better positioned than ever. It allows for better targeting the customer groups, which supposes the increase in profit. At third, the company is a well-earned award winner. It was recognized by Newsweek as the “Greenest Big Company in America” and its contemporary data center is considered to be world’s most innovative.

Environmental protection nowadays is the concern of many people and organizations in the world, that’s why recognition in ecological protection is another unquestionable advantage. At fourth, the manufacturer outlines its improved security for the data and increased productivity of the devices it produces. Finally, HP’s strategy is aimed at sensitive issues and emphasizes on people’s relationships. The company suggests that it develops easier communication between people with the help of technologies provided.

Let us now observe the weaknesses. At first, HP keeps a lot of inventory (Connie, 2009) and is not able to sell it for that it is no more up-to-date. According to Forbes (“How Dell Took Advantage”, 2004), back in 2004, Dell, one of the strongest rivals of HP in the segment of consumer notebooks, benefited from this gap in HP’s corporate policy and was about to increase fiscal revenue throughout 2005-2006 significantly. At second, although Hewlett-Packard did not experience financial losses in 2009, it improved its revenue only by one per cent to $28.8 billion and non-GAAP earnings only by eigh per cent. One of the biggest acquisitions, the purchase of EDS, didn’t bring expected results for that its profit reported in 2009 was less than the year before (Bylund, 2009).

Being one of the most innovative enterprises in the world, Hewlett-Packard enjoys lots of opportunities. At first, a big number of projects in cooperation with huge governmental and non-governmental organizations in different countries of the world are currently started. They will keep HP involved and ensure permanent earnings for at least a decade. At second, the company invests in research and development. Such issues are of global scale and involve governments with their financial and other types of support. One of the latest global projects of HP is the Central Nervous System for the Earth – a network of sensors to monitor natural disasters and catastrophes (HP in Brief, 2010). At third, the IT-giant is known for pioneering new markets and it is supposed to continue expansion. Finally, new technologies produced by the company are of high demand. One can mention the newly created interactive displays with ambient light, which is considered to be a new world standard.

When mentioning threats, I would definitely name the high speed of changes in the market: some product lines become old-fashioned and have to be closed. 2009 was a difficult year for the printing segment of the company (Connie, 2009). Being one of the most profitable business segments, it reported a constant declining of sales for more than a year period. Now the unit of printing machines is exposed to merging with the PC unit for that they lose in sales in the recent years. Besides, Apple gains popularity exponentially in several segments, which it shares with HP, and with the introduction of new product lines, more and more customers switch from Windows platform to the one operated by Macintosh. According to the review of Olenick (2009), some new lines of HP notebooks, for example, cede those of Apple in functionality but are in the same pricing range. According to Connie (2009), HP does not plan to cut prices which can lead to even bigger losses in market shares of different segments in future.
Get Custom Essay on Hewlett-Packard
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Hewlett-Packard now!

Monday, June 25, 2012

Essay on US Health Care System

Essay on US Health Care System

United States of America is an owner of the most expensive health care system in the world. The U.S. spends on health care system more than any other country both in the absolute figures and in proportion to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Thus, only in 2007 the U.S. spent about 2.26 trillion dollars on health care, which is 7,439 dollars per person. According to some estimates in the U.S., the health care consumes about 16% of GDP. It is expected that the share of GDP allocated to health care in the U.S. will increase and its amount will reach 19.5% by 2017 (Andersen, Rice, Kominski, Afifi & Rosenstock, 2007, p. 311). However, the growth of spending on this sector over the past 30 years is mainly due to the government programs that could seriously undermine the financial stability of the country.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on US Health Care System for You!

Nation Insurance
According to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, the United States of America is the only developed industrial country in the world without the universal health care system. In the U.S., about 84% of citizens have health insurance. Insurance is provided by the employer to 64% of them; 9% of citizens purchased it by themselves; and 27% of citizens get the insurance through the public programs. Certain government programs allow persons with disabilities, the elderly, children, veterans, and low-income people to get medical assistance. In addition, these government programs provide emergency care to all residents of the country regardless of their ability to pay. More than 45% of the country’s expenditures in the health care system are used to fund such government programs. Thus, the U.S. government is the largest insurer of the nation (Harrington, Estes & Hollister, 2007, p. 246).

There is constantly unfolding debate around the U.S. health care system. There are disputes about its availability, efficiency and quality, as well as huge amounts that are spent on its maintenance. In 2001, about 50% of companies went bankrupt because of the costs of medical care in the U.S (Harrington, Estes & Hollister, 2007, p. 249). In addition, according to the UN Human Development Report, “The uninsured are less likely to have regular outpatient care, so they are more likely to be hospitalized for avoidable health problems. Once in hospital, they receive fewer services and are more likely to die in the hospital than are insured patients. They also receive less preventive care” (Rowland & Hoffman, 2005, p. 3).

Besides, UN Human Development Report states that “Over 40% of the uninsured do not have a regular place to go when they are sick and over a third of the uninsured say that they or someone in their family went without needed care, including recommended treatments or prescription drugs in the last year, because of cost” (Rowland & Hoffman, 2005, p. 2). In 2006, 16% of the population did not have health insurance in the U.S., and this is 47 million people (Mahar, 2006, p. 274).

In 2000, after analyzing the health care system of 191 countries, the World Health Organization gave the U.S. the first place in the ranking of the most stable systems capable to respond quickly to changing conditions. Meanwhile, the U.S. took the 1st place among the most costly health care systems, only 37th place on the level of health care delivery, and 72nd place on the overall level of health. However, the WHO’s study has been criticized for its methodology and lack of analysis of satisfaction with the health care system by consumers themselves (Andersen, Rice, Kominski, Afifi & Rosenstock, 2007, p. 318).

According to the CIA’s World Factbook, the U.S. is on the 41st place in the world in terms of infant mortality and on the 45th place in terms of life expectancy. Some studies have shown that in the United States during 1997-2003 years the reduction in mortality levels occurred much more slowly than in other eighteen industrialized countries. On the other hand, the results of 2006 annual national health survey, carried out by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of the National Center for Health Statistics, showed that approximately 66% of respondents believed that their health is “excellent” or “very good” (Harrington, Estes & Hollister, 2007, p. 251).

However, according to Human Development Report that was carried out in 2005, “Over a third (36%) of families living below the poverty line are uninsured. Hispanic Americans (34%) are more than twice as likely to be uninsured as white Americans, (13%) while 21% of black Americans have no health insurance” (Rowland & Hoffman, 2005, p. 2). In addition, Senate Democratic leader Harry Reid during White House healthcare summit in 2010 declared, “Harvard just completed a study that shows 45,000 Americans die every year because they don't have health insurance, almost 1,000 a week in America” (Marlowe, 2010).

Government Programs
Many Americans, who have no private insurance, are covered by the government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid as well as by the other programs of various states and local governments for the poor. One of the studies showed that about 25% of uninsured U.S. residents (nearly 11 million people) could participate in one or another government program but, for some reason, they did not fall under their action. One of the government's objectives is to expand the scope of these programs to all segments of the population who need them.

Back in 1986, it was adopted The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (EMTALA), which, at the state level, secured an access to emergency medical care for all people regardless of insurance availability. As well, there is a program TRICARE for veterans and their families. In 1997, the federal government created the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) that provides health care coverage for children from the families with incomes above the permissible to participate in Medicaid but who, nevertheless, can not afford to buy insurance. In 2006, this program helped 6.6 million children. Nevertheless, in many states, it has already faced the problem of underfunding (Mahar, 2006, p. 345).

U.S. government covers the cost of health care through the two main programs such as Medicaid and Medicare, which allow the poor and needy residents of the country to receive the medical services for free or at a low cost. In 2006, the Medicaid program provided 38.3 million low-income Americans with health care. As to the Medicare, it provided 40.3 million elderly patients and persons with disabilities with health care (Harrington, Estes & Hollister, 2007, p. 304).

Health Insurance and Medicare
Medicare is a known state insurance program for persons over 65 years. It was introduced in 1967. Prior to that time, the majority (50%) of older U.S. residents did not receive an adequate level of medical services. Under this program, all Americans over the age of 65 years must be insured as well as those, who are approaching this age and have serious problems with their health. Thus, more than 97% of the elderly, 90% of people with severe kidney disease, and 3.6 million disabled people are insured under this program (Andersen, Rice, Kominski, Afifi & Rosenstock, 2007, p. 382).

This insurance program covers medical care for acute conditions, including an inpatient treatment, the various diagnostic procedures, medical services at home, and non-durable stay in nursing homes. In addition, patients may receive some preventive services such as vaccination against hepatitis B, influenza, pneumococcal infections, mammography screening, etc. Such services as a long-term hospitalization, home nursing care, the provision of hearing aids and prescription drugs are not paid by this program.

Medicare is quite effective program. It is partly funded by a special tax on employees, half of which they pay themselves and the employer pays the other half. In general, this tax is about 15% of the income of employed Americans. Another part of Medicare is financed from general revenues (Mahar, 2006, p. 359).

Health Insurance and Medicaid
Adopted in 1966, the state Medicaid program provides health insurance to the Americans from the poor families. The elderly, persons with disabilities, disabled, pregnant women, and children are also under this program. Thus, the program covered 33% of newborns, 25% of children of all age groups, and 40% of patients with HIV. Federal Government and state governments fund Medicaid Program. The federal government pays its share of Medicaid costs from general tax revenues that are approximately half of all costs. The rest is paid by the government in each state (Harrington, Estes & Hollister, 2007, p. 327).

Medicaid affects the five basic services: inpatient and outpatient treatment, a consultation of the various experts, stay in the nursing homes, clinical diagnostics, and radiological research methods. The program pays for staying in nursing homes those people, who require constant care and can not be without outside assistance. A stay in such facilities is very expensive and can be up to 100 dollars per day. Therefore, the most people do not have enough of their savings for it. Major part of the money allocated to Medicaid is spent for patients at nursing home.

In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed legislation, which reformed the social security system in the U.S. Since then, every state of the country gives the federal government a plan to provide medical services to the groups covered by Medicaid. Upon approval of the plan, states use federal money as well their own revenues to finance the health care services. Each state has its own program of Medicaid, which makes it very complicated to manage (Andersen, Rice, Kominski, Afifi & Rosenstock, 2007, p. 408).

Obama's Health Care Reform Bill
In 2010, the most significant change was made in the health system after the U.S. Medicare program in 1960. U.S. House of Representatives approved the health reform proposed by President. Barack Obama commented, “Tonight's vote is not a victory for any one party - it's a victory for them. It's a victory for the American people. And it's a victory for common sense” (Thrush & Lee, 2010). However, according to the opponents of the U.S. health care reform, the national insurance system may go under the government control because of it. Reform must provide health insurance for 32 million U.S. residents. The cost of this project is estimated approximately at 940 billion dollars.

“Reformatted” health care system provides that insurance coverage should be extended to all Americans. Of course, there will not be great changes for those, who have already got insurance policy or who have received social package from the employer. However, for others (more than 50 million people in the country have no health insurance today) the law provides the radical changes. During the next ten years, it is expected in the Congressional Budget Office that system will cover another 32 million have not yet insured Americans (Rice, 2010).

However, it will be still 23 million uninsured one by 2019, one-third of them are the illegal immigrants. Even so, coverage will be extended to 95% of the population (against 84% today). The new system, as it is positioned by Democrats, will help those, who have not previously had the opportunity to purchase insurance either because of its high cost or because the insurance company denied them, for example, due to the client’s illness (“H.R. 4872, The Health Care & Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010 Section-by-Section Analysis”).

New system will provide still unprotected people with insurance in different ways, at different times, and gradually. Firstly, from 2014, companies that employ over 50 persons will be required (but not by their discretion) to insure the health of employees. Otherwise, they will face fines. Secondly, six months after enactment of the law, it will be prohibited the insurance plans that limit the effect of medical coverage by life expectancy. The purpose of this prohibition is that children of insured parents can receive medical services under the same insurance. Moreover, the age limit of children, who can be treated by a parent policy, will rise from the current 18-19 years to 26 years. Thirdly, the insurance companies would no longer be able to deny insurance to already sick people. Three months after the law start work, the Americans with preexisting disease will also be able to receive state-subsidized health coverage program for high-risk insurance (Rice, 2010).

This special system is not the final format, but only a passing phase. In 2014, a new system of medical insurance begins to work at full capacity. Since then, people, who have no other choice but to buy insurance on their own, will be forced to do it under the threat of penalty. First, a penalty will be $95 or 1% of income (whichever is greater). Then, it will grow gradually to $695 or 2% of income. Only those, who can not find the policy with value less than 8% of their income, will be freed from having to pay a fine. In addition, from 2014, sick people will no longer meet the denial of insurance but also be able to get a policy with no a lifetime or annual limits (“H.R. 4872, The Health Care & Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010 Section-by-Section Analysis”).

Affected Parties in Business
Regarding this reform, opinions were divided not only between Democrats and Republicans, but between business representatives as well. Indeed, the new initiatives promise profits for some and, vice versa, harassment and problems for others. In the first place, this reform will affect the insurance companies. Initially, the insurers were afraid that the new law generally put an end to private health insurance and establish the public system instead. However, this has not happened. The most terrible thing that threatens them is a more thorough regulation by the authorities.

Besides, the insurance companies will get good profits, which will grow due to increased coverage of the population. According to the insurance companies themselves, half of 32 million people, who will be insured through reform, will choose the insurance plans of private firms. It means that all the insurers, who experienced lack of the new customers in recent years of crisis, will have their rapid influx.

However, the insurance exchanges can really radically change the life of the insurance companies affecting their business model. Today, the companies insure only healthy people in order to cover the costs for those, who became ill. According to the new law, they would have to insure sick people and, therefore, change the structure of insurance premiums in a way that, at least, maintains the level of profit.

Therefore, the main lobbying group of American insurers, namely, American Health Insurance Plans opposed to the adoption of this law. They argued that the companies would be forced to raise the premiums for young and healthy people to help offset the costs for the elderly and sick. As a result, the first one may opt out of insurance. Insurers are also waiting for other changes. However, most of them will not come into force before 2014 (“H.R. 4872, The Health Care & Education Affordability Reconciliation Act of 2010 Section-by-Section Analysis”). Hence, this is a fairly long investment horizon in order to be prepared for changes and accept them trouble-free.

Hospitals and doctors are another affected party. They are not just an affected party but also a winning one. Hospitals will reduce the costs on those, who do not have insurance or funds to pay for the medical services. However, as experts note, Medicaid, usually, compensates hospitals cost of treating the poor not fully. Therefore, a fresh influx of money into the clinic is still in question. Either way, the hospital has already agreed to take part of the reform’s costs, which is $155 billion over ten years, taking the lower payments for older Americans on the Medicare program. As well, doctors will not remain in the losers thanks to this reform. They confirmed their positive attitude to the initiative by the fact that American Medical Association started a public support of the bill already in early March (Abelson, 2010).

Lastly, the pharmaceutical market players embraced the reform more joyously. In fact, this joy was embodied into the quite tangible things. Thus, the pharmaceutical companies spent $100 million on the promotion of health care reform. In addition, they will contribute to the new system about $80 billion in the form of lower drug prices for state programs within ten years. Instead, as a result of all these innovations, the pharmacists will receive tens of billions dollars as more and more people will visit the doctors and buy the prescribed medicines.

Benefit from the reform for drug companies, in fact, is that it will help to close the so-called “doughnut hole” that is a gap in the provision of medicines under the Medicare program. Due to this gap, the old Americans are often themselves had to pay for drugs, but not having received them at public expense, because of what they just use to buy the cheaper or unlicensed versions of drugs. Now, they will buy the patented drugs that will also increase the profits of pharmaceutical companies (Staton, 2010).

Difficult Burden to the State
Even if the health care reform started by Obama is acceptable to the public and for business, it will be a difficult burden to the state. Despite all the benefits of the reform, it has two serious shortcomings such as the unreliable sources of funding and lack of opportunities to reduce the health care costs. According to Congressional Budget Office, the introduction of the new system will cost $940 billion just over the next ten years. However, as Democrats claim, they have foreseen all sources of funding. Moreover, it is expected that the reform will not only be paid off, but also will reduce the federal deficit by $138 billion over the first decade (2010-2019 years) and by more than $1 trillion (0,5% of GDP) for the second decade (2020-2029 years) (Rowley, 2010).

First of all, the new taxes will be imposed. In particular, a kind of a luxury tax, so-called Cadillac tax, is a tax on income from investments, which the well-to-do Americans get. It will go into effect in 2018. Then, the wealthy families with annual incomes of over $250 thousand will pay an additional 3.8% on their investment income, while paying a large amount of tax withheld from wages for Medicare. In addition, insurance companies that sell expensive insurance plans (with total premiums in excess of $ 10,200 per person or $ 27,500 per family) will pay 40% excise tax. Besides, the part of the funds freed by the reductions of other programs will be used to finance the health care reform (Leonhardt, 2009).

However, there is a risk that some of the funds that are expected to be obtained by reducing costs or as income will not materialize fully, as it can be politically difficult to gather them”. For example, it is planned that payments to Medicare will grow slowly over several years. However, Congress votes in favor of keeping the high rates of their growth each year. Even if Barack Obama will win the second term, he still would not reach the moment when the excise tax on expensive insurance plans will come into force in 2018. However, the funding will be needed much earlier.

Still, the greatest risk to the solvency of the United States is the speed with which health expenditures are rising. Washington can afford to expand coverage. Required for it an amount, about $94 billion annually in 2010-2019, is only a small fraction of $2.3 trillion spent on healthcare in the U.S. in 2008 (Werner, 2010). However, Washington can not afford the old trajectory of spending growth. Therefore, the problem with the new law is not that it inflates the budget while increasing the coverage but that it is not enough to slow the rising cost of health care services.

However, the slogan “Kill the Bill”, which the demonstrators chanted in front of the Capitol on the day of the adoption of the reform is still too strong reaction to such an initiative. In general, it will not have too much effect, and, certainly, it will not be a shock to the American economy, as it will be stretched to a decade. During this time, members of markets affected by the reform and all U.S. residents gradually restructure and adapt to the new health insurance system. Moreover, the economy may even feel the positive impact of reform. It is expected that it would create 400 thousand new job places that are needed so much in the United States battered by recession. Furthermore, if, after all, the cost of health care services would be reduced, then, it will lead to a significant increase in real GDP. Consequently, it will lead to an increase in the household incomes and employment. Perhaps, thsituation will not be worth as it was before. Therefore, it would be logical to chant: “Take the bill!”
Get Custom Essay on US Health Care System
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on US Health Care System now!

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

The Bravest of Individuals is the One Who Obeys his or her Conscience

The Bravest of Individuals is the One Who Obeys his or her Conscience Essay

"The bravest of individuals is the one who obeys his or her conscience."
J.F. Clarke

After reaching a certain age, people start to think what were they living and striving during their whole life. They rethink their actions, analyze them and try to find the answer to the eternal questions: "Why are we here? “ In this essay I will present my critical and interpretation of the critical lens by J.F. Clarke: "The bravest of individuals is the one who obeys his or her conscience."

We are living in the world where our actions are being influenced by external factors. These factors can be global or at least at the level of government, economic situation, as well as include people who are around, their words and actions. We want to own cars that are advertised on TV, have the same sofa as our neighbor purchased or dream to become a celebrity, because it sounds good. In reality we like to cycle, our sofa is even better and we like to plant fruit trees and vegetables in our garden. Why do we continue to follow what we so not need? It might be a fear to be left alone, fear of disavowal and criticism. We prefer to live the same life as any other family in the block, drive to the country side on week-ends or do whatever is necessary to stay in-stream.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on This Phrase for You!

Fear to be unique does not allow people to be truly happy in what they do. Following one's conscience can go against public opinion and can be considered unacceptable. Following one's conscience can lead to loneliness, but we all are lonely on practice. The greatest fear to be alone is connected with the fear to listen to yourself, your needs, your thoughts, and your opinions. It is difficult to take the responsibility for your own life, your assertions, and your choices. It is easier to blame the country and government for high taxes, lack of money or blame your family for disregard. Understanding that each single person is responsible for his or her life choice is the key to understanding of the world.

No one is saying that it is easy to do what you think is right and not follow what the rest of the world is thinking. Other people, the rest of the world, are also human-beings with their own life histories, fears, hopes and doubts and the fact of having the same thought does not make this though right and worth following. The rest of the world might not understand you, might criticize you and even mock you, therefore it takes a lot of strengths, bravery and courage to follow your own chosen way.

J.F. Clarke meant that people have enough ability and knowledge to distinguish fact from fiction and right from wrong. The inner self of every person is aware about all consequences of his or her decisions, as well as about their motifs to make those decisions. Society we are living in demands people to obey moral and social laws that were historically stipulated and formulated on the basis of people's surroundings and pressure of other society members. Evolution of society in particular and humanity in general is impossible without bravery and courage of its members.

On the other hand, when the person realizes that something is morally unacceptable, but silently obeys or stays indifferent because of fear to lose respect, it makes the person a real coward, who is not able to face the challenge of morality. They are not able to hear their inner voice and to feel compassion. They are not able to stand against external pressure and change their beliefs.

When a person does a right thing when obeying his or her conscience - it is not always the most convenient thing to do for him or her personally. Conscience of the person has nothing to do with his or her egoistic inducements. It can make the person misunderstood, isolated and unpopular, and therefore it requires a lot of courage to be able to follow your conscience.

Arthur Miller in his play “Death of a Salesman” skillfully connects the past of the main hero to his present. It is the play that reveals how important is to be the man of word, to acknowledge the responsibility, to accept the notion of causality and to understand that our present if the direct product of our actions is in the past. The play shows how the wrong turn or wrong decision, which usually comes from person's mind and not from his heart, can destroy the whole life. Willy Loman is looking for this very moment, when his life took the wrong turn when he ruined relationships with his son, whom he deeply loved, and betrayed his wife.

Willy Loman cannot handle life he doesn’t want to live. He struggles with the fiercest enemy – his true self, and probably loses the battle, as his mental health severely suffers.

Career of Willy Loman was broken. Even though he saw himself as a successful businessman, he was so much obsessed with this notion that could not see the reality. His character becomes volatile, he cannot control his mood and he is constantly lost in his thoughts. He often talks to his brother Ben who passed away. He has difficulties distinguishing reality from his world of illusions and shows signs of schizoaffective disorder with all his bipolar episodes and hallucinations. It is the way his organism fights the reality, it is a defense mechanism.

Willy’s illusions about his personality and his sons’ lives completely distort the facts, as he fails to acknowledge his personal failures and failures of his sons. He conceives himself as a successful and respectful businessman, when still borrowing money from his neighbor Charley. But at the same time Willy refuses to accept the job offer from Charley, as does not want to realize that he is not earning money with his job as a salesman. This money borrowing makes him feel like this state of things is just temporary and not acknowledge the fact that his entire salesman career was unsuccessful. He is stuck in the past and does not want to get out of there.

Willy Loman from "Death of the Salesman" is a bright example of a person who was not brave enough to follow his own way and lived a life full of vain hopes and empty illusions that brought him nothing, but a mental disorder and lead to the suicide.

Meursault from "The Stranger" seems to be absolutely indifferent to everything that is going on around him. He is calm when his mother dies and he shoots a person for no reason. It is very difficult to comprehend Meursault's actions and thoughts. The fact that he is sentenced to death awakes him and he starts to dream about escaping from the jail. Meursault believed that life is meaningless until he faced the fact that he would be beheaded. His perception of the world was totally physical and not spiritual or emotional.

 As far as Meursault was dreaming to escape, he hasn't taken the responsibility for the morally unacceptable action he did. He lived in his illusory world. When he decided to take this responsibility for his choice, for what he has done and abandon all hope, he felt himself truly happy. He accepted the situation as it was, acknowledged the idea that human existence holds no greater meaning.

Hemingway in “A Farewell to Arms” emphasizes that war is a terrible time. Henry, the main hero of the novel, lives in fear after understanding that his participation in the war was a great mistake. He realizes that the war does not exist in the heroic abstract understanding of the notion. No one would appreciate heroic deeds or your death. People do not feel proud of themselves defending their motherland. They understand that they were being used.

The novel is very sad because even though Henry deserted army to live with his beloved in Montreaux, it hasn't brought him happiness. Henry and Catherine felt themselves protected from the outside cruel world with their love. Love with Catherine was Henry's escape from terrible war. Catherine was escaping from her sufferings about her dead fiancé. Both were running from reality. They were afraid to face it. And at the end the reality hit them hardly, as Catherine died and Henry did not know how to live without her.

In the conclusion I would like to summarize that I do agree with the critical lens of J.F. Clarke "The bravest of individuals is the one who obeys his or her conscience." It is the hardest thing to do- understand your true inner self and follow your own way, listen to your heart, make the right choice and take the responsibility for your own actions. Depending on the time, society and surrounding, this life might not be easy to live, but the realization of inner harmony will bring peace to your heart. 

Get Custom Essay on this Phrase
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on The Bravest of Individuals is the One Who Obeys his or her Conscience now!

Monday, June 11, 2012

Evaluation of Art Essay

Evaluation of Art Essay

Can a “work of art in itself” exist as such? Are any moral criteria relevant to evaluation of art? Are artist’s intentions of any importance for such an evaluation? Is true art an artist’s way of making sense of the world? All these questions have been the subject of heated debates among artists, art critics and philosophers following the publication of Tolstoy’s What is Art? However, it is necessary to keep in mind that the complex task of distinguishing between art and non-art on the one hand and worthy and unworthy art on the other has been a preoccupation of great thinkers since time immemorial.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Evaluation of Art for You!

The aim of this essay is to critically assess the argument Tolstoy puts forward in this work, as epitomized in the following quote: “Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man consciously, by means of certain external signs, hands on to others feelings he has lived through, and that other people are infected by these feelings as also experience them.” The essay will build on Collingwood’s (1989) and Dewey’s (1934) views of art as expression in order to point out strengths and weaknesses of Tolstoy’s view by raising points of comparison and contrast.

While Tolstoy’s view of art might appear rather unconventional and be indeed open to criticism, it is shortsighted to dismiss it as an effort to invent universal truths by a self-educated man, as Turgenev has haughtily commented. Tolstoy offers his own vision on the role of an artist in society and the true nature of art.

At the same time, the major objection to Tolstoy’s theory by both Collingwood (1989) and Dewey (1934) seems to be related to the concepts of expression and intentionality. For Tolstoy, art is an instance of a conscious manipulation of a certain medium in order to communicate artist’s feelings to the audience, i.e. to compel the audience to experience the same feeling that the artist has experienced (Bates, 1989). Such a definition, according to Collingwood (1989), would essentially render art identical to craft, which is a logical fallacy labeled by him the technical theory of art. Craft is conceived of as “the power to produce a preconceived result by mean of consciously controlled and directed action” (Collingwood, 1989, p. 102). As we can see, this definition differs very little from what Tolstoy deems would qualify as art. Inherent for craft is the distinction between means and ends as well as between planning and execution. On the contrary, a true artist, in Collingwood’s (1989) view, cannot conceive beforehand the final form of the artifact he or she is creating. Thus, the final form of an artwork is always incidental; its direction can be altered with a significant bearing on the end result at any stage of the creation process, as opposed to the production process. This is due to the fact that art is a way of expressing artist’s emotions, while craft is a directed conscious activity having certain aims and employing certain means to achieve it.

The notion of expression has received significant attention in both Collingwood’s (1989) and Dewey’s (1934) work. The closest the latter gets to a definition of art is saying that a true artist selects and organizes “an external subject matter with a view to…an expression” (p. 86). In a slightly different elaboration of the concept, Collingwood’s (1989) points to the fact that art is primarily an internal dialogue of an artist, an attempt to make sense of his or her emotions through expressing them. Provided that, “expression of emotion, simply as expression, is not addressed to any particular audience. It is addressed primarily to the speaker himself, and secondarily to any one who can understand” (Collingwood, 1989, p. 113). Here we can see that both Collingwood’s (1989) and Dewey’s (1934) theories differ significantly from that of Tolstoy, who believes that art is a process of conscious transmittance of artist’s emotions to a certain audience.

Expression should be carefully differentiated from description on the one hand and betrayal on the other. Collingwood (1989) observes that description generalizes, while expression individualizes. Dewey (1934) suggests a helpful analogy of a signboard: it might point to a city, yet a traveler would have to go there him- or herself in order to experience it; the signboard “does not in any way supply experience of that city even in a vicarious way” (p. 84). An artistic depiction of that city, on the other hand, whether in a poetic or pictorial form, offers such an experience, although mediated by the artist’s own perception of that city. Collingwood (1989), Dewey (1934) and Tolstoy all seem to agree on the point that such concepts as beauty or representativeness, and perhaps even subject matter, are irrelevant to evaluation of art; it is only artist’s emotion in the case of Collingwood (1989) and Dewey (1934) and intention in the case of Tolstoy that matter.

Coming back to the difference between expression and description, when an artist wants to express anger, it is a very particular instance of anger being expressed rather than a general characteristic of anger as a human emotion. Thus, art proper always expresses local, situational meanings. Moreover, artistic expression should be seen as distinct from betrayal or mere discharge of one’s emotions. Dewey (1934) writes that “conversion of an act of immediate discharge into one of expression depends upon existence of conditions that impede direct manifestation and that switch it into a channel where it is coordinated with other impulsions” (p. 97). Bates’ (1989) reference to Wordsworthian notion of “recollected in tranquility” (p. 66) can be helpful for understanding the difference between discharge and expression of emotion.

It is furthermore necessary to point out that if an artist decides to express a particular emotion (this rather than that emotion), it can no longer be called art proper, since the elements of planning and intentionality are present. As Collingwood (1989) writes, “[a]ny kind of selection, any decision to express this emotion and not that, is inartistic not in the sense that it damages the perfect sincerity which distinguishes good art from bad, but in the sense that it represents a further process of non-artistic kind, carried out when the work of expression proper is already complete” (p. 115). In Dewey’s (1934) terms, craft would always have intent, while art is an immediate realization of intent. He writes that an artist who “desires to communicate a special message…thereby tends to limit the expressiveness of his work to others – whether he wishes to communicate a moral lesson or a sense of his own cleverness” (p. 104). Tolstoy’s definition does not include either expression or expressiveness as a necessary characteristic of art, therefore his work has come in for so much criticism.

The major difference between Collingwood’s (1989) and Dewey’s (1934) theories lies in the concept of expressiveness advanced by the latter. While Collingwood (1989) believes that spectators are mere bystanders in the process of artist’s discovery of his or her own emotions, the ability of art to communicate feelings is explored by Dewey in some depth (1934). The ability of an artifact to communicate is what he calls expressiveness. He deems that expressiveness is a necessary prerequisite of an object regarded as a work of art. On this issue Dewey (1934) is much closer to Tolstoy than Collingwood (1989). Yet the point of departure is that Dewey does not regard communication as artist’s intent but rather as an inevitable consequence of artistic expression. In his view, artists should not try to establish a dialogue with potential spectators: “[i]ndifference to response of the immediate audience is a necessary trait of all artists that have something new to say” (p. 104). At the same time, true, expressive art by definition implies that other people will be moved by it, maybe only in the distant future, and it will compel them to experience emotions the artist once lived through and decided to explore and express trough the chosen medium.
Get Custom Essay on Evaluation of Art
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Evaluation of Art now!

Sunday, June 10, 2012

Tiger Woods Affair Essay

Tiger Woods Affair Essay

Tiger Woods
According to, Eldrick “Tiger” Woods is a famous American golf player. He became a professional player in 1996 and has become one of the most important figures in the world of sports. “Tiger” Woods is 34 and married to a Swedish model, Elin Nordegren. He has two children: Sam Alexis (three years old) and Charlie Axel (one year old).

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Tiger Woods Affair for You!

Tiger Woods has become both an example for millions of young golf players and a very wealthy individual after winning at a number of championships. Despite of his fame, his private life has always been a private topic, which has never been discussed in the media. In 2009, however, the situation has changed and the image of Tiger Woods became less respectful and pleasant.

It all has begun the day after Thanksgiving, when a famous golf player became a victim of a one car accident. A celebrity was delivered to a hospital with the serious facial lacerations. Shortly after this accident, Rachel Uchitel, an American celebrity, has claimed to have an affair with a famous golf player. This claim was denied first by Tiger Woods and then by the Rachel Uchitel herself. However, other women have started to emerge, who claimed to be in a relationship with the “Tiger”. One by one they started to appear in the media, and in July 2009 The Huffington Post has stated that a number of the player’s mistresses reached fourteen. Among these women there were porn stars, models, and even waitresses. Four of them preferred to stay anonymous and are still unknown to the public. One of the “Tiger’s” mistresses has publicly apologized in front of his wife and has provided a press with the pictures, videos and text messages addressed to her by the player.

In February, 2010 Tiger Woods has given a public speech, which he has addresses to his friends, family and fans. In his speech he has acknowledged his guild and apologized for being selfish and irresponsible. He has also mentioned that he was in an inpatient therapy, where he was receiving a treatment (

Social Psychology Theories
There are several perspectives, from which psychology can approach the story of “Tiger” Woods. First, there is an issue of all the women who were having affairs with a given celebrity. Then, of course, an issue of a man, who, while having a wife and two children, has been entering a relationship with a relatively large amount of women. Several social psychology theories can be applied to this story and try to explain the motives behind the actions of all these people, who were involved.

“The mammalian way”
This theory was developed by Gary James and it explains several factors which influence relationships between men and women. First of all, according to this theory, women pick men and not the other way around. When it comes to a relationship, women play a dominant role in choosing a partner, and men do nothing but come under their ‘influence’.

Theory then claims that women are more willing to enter a relationship with the powerful, independent, and successful men. This claim is supported by the “Tiger’s” story. Here one can see that a golf player was having affairs with the women, who were completely different and with various occupations. All these women were connected by one thing- they were all attracted to a wealthy and famous person. In his thirties, a golf player has already gained a big success and has become one of the best players in the world.

A success of a man, his financial stability, and recognition send a message that he can be a powerful and protective partner for any woman. Another fact that he was married to a beautiful women, had two children and was able to save the marriage despite of his affairs, has also contributed to the image of a man, who knows how to control a situation. All these factors are powerful, when it comes to a woman’s decision toward choosing a partner for a romance and sex.

Gary James explains in his theory that most people’s behavior is instinctive when it comes to the relationships. In the theory a nature of a man is described an “urge to spread his seed”. An author of the theory assumes that a behavior of a famous golf player is somewhat ‘normal’ and could not be avoided without a previous knowledge of the forces, which instincts have on the person.

Reasons behind cheating
John Grohol (2009) has collected several theories of the different psychologists to find out what could be a possible reason for cheating. In his article, “Perhaps why Tiger Woods cheats”, he has mentioned that cheating can be caused by personality factors. He explains that people, who have different characters and personalities, tend to have more conflicts than those who are somewhat similar. He also explains that people feel more sociable through cheating comparing to those who do not cheat. This is especially applicable to a wealthy celebrity, who is used to receiving a lot of attention. There are people who do not understand how a man can cheat on a woman like Elin Nordegren. They say she is beautiful, successful, and independent. However, as was mentioned above, this is not enough for a healthy relationship between two people. Two personalities have to match in order to understand and value each other.

There is another theory, which is mentioned in the John Grohol’s article. It is an evolution-based theory, which assumes that “extra-partner relationships are natural while monogamy is unnatural”. This is a psychological factor, which makes people go for cheating without even understanding the reasons for doing so. In such cases cheating is usually explained by the boredom or an unsuccessful marriage, where a men and women find that they are more intellectual and creative comparing to their partners and seek for those who are similar to them from outside.

Even though there are many theories and assumptions concerning the case of Eldrick “Tiger” Woods, the real reasons of why he was cheating to his wife with so many women will remain a mystery not only to the public, but, perhaps, even to him. A majority of people who cheat do not have the real explanations of their behavior even for themselves. Now, as “Tiger” Woods has is receiving a treatment, he might understand a nature of his behavior, and it will help him to change his future behavior.
Get Custom Essay on Tiger Woods Affair
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Tiger Woods Affair now!

Sunday, June 3, 2012

Essay on Ansel Adams

Essay on Ansel Adams

Ansel Adams: An American Photograher
You don't take a photograph, you make it.
Ansel Adams
Ansel Adams is definitely in the shortlist of the best American photographers of the XX century. An icon for the following generations and a pioneer, whose techniques and findings are hard to underestimate, Adams’ works made photography become more of an art than of a craft, though he certainly paid great tribute to the darkroom craftsmanship which enabled him to improve the final picture and “make it”.

After studying his works and life activities, most will agree Ansel Adams may be called the creative advocate of the American West, as in the course of his life and work he has been able to fulfill his two ambitions: making photography belong to the fine arts and communicating significant environmental messages through this media.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Ansel Adams for You!

It is relatively easy to study his life and masterpieces, as Adams has been acknowledged during his life (for example, in 1931 The Washington Post compared his works with the “portraits of the giant peaks, which seem to be inhabited by mythical gods.” [Alinder, p.77], which is quite a flattering review). He also managed to write several books, including an autobiography and enjoyed numerous books on his works. An obviously gifted person, Ansel Adams first dedicated his time and talent to piano. But his childhood cold during which his aunt gave him the book “In the Heart of the Sierras” and his later trip to Yosemite Valley have greatly influenced his further career choice. After becoming interested in the technical side of the photography, a fifteen-year-old Adams took a job at Frank Dittman’s photofinishing business. According to Julie Dunlap, Adams during his serve in the studio’s basement “told so many stories about his Yosemite adventures that the others nicknamed him Ansel “Yosemite” Adams” (Dunlap, p.18).

From the very early age Adams had an eye for the beauty; the dull school classes bore him. “I believe in beauty. I believe in stones and water, air and soil, people and their future and their fate.” he later stated in his autobiography (Adams, p. 9). Through his skillful works, Ansel Adams was able to do a great favor for the national parks of the United States – emphasizing the need for the conservation programs and the protection of the environment. The photographer’s autobiography on his official site provides a Chicago Tribune’s citation of the critic Abigail Foerstner who wrote that Adams’ photography "did for the national parks something comparable to what Homer's epics did for Odysseus."

In the course of his life that spanned for 82 years, Adams has been able to create pictures that are of great influence for both the photography as fine art and the medium to communicate the environmental issues. In the preface to Ansel Adams’ biography, Jonathan Spaulding stated Adams hoped that “the citizens of the world could yet build the new society, proportionate to Nature”, and judging from his popularity he was not alone in this hope. Adams’ works will forever stay in the American chronicles of the XX century photographic art as great masterpieces but it seems that what he really wanted was that these pictures retained as much similarity as possible to the original in the centuries to come.
Get Custom Essay on Ansel Adams
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Ansel Adams now!

Saturday, June 2, 2012

As I Lay Dying Essay

As I Lay Dying Essay

Faulkner’s novel “As I Lay Dying” is a unique narrative about life, death, family, and character. The stream of consciousness style used by the author gives the reader the perspective of a direct onlooker who seems to be eavesdropping upon the most private thoughts and emotions of the characters. The clear and strong personalities created by Faulkner enable us to delve into the world of the Bundrens. The feelings, thoughts and interactions among the family are vividly outlined allowing the reader to step into their house and wagon and share in their feelings.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on As I Lay Dying for You!

The thread of the story is made somewhat extraordinary by the numerous points of view and differing narrations, as this enables the reader to make it their own. By being thrown into the dynamic and ever changing story the lector is forced to put together the pieces of the puzzle related to each of the characters and to structure the story according to individual perception. The experience obtained by the book depends largely on the involvement of the one who reads it, who is, in a sense, a juror with the right to form an individual and unique opinion of each of the characters. The unconventional and completely unbiased style in which the book is written presents the existential and emotional dilemmas of each of the characters without passing judgement from an external perspective. The story of the funeral procession of Addie Bundren, with all its obstacles and dramatic twists is presented in an almost purely factual manner. Everyone who was there had a unique individual experience complemented by their own character, understanding and relations to the others involved. After all, there is no better way to understand the dilemmas and inner nature of people than to look thorough their eyes. As the story progresses the characters present themselves through their narration and thoughts.

The Bundren family, despite all its problems and conflicts, is still functioning as a unit fused together by the common goal of laying the body of their mother and wife to rest in the city. However, it is doubtful whether this common goal manages to truly unite the members of the family (Lester, page 1). The interactions between the individuals and how they view each other, as well as the way external characters perceive them, give a fascinating perspective into the psychology of each individual. Each human being functions both separately and through social interaction. It is a common understanding that the inner world of people differs from that which they show to the world. This is also the case in Faulkner’s “As I Lay Dying”.

According to Cheryl Lester’s article “Fifteen Ways of Looking at the Bundrens” going to the town is an act of selfish desires rather than the fulfilment of the dying wish of Addie. The journey to Jefferson is undoubtedly an event in the life of the country family and it is being used both as an incentive to pacify the young Vardaman who stubbornly proclaims that “…I don’t want to go to town.” (Faulkner, page 26), and as a fulfilment of the clearly stated wish of Anse to buy a set of prosthetic teeth.

All characters view the trip as an opportunity to escape the mundane life they have in their home, but this is clearest when examining the motives of the father. In his narrative of his wife’s death he mentions the opportunity to get himself “them teeth” (Faulkner, page 45). The possibility of gaining another three dollars also seems more important to Anse than letting Addie’s children say goodbye to her. The external point of view of his daughter Dewey Dell reveals her indignation with his greedy nature when he tells Vardaman, in the eve of their mother’s death, that he should go and eat his supper before their dad eats his portion (Faulkner, page 25). Another opinion is that of the family friend Cora Tull who considers Anse to be a sinful man who is paying for his mistakes. All these perspectives on the head of the family are an excellent example of how Faulkner develops the characters in the novel. Each of the members of the family finds their own truth about the rest, and is subject to the judgement of external onlookers. This method of character development gives the reader a feeling of independence and autonomy when viewing the work. There is no invisible judge in the face of the author; there are simply points of view which can be agreed with or refuted.

Each of the actors in the story has both positive and negative traits and this is what makes them so vividly alive. Everyone, from the farmer Samson who lets the Bundrens stay with him and his wife on their farm, to Vardaman with his childish, and according to some analyses mentally retarded perception, has a say in the story. The accounts of the participants are sometimes sharp and judgemental and at other times offer sympathy and understanding for the predicament of the family. The Bundren’s doctor Peabody clearly expresses his resentment toward Anse, while Samson has a milder and more sympathetic view. The tapestry of emotions and characters is completed to a large extent because of the accounts of the participants in the story who are external to the family.

Given this fact it is remarkable that Jewel narrates only once in the whole novel even though he is a main actor in the story. This lack of verbal participation is partly a reflection of the nature of the character. He is a man of action and remains silent on many occasions throughout the story, which does not mean that he does not have an opinion. The point of view of the illegitimate child of Addie is made clear by his thoughts on Cash’s building of his mother’s coffin right under her window (Faulkner, page 5). He interprets this as a gesture of flaunting of the work he is doing for his dying mother.

Although Jewel’s silence may seem to express stubbornness it may be one of the attributes which his mother values him for. According to Novel Guide’s interpretation, words versus actions is one of the underlying themes in the novel. The fact that Darl is a man of many words and Jewel is one of few, who acts decisively, is also reflected in the attitude of their mother toward them. She herself is not fond of words. She states in her narrative that she learned that words are “no good” at expressing what they aim to(Faulkner, page 73). The theme of words without action is present throughout the story in the face of the two brothers Darl and Jewel as well as in Anse who does not do, but rater talks. This tendency is most vividly expressed by his idle standing by the river when the carriage and mules along with his wife’s coffin tip over. He is there rather to instruct his sons on what to do rather than to offer a helping hand. This is in sharp contrast with Jewel’s constant activity. He is always on the move and even managed to earn money for his very own horse without letting anyone know. (Novel Guide)

Another underlying theme in Faulkner’s “As I Lay Dying” is that of the epic journey (Novel Guide). The funeral procession of Addie Bundren is a journey of epic proportions for the family, but its outcome and nature remind us more of an ironic account of life’s ill fortune and people’s spiteful nature, so it might be more appropriate to call the journey a mock epic one. The various acts of bravery and sacrifice such as Cash’s heroic withstanding of the pain caused by his broken leg, or the ambiguous burning of the barn by Darl are testimony to the somewhat epic yet absurd character of the novel. Cash’s denial of his suffering turns somewhat ridiculous when it becomes clear that he is indeed very hurt and needs help. As for Darl’s burning of the barn this can be viewed from two perspectives, one being a heroic act of salvation for his mother’s body from the humiliation of the journey, and another being his trauma and loneliness due to the journey and the rejection of his mother. (Gradesaver, As I Lay Dying Study Guide) Another motive which supports the theme of the epic journey of the Bundrens is the role of Jewel in the quest to bury his mother. He appears to be the decisive and bold action taker, the knight in shining armour who Addie predicted would rescue her from the water and fire of her journey toward her final resting place (Novel Guide). Although Jewel’s mother views him as her saviour, it may be argued that his courage might have proven more respectful of his mother’s memory had he opposed the journey to Jefferson. The short temper of the young man is also a confirmation of the ironic shade of the epic travels of the Bundrens.

Each of the characters in “As I Lay Dying” has a unique social and internal personality, fascinatingly revealed by their own testimony as well as by the external judgment of those around them. There is, however, a unifying element in the approach toward the characters. Each of them has an internal existential dilemma which they seek to resolve. The relationship between the mother and father, which is based on a mutual need for companionship and meaning, defines the lives of the two characters as well as that of their offspring. The most vivid example of the perception of Addie of her own life is the way in which she views child birth. For her giving her husband children is a disturbance of her privacy and a way to make up for her extramarital affair after which she would be free to leave this world. This could be viewed as a resignation with the idea that her life did not turn out the way she had hoped it would, therefore she needs an excuse to leave it impatiently.

The novel looks also looks at the emotional predicament of most of the characters. One of them is Dewey Dell who is desperately looking for a way to terminate her pregnancy. Her lonely attempts to find a solution to her “female trouble” lead her to a further negation of her own better judgment as she allows herself to be taken advantage of in order to find a “cure” for her “condition”.

“As I Lay Dying” is a truly genuine story about a family who has reached one of the greatest dramas in their common life. It is often in the face of crisis that true feelings and self perceptions change and emerge. Perhaps it is not a coincidence that Faulkner chose just this situation in order to describe the inner lives of his characters. The choice of the story, as well as the techniques used for telling it cause a strong impact on the reader. We are fully immersed into the world of the characters, which enables us to get to know them as if first hand. The most interesting part of the experience of reading the novel is the individual judgment and perception of the reader. This is where the messages of the invisible writer and story teller become apparent whit a unique twist for each reader.
Get Custom Essay on As I Lay Dying
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on As I Lay Dying now!