Tuesday, July 26, 2011

Essay on Japanese Internment

Essay on Japanese Internment

On December 7, 1941 The Japanese military bombed Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. After this bombing, America took a larger step into the involvement in the Second World War. The U.S. government decided that for the safety of the nation that one hundred twenty thousand people with Japanese decent would be relocated from the west coast. These Japanese-Americans were taken form their lives that they had established and brought to designated internment camps provided by the U.S. military. The United States reason for the relocation was for the fear of its Japanese citizens taking rebellious actions on America. Because of such an enormous and harsh act that America was enforcing, most other Americans started to take an interest on the subject (U.S. Acts 1). Due to the fact that the U.S. feared a revolt by its own citizens, the government with the help of the media, covered up the harsh realities of the relocation and the lifestyle in the internment camps.

In the year 1942 the U.S. government started a relocation act that would remove all Japanese-Americans from the west coast state of California, and parts of Oregon and Washington. The U.S. believed that some west coast Japanese-Americans were involved in the bombing of Pearl Harbor. So in fear that there was any loyalty to the Japan in America the U.S. started the relocation act. The government realized that a mass relocation of this proportion would not go without notice or opposition unless they could make most Americans believe it was morally right. Helped by America's media, mostly newspapers, the government announced its plans for the relocation with slight twists to make it "reader comforting."

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Japanese Internment
for You!

The newspapers printed articles about the relocation that had information about the governments actions like this article from the L.A. Times reading, "Agreement on this course of procedure, which will enable the Army to remove from such zones anyone regarded as potential disloyalists, was reached at a conference of representatives of the Department of Justice, the Army and the State Department (Feb. 19)." This article tells the reader that it has been decided that the Army has the right to remove any disloyal citizens from certain zones of the west coast and that comforts the American reader. What the article doesn't tell you is that this course of procedure that was passed allows the Army to relocate anybody with Japanese ancestry based on the stereotype that all citizens of Japanese decent are disloyal, regardless of each individual's beliefs and loyalty. Governor Olson of California created the stereotype by saying, "Because of extreme difficulty in distinguishing between loyal Japanese-Americans and those other Japanese whose loyalty is to the Mikado. I believe in a wholesale evacuation of the Japanese people from coastal California (Olson Mar. 6)." Making people of other nationalities in America fearful of Japanese-Americans made it easier to for the government to relocate them without conflicts of interest. What would come next would be even more difficult for Americans to see as morally right without media propaganda, was the living conditions of the relocated citizens.

When the phrase "living in a resettlement center" is said most people think of people moving from dangerous areas to a safer place to live. But when someone says, "surviving in an internment camp," other, harsher things come to mind. The second of the two is a more appropriate description of the life of the relocated. Considering the importance of human rights in America and the knowledge that many of the resettled people were loyal to the U.S., the government made no effort to adequately accommodate these United States citizens. In no way were the camps anything like what most Americans were led to believe. The government never described, to the people being relocated or other Americans, in any written document, what these camps would be like. The only real description of the living arrangements came first hand from the people in the camps.

From Ted Nakashima's experience he writes, "The resettlement center is actually a penitentiary-armed guards in towers with spotlights and deadly tommy guns, fifteen feet of barbed-wire fences, everyone in confined quarters at nine and lights out at ten o'clock (American Children 322)." It is unconstitutional to place U.S. citizens who cannot be proven disloyal to America in such an environment that there human right are violated. The U.S. government is hypocritical when judging Germany on how they persecuted the Jews when we are committing a similar but not quite as cruel act on our own citizens. Even though this sounds extremely harsh, the American public had no idea of the hardships endured by the Japanese-Americans in the camps.

What were shown of the camps to the U.S. in news clippings were pictures of celebration times in the camps. In one article from Newsweek there are two pictures of scenes from different camps. One picture shows the evacuees dressed in traditional Japanese garments performing a ritual dance. In the second photo it pictures couples of Japanese-Americans dressed in common American dress-clothes slow dancing at their camp (May 24). This is the type of propaganda that the media used to make America feel good about the idea of the relocation. When you see these pictures of them enjoying them selves you would think that it must not be bad living in those arrangements. Americans never had the opportunity to see anything but the good things going on in the camps and were ignorant to the fact that life was terrible for the evacuees.

For the American media, with the freedom of speech, who helped conceal the truths of life of the Japanese-Americans in the relocation settlements was against the principles to which there are civil rights. What was shown to American citizens about the relocation is false information that was controlled by the government and was instilled into people's beliefs of what happened. To this day many Americans still hold the beliefs and stereotypes taught to them at the time of the war. My own Uncle who fought in the Second World War still believes that there were no loyal Japanese-Americans during the war and that they got what they deserved. From my research on the topic I cannot hold him responsible for his beliefs because he was never informed of the truths and was trained to think a certain way by the government. Since the time of the Japanese Internment America has grown and realized what it has done to its own people. Through knowledge of the past, America will not repeat this cruel chapter in U.S. History because of the power of free media today.

Get Custom Essay on Japanese Internment
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Japanese Internment now!

Monday, July 25, 2011

Essay on Kashmir and India Problem

Essay on Kashmir vs India

Most of the Pakistanis don even know the physical condition and boundaries of Kashmir. The reason is not that they don't know but it is that they were not let to know ever the reality. It wont be wrong if i say that "Thief never admitted himself that he is a thief".

Kashmir lies in the North side of Pakistan. Quaide Azam said that Pakistan is incomplete without Kashmir and that is why it is, also believed that the word "K" in Pakistan stands for Kashmir. It is somewhat true true that Pakistan has paid a lot for Kashmir and Kashmiri people but what insight is going on is not known to the people of Pakistan. It would be suitable if say that if Pakistan pay something for Kashmir that it is going to be their right now.Because we feel that if Pakistan is spending 30-40% budget on army deployed in Kashmir then its just because of his own doings.

People of Pakistan thinks that they have fought three wars against India just because of Kashmir problem then I will still say that we Kashmiris are not to be blamed.What our mistake is just that we people are very straight forward and very clear as our cataracts and don't know the politics of u punjabis.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Kashmir
for You!

It is also true that when Pakistan was born Kashmiris showed their solidarity with Pakistan before its birth on 19th July 1947 but i think that was our biggest mistake when we said that we would like to join Pakistan instead of being free.But what to do at that time? The people of Kashmir trusted Pakistan but they betrayed our trust. Pakistanis were always mean to their benefits. It won't be bad to know that's why Kashmir is still under the hands of Indians.just because that Pakistan her own self wasted three chances to get Kashmir from India. The very first one was when the great man Colonel. Hassan Khan got a part of homeland from Dogra Raj and bonded it with Pakistan that included the areas of Gilgit, Baltistan, Diamer and some other areas or what we call it the so called Northern areas of Pakistan. It is under the control of so - called FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN. But what if i ask u all punjabis that if u put that area under Federal government then why don't u give us the approach to your Parliament? Why don't u give the real amount of funds to that part of Kashmir? Why did u imprisoned Colonel Hasan Khan? why ...why?

Here Pakistan have a lame excuse that they have made the free government of Azad Kashmir but the problem is still there. I ask you that if it is an Azad government then why don't u let them do on their own what ever they want to do with whatever they have? Why are u afriad of them? We know that Pakistan would never allow the government of Azad jammu and Kahmir to work freely ,because otherwise they know that they will raise up to live and run their government on their own without any outer interference even of Pakistan . And most probably that these people will get the right to know that realities about Kargil, 1947 war and about that free war fought by Colonel Hassan Khan.

That is why the Chief Secretary , Inspector General of police, and some other major posts relocated to Pakistanis in Kashmir.We ask u that if u call it an Azad government then why don't they let them to rule freely. why don't u allow us to elect our own chief secretary and IG police.Moreover most of the Kashmiris are not promoted more then a colonel rank. There are hardly 10-12 people who got their ranks up to colonel. Because here again the government is afraid that they would get the key posts of army as well and then it would be difficult for them . To rule over them as u must also note it that Kashmiris more intelligent and literate then Pakistanis and brave as well.Here the government of Pakistan has established "MUJAHID FORCE" for the Kashmiris in which no Kashmiri is not allowed to flourish more then a Major , the highest post is just up to major and not more.. Is this our right ?Is this for what we sacrificed 80.000 to 90.000 lives in just a short span of 10 years?

If we see on the Northern side of Kashmir like Gilgit and Skardu etc. Pakistan say that Colonel Hasan Khan immediately after the removal of Dogra Raj from there he bonded Gilgit and Baltistan with Pakistan. But if he had died that pleasantly then why did the bloody Punjabis sent him to Hyderabad jail? Why did they call him that he was the state terrorist? Why did u call him a rebel? If that man would had reached up to Srinagar then there was no need to see Kashmir in this way as it is nowadays. We would be enjoying in the free Kashmir but due to these bloody Punjabis who played conspiracies and landed him in such a bad condition that soon after when he came out of Hyderabad Jail he was attacked by heart problem and left us away ..but believe me that man sacrificed his today for our tomorrow.. I'll always pay a salute to him.. and may God keep his soul in heaven.. Ameen.

Now the so called Northern areas of Pakistan are under the so called Federal Government of Pakistan. but they never give us a right to approach the parliament .The value of budget specified for it is almost equal to the budget specified for the annual maintenance of NA lai Lai in Rawalpindi.

In short we can say that Pakistan itself is not willing to make Kashmir a free state because otherwise Pakistan will have to face another war against Kashmir and as the literacy rate of Kashmir is 11% more then Pakistan due to which the main key posts of Pakistan will go under their hands. Moreover Kashmiri will ask them for why don't they teach Kashmiris their own culture in Kashmir .Because Pakistan is looting Kashmir in the same way as India is doing.They both have eradicated and spoiled our traditions and culture .The area under Pakistani control is taught the Pakistani languages and its culture and same is the case of India.I would like to ask u that what is ur right to do so.? How could it be possible? As Kashmiris have their 800 years old ways of tradition and culture.But Pakistan and India both have their 56 years old culture.

Get Custom Essay on Kashmir
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Kashmir now!

Friday, July 22, 2011

One-Page Essay on Costa Rica

Essay about Costa Rica

Costa Rica is a small country located in Central America with Nicaragua bordering it to the North and Panama to the South. Costa Rica has a population of 3.6 million and is about 51 100 sq. km. Costa Rica is a gorgeous country with great sights and amazing rain forests. Costa Rica is an ecotourists dream. Costa Rica's capital city is San Jose and there's a major airport located right in the city. Costa Rica offers a lot to do. The country's three most popular national parks are:

Poas National Park
Poas National Park offers two breathtaking crater sights. The first is the Poas Volcano measuring 1.5 km across. This was once a very active volcano dating back before the early 1800's. Tourists are not allowed down in the crater but the view from above is still amazing. The second crater is a short trek to the South away from the Poas Volcano and is name Botos. It is a smaller version of its counterpart. This park is located The geysers are usually open from 8am until 4pm. Admission to see the sites is approximately $6.00 US funds per person.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Costa Rica
for You!

Manuel Antonio National Park
This is a great tropical park. Is has a lot to offer. There are a lot of different species of monkeys, plants, and lizards. You can take a rain forest tour, go for a leisurely swim, lay by the beach and snack, or go snorkeling in the turquoise ocean. This beauty of a National Park is located 181 km SouthWest of San Jose. It's hours are 7am until 4pm with the generous admission of $6.00 the same as Poas National Park.

Irazu National Park
The Irazu Volcano meaning "thunder and earthquake mountain" is the highest volcanic mountain in Costa Rica at a staggering 2432 meters high. Standing on the Western side of this volcano you can see both the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. This great crater is almost a perfect circle with a lime green lake in the bottom which some days happens to be red. This is a one of a kind site and would be a great pleasure to see. Irazu Park is located 50km East of San Jose and the Park's hours are 8am until 4pm and is well worth the $6.00 admission price.

What Else Is There To Do In Costa Rica?
What isn't there to do in Costa Rica is a better question! But since I'm only supposed to name three other attractions besides the gorgeous national parks, let's start with golf.

Costa Rica golf fans have taken advantage of the great landscape they've been blessed with and turned it into amazing world class golf courses. Take the Los Suenos Marriott Beach And Golf Resort for example, this resort not only offers great hotel rates, tennis, horse riding, a spa, marina and many other activities, but also a great scenic golf course. It is an 18 hole, par 72 golf course . It is conveniently located an hour and a half by car from San Jose. Another golf course in Costa Rica is the Barcelo Los Delfines Golf & Country Club. This is a nine hole course and is the most advanced in the country. While taking on the course surrounded by forest you can hear the peaceful sound of Ocean in the background. There are plans to add another nine holes in the near future adding to the course's elegance.

Still not having fun? Why not go fishing? Costa Rica offers some of the best fishing resorts in the world. The Ocotal Beach Resort is considered one of the most superior fishing resorts in the world. It offers 4 to 7 night stays and you're provided with food, bait, a 32 foot fishing boat, a place to stay, beer, soft drinks, and a mate all for $1480 to $2750. You have the rare opportunity to catch 100lb. plus fish every month of the year.

One of the newest fishing lodges in Costa Rica that is quickly gaining popularity is the Crocodile Bay Lodge. The fishing here is some of the best in the country. The water temperature at Crocodile Bay averages out at about 80-83 degrees. You have a great chance to catch the big story teller at Crocodile Bay. The rates are slightly more expensive than at Ocotal Beach Resort.

So you need one more activity to do as you stay in Costa Rica? Why not take in the amazing wildlife of the country by going bird watching? This activity could be pleasurable for all and you have a chance to see many different species of birds that you can't see anywhere else. Corcovado Lodge Tent Camp gives you a great chance to check out gorgeous wildlife on their 198 acre rainforest reserve. It is located on the Southern border of Corcovado National Park, home of the most diverse environment in Costa Rica. You can stay at the camp for three days for approximately $600 with many extras available. It is located very near to Crocodile Bay.

Ecoplaya Beach Resort is a 4 star lodge that offers many other activities as well as bird watching. You can tour along their half mile of beach or take their nature trails. They have many different suites to stay in to fit your needs all at very affordable prices. The resort is located 5 hours away from San Jose and is right near Ocotal Beach Resort.

Above are just a few of the attractions to visit when you go to Costa Rica. Other activities include: canopy tours, scuba diving, bungee jumping, butterfly watching, windsurfing, mountain biking, turtle watching, canyoning, horse back riding, kayaking, rafting, surfing, and many others.

Who Goes To Costa Rica?
Alot of young adventure seekers go to Costa Rica to participate in such things as rock climbing, kayaking, rafting, bungee jumping, scuba diving and other more intense activities. They are ecotourists who want to experience the beauty and features of the country. They are also recreational tourists that just want to get away from it all. There's also and older generation that goes to Costa Rica to take in the beauty and sites. You can call them ecotourists also. They are more likely to go bird watching, turtle watching, site seeing, or just relaxing on the beach.

Do's And Don'ts in Costa Rica


  • visit sites and admire their beauty.
  • learn as much as you can.
  • clean up after you and yours.
  • help the local economy.
  • do what you can to keep the country beautiful.


  • litter.
  • make a lot of noise.
  • vandalize anything.
  • hunt.
  • take more fish than you need when you fish.
  • influence local culture.
  • disturb or feed the wildlife.

Get Custom Essay on Costa Rica
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Costa Rica now!

Thursday, July 21, 2011

Essay on Astronaut

Essay on Astronaut

Space exploration has always been intriguing to me. Ever since I was a kid, I have wanted to go to space. The thought of being weightless and able to float around is mind boggling. I love to watch the videos of astronauts eating. They can eat the food from the air. It just floats there. It is so weird to think about. Space exploration is much more than fun and games though. We do not know nearly anything about our universe, or even our galaxy. What is a black hole? What happens to plants at zero G. What is it like for bees to fly if there is no gravity? These are all questions that could not be answered without the help of astronauts.

Black holes are among the most puzzling phenomenon's known to man. What are they? Well, we do know that whatever is at the center of these galactic vacuum cleaners has to be incredibly massive. There is a relationship between mass and gravitational force. So, theoretically if you had two pencils in the middle of space that were not affected by another mass, they would attract each other. This is a weird concept to think about.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Astronaut
for You!

Not just anyone can be an astronaut. The men and women who go into space are finely tuned space exploring machines. They go through years of training for missions and have to pass extensive exams to even be considered for a mission. They have to be in top shape to withstand the G loads and strain on the body from being in space. When someone is in space, the lack of gravity gradually causes their bones to disintegrate. This was not a problem on the early space missions where the astronauts were only in space for a limited period of time. Recently however, with the construction of the space station, men and women have to endure the weightlessness for extended periods of time, sometimes for months. This brings up a problem, how are they going to keep from loosing their bone density? Well, they exercise and eat foods that help replenish their bones. Without these, they would die upon re-entering the earth's atmosphere because their skeletal structure would not be strong enough to support their weight.

The space station is an amazing creation. The fact that so many countries have all chipped in and we share it is astonishing. It seems like nothing ever gets accomplished between two or more countries, and now the space station is almost complete. Not to say that the station was completed in a timely fashion. It has taken much more time to get thus far in working on the station than was initially estimated. But nevertheless, the space station has proved to be a worthy investment. There are constantly experiments being conducted in the space station and people are learning new things about space.

The way the space station is put together is quite remarkable. The whole thing was planned out and each individual piece was pre-manufactured and carried up in a shuttle. Once the shuttle got there, it put the piece where it needed to go. The station is organized in to sections, each one being built by a different country. Each country's shuttle requires a different docking bay, so there are different bays there. There is also a section of the station that houses the astronauts when they are staying up there. Almost like a hotel. The hotel is connected to the rest of the station with giant tubes that you pull yourself through. The station is powered by a bunch of huge solar panels that derive energy from photons given out by the sun. There are also places where scientists can do their experiments. This is the reason the station was built. Basically, the space station is a giant, floating, lab. They can test different things from biology to electronics and see how they perform in the zero gravity.

Recently there has been speculation that we will soon put a person on mars. The Martian atmosphere is currently not suitable for human life, however with advanced teraforming techniques being explored, it in not ridiculous to say that in the future there will be an atmosphere on mars that will support human life. This is quite a ways off though. In the more foreseeable future, there are theories that NASA is planning to build an air tight building on mars that will house people. These people could be scientists or wealthy tourists. It would be such an experience to go to mars and stay there on vacation. Imagine taking your honeymoon to mars!

Just a few years ago, we sent a Martian rover to mars that took samples of the rocks, air, and gathered other useful information. It also pictures that were all transferred back to earth. The way the rover landed was quite creative and innovative. It used the idea of an air bag in a car to soften its landing. The rover was inserted in the Martian atmosphere and then inflated a bunch of air bags that completely covered it. When it landed, the air bags dampened the impact of the rover on the rocks. This was a huge step towards landing a person on mars. The information gathered from this rover will be used to determine whether or not a building could be built there, how strong the ground is, what the mineral makeup of the rocks are, and what the atmosphere is made up of. So far I don't think there is evidence of life on mars. There may have been liquid water there at one point, which greatly increases the likely hood that there was at some time life. For there to be water, the temperatures would have to have been between the melting point and boiling point of water, which is very close to out temperature. This also means that there was probably an atmosphere at some time. Because when water is exposed to a vacuum, it vaporizes due to the lack of vapor pressure.

There are so many things that have to be taken into account when exploring space. There are also so many things that can go wrong. With accidents like the challenger and the more recent Columbia, some people doubt the space program and wonder if we should keep investing money in something that kills people. I think this is a ridiculous argument to make. The space program has benefited us in countless ways. Not only that, it is promising things that were never thought possible before now. The risk involved comes with the territory. While it is important to maximize the effectiveness of safety precautions, space exploration as it is this day and age is not safe in the slightest. There is no guarantee that everything is going to be fine and there is no emergency STOP button that you can press half way through a mission that will bring you back to earth in one piece. Hopefully there will someday be "safe" space travel, but that day is not now or any time in the near future.

Get Custom Essay on Astronaut
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Astronaut now!

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

Essay on Country Music

Essay on Country Music

Whether the song is one of war-time, peace, or just plain admiration and love for America, country music has always set an ideology of patriotism. One reason country music does this is because it represents a class of America that has historically set a precedent of pride in America. This would be the working class, also known as the backbone of America. These are the Americans that work hard in their jobs and in their lives. Everything they own they have given their sweat for and because of this reason their love of America is something of a spectacle. The working classes live a very real life and therefore their beliefs reflect this realism. Although country music is formed on beliefs held by the working class, it has won new fans that are not part of this group while maintaining its true ideology. Country music is a form of realism that expresses the ideological support of everything that is America. Patriotism as a love for one's country is a prominent ideal of the working class and is accurately reflected in their genre of country music.

Patriotism is defined by many as the love, devotion, and willingness to sacrifice one's self for their country. A majority of this patriotic sentiment stems from nostalgia of simpler times and wars fought to preserve the way of life in America. The American dream is still very much alive within the lyrics of country music and gratitude of this idea is inscribed in the emotion of the songs. Country artist take their love of America very strongly and have a history of lashing out against those who oppose their county and its actions. Time of war is usually the cause for this to happen. While artists and fans do not want war, they do feel strongly that Americans should support their government and their troops. They understand the devastation and grief that war can bring, but they do not think Americans should protest a country that has given them so much. Whether country artists are inspired by tragedy, war, or the absolute beauty of America, the love and support for the country they hold so dear to their hearts shines through.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Country Music
for You!

Country music is simple yet powerful and contains the ideals of the class of people it represents. Melton A. McLaurin says in her piece "Proud to be an American," "commercial country music was produced for the white working class of America...it is hardly surprising that patriotism is a central theme" (23). Artists understand the values and ideologies of the people they are singing for, and therefore are able to gratify their audience. An ideology is defined as a common set of beliefs held by a group of people. William Dean Howells would say that for this reason country music has had its success. In his piece "From Criticism and Fiction" Howells states, "Their sort of success is not only from the courage to decide what ought to please, but from the knowledge of what does please" (254-5). Howells would also feel that country music is a form of realism simple because it reflects a community that is very real. In other words, country music is music for the hard working people of America and reflects their way of life and beliefs. Three artists that share three very different songs of reflection and patriotism are Alan Jackson, Merle Haggard, and Aaron Tippen.

The first of these artists, Alan Jackson, has recently released a song about emotions felt after hearing and seeing the attacks on the World Trade Centers on September 11, 2001. This powerful song is entitled "Where were you." Jackson hits home with the line "where were you when the world stopped turning on that September day." Americans all over the country could relate to these words, thus providing a sympathetic audience. Jackson's piece while very patriotic is more of a tribute to that day. He wrote it as a healing process for himself and in honor of those lives lost in the tragedy. "Did you burst out in pride for the Red, White, and Blue, the heroes who died just doing what they do," are lyrics included in the song honoring those who died while simply doing their jobs. Jackson expressed love as his answer to ease the pain of the day. While this song mourned the loss of those who fought bravely it had no trace of protest to the reaction of the American government. This type of song is not unusual in country music. McLaurin gives other examples of similar songs in "Proud to be an American," and after states, "the song contains no hint of protest: the loss, though painful, is accepted as necessary" (27). Jackson understands that and relates the ideology that dying for one's country is sad but still an honor.

The next example of patriotism in country music comes from the legend Merle Haggard. "Fighting Side of Me" is a piece written during the Vietnam War era. During this time protests against the war and American government were prevalent across the nation. Haggard wrote a song representing the ideology working class and their anger of the protests. McLaurin states that Haggard's were that these people "loved America's advantages but were unwilling to fight for the country" (26). Haggard held nothing back and bluntly sang "they love our milk an' honey, but they preach about some other way of livin'." Haggard felt these people were hypocrites and were dishonoring the men who had fought and died to keep their way of life. He challenges these people by singing "An' I don't mind 'em switchin' sides, an' standin' up for things they believe in. When they're runnin' down my country, man, they're walkin' on the fightin' side of me." While Haggard's song "in your face," it does accurately reflect the feelings historically held by the working class of America against those who disagree with the actions of their country.

A final example of patriotism in country music can be seen in Aaron Tippen's song "Stars and Stripes." Tippen's song reflects the pride of the American day-to-day life and the beauty of the country. These ideologies are felt by the working class at all times, not just in times of war and tragedy. Tippen's song accurately represents the gratitude held by this class that creates such strong feelings of patriotism. Howells would agree with Tippen's song writing. He states, "apply their own simplicity, naturalness, and honesty to the appreciation of the beautiful" (253) in his piece "From The Editor's Study." Examples of this in Tippen's song are seen in his lyrics. He sings, "it's a big ol' land with countless dreams, happiness ain't out of reach, hard work pays off the way it should, yah I've seen enough to know that we've got it good. Where the Stars and Stripes and the Eagle fly." The appreciation and nostalgia of the simple American way of life is evident in this piece of music. Tippen uses common ideologies held by his fans to praise a country they all know and love.

Country music has and always will be music written from the ideologies held by the working class of America. While this is certainly true, a growing number of fans across the country and from all classes of America have been drawn to this patriotic genre of music. All Americans are able to see the wholesome values that are expressed in the lyrics of country songs. It feels good to take pride in a country one was born and raised in. During times of war and hardship, so many famous people protest the American government. Country artists are some of the only images in the media that Americans can turn to for support and love of America in these times. Often these people are scared and anxious about the days to come, and country music is there to comfort their fears.

Patriotism in is defiantly a major theme in country music. This works because it accurately represents the ideologies held by the class country music represents. The working class of America loves their country and they work hard to ensure that they preserve the way of life they cherish so dearly. Simple nostalgia and the American dream are still alive within these Americans. Time of war and tragedy cannot shake their patriotic views, and might even deepen them. Country music is the expression of the heart and soul of every true American.

Get Custom Essay on Country Music
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Country Music now!

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

Essay on Auditing

Essay on Auditing

Mautz and Sharaf presented an interesting idea about the postulates of auditing. In their study, they stated that the postulates were the basis, the assumptions, and the starting point for building the auditing structure. My generalization about the postulates is as follows:

In my opinion, the postulates were valid in 1961. This was because Mautz and Sharaf carefully conducted a study and experimented about the nature and activities of auditing before they came up with the postulates. They were pioneering philosophers and experts in the auditing field. They did use their best judgment to arrive at the postulates that were best fitted to their existing environment and situation. Therefore, I believe the postulates were sufficient to support all audit theories and satisfied the needs of the auditing field at that time.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Auditing
for You!

I don't think that all the postulates are valid today. Some of them are still valid while some of them are not. The first postulate, which is "financial statements and financial data are verifiable", is still valid because there is a need of financial statements and financial data's audit. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires public companies to have their financial statements examined by a registered public accounting firm annually. Financial statement users rely on the financial statements to measure the results of management's performance. They rely on auditors to assure them that the financial data in the statements is unbiased, the transactions have been properly accounted for, and all relevant information has been disclosed so that their informed decisions can be made. The auditors opinions give investors, creditors, and other users confidence in the accuracy of financial data. Today, financial statements and financial data are still verifiable through auditors expertise in technical accounting, auditing, and knowledge of business. Current audit practices and standards reflect belief in this postulate through the uses of audit programs. That is, the auditors have to gather audit evidence, assess risks, conduct analytical procedures, develop expectations about account balances, test account balances, and assess and test internal control to proof the reliability of financial statements.

The second postulate, which is "there is no necessary conflict of interest between the auditor and the management of the enterprise under audit", is not valid today. Recently, there are many cases that show the evidences of management's influences on auditors works. For example, Arthur Anderson audited Waste Management's 1993 financial statements. The engagement team proposed adjusting journal entries for $128 million misstatements, but Waste Management refused to record the adjusting journal entries and refused to correct the inappropriate accounting practices and other misstatements. Another example, the PricewaterhouseCoopers audit team for Tyco International recommended Tyco to disclose the existence of non-interest-bearing loans in the periodic reports. However, the management refused to make the disclosure and said that the loans were not material to Tyco's financial statements. A study conducted by Koh and Woo (2001) reported that the self-interests of auditors and managers are not expected to coincide, and an audit expectation gap between the two groups can be expected. These show that managements, especially big clients managements, tend to be less cooperative with the auditors and there is possibility of necessary conflict of interest between them. As a result, current audit practices and standards do not reflect belief in this postulate. The implication to current audit practice is that the invalidity of the postulate results in the change in audit practice and the establishment of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002. Under the Act, the audit firm cannot perform non-audit service to its current audit client. The audit partner cannot perform audit to the same client more than five consecutive years. The Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer have to sign on the financial statements and personally take responsibility for them. The management of audit client cannot fraudulently influence, coerce, manipulate, or mislead any auditors. The audit firm cannot audit the company that has its senior management previously employed by the audit firm as an audit partner for that company.

The third postulate, "the financial statements and other information submitted for verification are free from collusive and other unusual irregularities", is certainly invalid. The Enron, Worldcom, Sunbeam, Waste Management, Polaroid, Tyco, and other fraudulent financial reporting cases can challenge this postulate. Certain items on a firm's financial statements appear to be vulnerable to fraud. Examples are the failure to record loss contingencies and asset writeoffs, the manipulation of acquisition reserves, the shifting of costs to improve current operating results, and the recognition of fictitious revenue. Therefore, current audit practices and standards do not reflect belief in this postulate. The implication to current audit practice is the adoption of the Statement on Auditing Standards No. 99 (SAS 99), Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit. The SAS 99 changes audit practice. It requires auditors to increase professional skepticism and to maintain a questioning mind throughout the engagement. In planning and performing the audit, auditors must set aside their beliefs that management is honest, even though they may have many years of experience with management. The changes in audit practice also includes a required brainstorming session among the audit team members to discuss the potential for material misstatement due to fraud, an increased emphasis on inquiry as an audit procedure that increases the likelihood of fraud detection, and the expanded use of analytical procedures to gather information used to identify risks of the material misstatement due to fraud.

The fourth postulate, "the existence of a satisfactory system of internal control eliminates the probability of irregularities", is not valid because the existence of a good system of internal control does not guarantee its effectiveness. The internal control usually has inherent limitations that management can override controls. Therefore, the existence of a good internal control system does not eliminate the probability of irregularities. Current audit practices and standards do not reflect belief in this postulate. The implications to current audit practice is that the auditors always need to evaluate internal controls for each client because the internal controls affect the processing of material account transactions. The auditors are required to assess control risk for each relevant assertion for each important class of transactions and account balances as a basis for planning the audit. To reduce the control risk assessment below the high level, the auditor must obtain evidence that the control structure is a soundly designed and operating effectively. In addition, the auditor is required to perform substantive procedures, including tests of details or analytical procedures, for all material classes of transactions and account balances, although the auditor may use evidence about the operating effectiveness of controls to alter the nature, timing, and extent of substantive procedures in a financial statement audit.

The fifth postulate, "consistent application of generally accepted principles of accounting results in the fair presentation of financial position and the results of operations", is valid. This is because the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) is a common set of standards and procedures that are generally accepted and universally practice. Although GAAP have provoked both debate and criticism, most member of the financial community recognized them as the standard that over time have proven to be most useful. Most importantly, the SEC has affirmed its support for the GAAP and required its registrants to adhere to GAAP. Current audit practices and standards reflect belief in this postulate. According to the Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (GAAS), the auditors is required to state explicitly whether the financial statements are fairly presented in accordance with GAAP. If the auditors determine that the statements materially depart from GAAP, the auditors describe the deficiencies and the dollar effects of the departure from GAAP.

The sixth postulate, "in the absence of clear evidence to the contrary, what has held true in the past for the enterprise under examination will hold true in the future", is not valid. This is because there is a danger of relying too heavily on the previous audit work. For example, organization that had a strong control environment in one year may be significantly different in the next year under new management. Current audit practices and standards do not reflect belief in this postulate. According to GAAS, the auditors should exercise due professional care and professional skepticism in the performance of the engagement. The auditors must guard against overfamiliarity with a client. When planning for the audit programs, the auditors need to consider current environments such as client's current control structure, current market conditions, competitor actions, and current economic risk as well.

Get Custom Essay on Auditing
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Auditing now!

Monday, July 18, 2011

Essay on Literature Autobiography

Essay on Literature Autobiography

With the use of Literature, stories, poems, historical figures, brilliant philosophers, and all other parts of our history has been exposed and stored for mankind. It has made its way from rocks and sticks to ink and paper, books and magazines, and now to computers and hard drives. Literature has been explored in many different ways throughout the centuries. Yet, it has never failed to accomplish its goal of bringing an internal imaginative world for readers. My entrance into the world of literature started a bit later than expected due to the language barrier that I had to overcome. However with hard work and dedication, I would make myself apart of the exciting world of literature by completing the book The Outsiders and continue as an active member of the group for the rest of my life.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Literature Autobiography
for You!

At the age of 11, my family made a critical decision to move from Iran to live here in United States, California. Farsi being the only language I was capable of speaking at the time, I would be forced to learn and learn fast an all new field of communication. Everything became totally different to what I had been used to before. Books and sentences started left to right rather than right to left, different words were used for different things, certain phrases would mean something else, and even the letter "c" was sometimes more like the letter "k". The speaking portion of the new language would be rather easy, but the writing and reading section would become real difficult to deal with. All throughout middle school, I was basically trying to catch upon all the grammar and rules that I had missed upon in the first nine years of school. It would be a constant struggle that I would learn a lot from, and to actually be ready to sit in an English class as a regular student by the time I had reached High School. This would also be the time that I can declare my first experience of Literature.

The book, The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton, was the first book that I actually finished by myself and understood everything enough to be tested upon. In middle school I was always allowed to receive extra help or would have to work on something different than the rest of the class. The book, The Outsiders, was about a ruthlessly realistic and violent story between two teenage gangs, the Greasers and the Socs. The story is narrated by a young boy named Ponyboy Curtis who eventually becomes the hero of the story.

He is a character that a lot of kids can relate themselves to because he is a smart, sensitive, at times feels isolated, and although on the surface acts really tough, underneath it all he is really scared and needy. By the time I was finished with this book, I would regain a new interest in reading again, and would not fear class readings as much as I did before. After Outsiders, I would go on to read many other books such a Huckleberry Finn, Tom Sawyer, Catcher in the Rye, Fahrenheit 451, and so on.

Almost ten years after moving to the United States and getting more comfortable with English, I have much improved when dealing with American Literature. I still may not be talented enough to right an essay for a contest or the newspaper, but I have succeeded enough to accomplish the expectations that this course requires. However, I do not practice my writing as much as I should be. In essence, I believe I can make a lot of improvements in my writing with the use of better vocabulary to make my sentences shorter and stronger throughout my papers. Reading more novels may be beneficial in becoming familiar with new vocabularies. The only reading that I establish right now consists of sports magazines, newspapers, and the wall street journal. One reason for my lack of reading is due to the fact that my major (engineering) does not require much of it. Therefore, I spend more time dealing with math problems then reading a poem or a short story. As a matter of fact, this English class will be the last English class that I would be required to take, so I hope to make the best out of it.

The earth will always be making its way around sun, days will be erased by years followed by centuries, people will come and go, technology will go above and beyond, but the one thing that will always stay the same is Literature. Literature makes it way through the lives of everyone educating us, affecting our thoughts and views, and in the process setting up the history of mankind. My entrance into the world of literature got off a slow start while battling the language difficulties. Yet, I managed to learn fast and make the book The Outsiders as my entrance into the literature era of my life, and still today use literature in my everyday activities. Literature will be the unavoidable aspect of life for my lifetime and new eras to come.

Get Custom Essay on Literature Autobiography
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Literature Autobiography now!

Sunday, July 17, 2011

Essay on Automobiles

Essay on Automobiles

Driving home for the weekend, taking a road trip across the country, going to the store across town at midnight for a quick snack: none of these simple tasks would be possible without the existence of the automobile. The ingenious work of a man named Henry Ford changed the scope of American life with an invention that rocked the entire world. When they came into existence in the beginning of the 20th century cars were considered a luxury, something reserved for the rich and famous. Henry Ford realized his dream of producing an automobile that was reasonably priced, reliable, and efficient with the introduction of the Model T in 1908. It was easy to operate, maintain, and handle on rough roads, immediately becoming a huge success. In less than one hundred years, with a plethora of styles and manufacturers, the automobile has been used to give Americans an identity and has offered a unique freedom to anyone over the age of sixteen. America's fascination with the automobile, however, has lessened and the convenience that it offers is often taken for granted.

The people of America do not realize how much automobile dependence has increased in the last one hundred years. Neither do they account for the fact that cars have been around for only a century. Imagine a day without a car resting just twenty feet away, and how different life would be. Life would be much slower; it would lack the extreme rapidity that exists today. If one icon serves to represent life in America, the automobile would be it. Baseball has been around for the same amount of time, and has been labeled "America's pastime," but most people do not watch or play baseball everyday. Neither is our icon the American flag; in the wake of our nation's tragedy, the stars and stripes has lost a large part of its symbolic qualities. America's fascination and subsequent need for the car has caused the automobile to become the one icon that has stood the test of time.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Automobiles
for You!

On a typical afternoon back home, as mom cooks diligently in the kitchen, I suddenly hear an outburst. "Oh, no! I forgot to get milk at the store." She had gone to the store just hours beforehand, planning dinner for the family. It seems like such a great inconvenience to have to drive three miles back to the store for one insignificant yet imperative item. It takes all of twenty minutes to drive to the store and back; in the minds of people today, that is a hefty portion of our extremely fast-paced days.

Just fifty years ago, however, a three-mile walk to the grocery store was a short jaunt that lasted almost an hour each way. I remember talking to my grandmother about when she was a little girl growing up in the forties. She told me that a three-mile walk to and from the store was a common occurrence after school and before dinner. "Many people had cars back then," she explained, "but your great grandfather had to take our only car to work every morning and wouldn't return until late in the evening. We didn't have cellular phones back then, so we couldn't ask him to pick up a few things at the store on his way home. So I had to walk to the store, just two miles down the road to buy the necessities for dinner that night. My mother was always busy with the younger children, and I knew that was just my duty as a part of the family." My grandmother lived without the automobile luxury while growing up; for me, it is hard to fathom what life would be like without a car attending to my every move. This American icon has changed life as we know it today; most conveniences we enjoy stem from the ownership of our automobiles.

The automobile not only presents great conveniences, and it doesn't just help speed up the pace of our lives; this versatile machine exists as a means of finding a specific identity. Stereotypically, there is a specific make and model that fits certain types of people. Most male drivers enjoy driving either gigantic trucks with huge tires, lifted so high it is impossible to even get on board, or a boosted muscle car bejeweled with performance parts and a roaring sound. The classic female automobile is the Volkswagen Jetta, a sporty little car that would tarnish a man's image if he was ever caught driving one. Middle-aged mothers drive minivans or SUVs to and from soccer practice; the wealthy businessperson will drive a nice BMW or Lexus, dressed professionally en route to a large metropolitan location. Add something here.

As a young teenager growing up in Suburbia, California, I anxiously anticipated the day when I was to turn sixteen years of age. I saw what my older brother had been able to do with his license and newly found freedom, and I could not wait for my day to sit behind the wheel. The feeling is indescribable; for years I had to sit in the passenger seat, watching the driver as he turned the wheel and clicked the blinker. On a scorching July afternoon, just months from acquiring my license, and while my brother enjoyed his day at the beach with his friends, I was stuck at home with my remote and my overused basketball. I could only watch television and shoot hoops for so long; I was trapped at home with a license to kill rather than a license to drive. Finally, when my day came, I got my license on that fourteenth day of February and I, too, could have that right of passage. I was amazed by the audacious freedom that car ownership offered to me. Purchased with my money alone, the old Honda Prelude was my ticket to anywhere I desired to go. I felt like I could go anywhere or do anything and nothing could get in my way. I no longer had to ride my bike in the blistering heat for a cherry slurpee. I could drive to the beach, or to the snow, or to my buddy's house, parent-willing of course.

No car illustrates these fascinating qualities like The Ford Motor Company's model of the 1964 Ford Mustang. With its sleek fastback body style and muscular 289 V8 engine, this eternal machine offers the very freedom that all Americans long for. As a young, na├пve sophomore, my friend's - 64 silver-blue Mustang convertible was perfect for cruising down Main Street on a Saturday evening, music blaring and pedestrians staring. We were free from the grips of our chauffeur-parents; we were labeled with the "cool image", or so we thought. The Mustangs of the mid-60's have been popular since the day they hit the showroom floor, and many people today still work endlessly to restore their beauty to perfection. The new models are just as appealing; they are fast, sporty, and even relatively affordable. There is no stereotypical driver for this legendary automobile; anyone can own and "sport" a Ford Mustang. Henceforth, if the automobile is America's icon, then the Mustang is America's classic car of all time.

Thanks to America's one and only icon, we can claim our freedom and can enjoy the luxuries that automobiles offer to our ever-so-transient lives.

Get Custom Essay on Automobiles
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Automobiles now!

Saturday, July 16, 2011

Essay on Australian Constitution

Australian Constitution Essay

The Australian Constitution came into force in 1901 with the federation of the separate state colonies into the Commonwealth of Australia. With its introduction, the Constitution was heralded as "the most magnificent Constitution into which the chosen representatives of a free and enlightened people have ever breathed the life of popular sentiment and national hope", by Charles Kingston (Irving 2001). The Australian Constitution has remained relatively untouched since it came into effect, from 44 referendum questions put to the Australian people to change various parts of the Constitution, only eight have been approved (Singleton et al. 2003:52).

There is a striking lack of knowledge amongst the Australian people regarding the nature and role of the Constitution in today's society (Stone 2000:194). This fact leads us to question the appropriateness of the Australian Constitution in the Twenty First Century. As this points to the possibility that there is some inadequacies within the written Constitution that could account for the lack of knowledge and understanding of the document in this county.

There are many different factors within the Constitution that could be examined to determine whether it is still adequate in the Twenty First Century, this essay will focus on the three main issues. Firstly, the provisions of the Constitution that are now obsolete are examined to determine whether they are inappropriate to still be included within the written document. Secondly, the use of conventions within the political system is reviewed to find whether the written Constitution lives up to the purpose constitutions are supposed to serve within a democracy. Finally, as the Constitution is seen as inappropriate by some critics because it lacks a Bill of Rights, the arguments for and against an Australian Bill of Rights will be weighed to determine whether it is appropriate or not.

It has been suggested that the Constitution should be reformed so that it properly details the way in which the Australian political system works (Thompson 1993:76). Some sections of the constitution are now obsolete or misleading, therefore the Constitution in parts is not an adequate description of how the political system functions.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay about Australian Constitution
for You!

Throughout the Constitution there are transitional provisions regarding the early years of the Constitution that are now obsolete (Brennan 2001:14). For example section 26 details the number of representatives to be chosen from each state at the first election, since then the number of representatives for the House of Representatives has doubled (Singleton et al. 2003:382). Section 93 which outlines the conditions of the first five years after the introduction of uniform duties of customs is another example of a transitional provision that now obsolete (Singleton et al. 2003:395). These transitional provisions that are now obsolete affect the readability of the Constitution, making it more difficult to understand the more important Constitutional concepts (Brennan 2001:14). Removing the transitional provisions would not have any real affect on the way the Constitution operates, these provisions can be safely removed without any adverse affects on the Constitution (Brennan 2001:14).

The argument that transitional sections should be kept because of their historical value is not strong (Irving 2001). As if it was most important to protect the history of the Constitution then section 127 regarding the exclusion of the Aboriginal people from being counted as citizens of the Commonwealth should have been kept (Irving 2001). The transitional sections used to establish the Constitution will always have a place in Australian political history, if they no longer have a place within the Constitution itself.

The most prominent example of misleading provisions within the Constitution are the references to the Queen, which in just about all cases are misleading (Irving 2001). For instance sections 58, 59 and 60 claim that the Queen may review laws specially set aside by the Governor-General and has the power to reject a law even if it has been passed by the Governor-General (Brennan 2001:15). The Queen in fact does not hold the power to change Australian laws; the only power exercised by the Queen presently is the appointing of the Governor-General, which is mostly decided on by the advice of the Prime Minister (Brennan 2001:15). Since the ratification of the Statute of Westminster in 1942 and the Australia Act in 1986, Australia has been independent from British laws and Australian courts can no longer appeal to the Queen via the Privy Council (National Archives of Australia 2000). Yet these provisions that are now obsolete still remain within the Constitution giving readers the impression that they are still in effect.

It has been argued that if the provisions relating to the powers of the Queen were removed it would be seen as adopting a more republican government (Brennan 2001:15). This is not the case, as removing obsolete provisions regarding the Queen is merely correcting the Constitution so it is a more appropriate representation of the true distribution of power within the Australian political system (Brennan 2001:15).

While the Australian Constitution describes some parts of the political system well, for example Chapter 3 is an adequate account of the Judicature, however it lacks adequacy in the representation of other key factors (Irving 2001). Within the Constitution there is no mention of the roles of Prime Minister or the Cabinet and it also neglects to mention other key rules and procedures that are vital in the operation of the political system (Parkin & Summers 2002:8). For instance it is not stated that the government must resign if its budget is not accepted by the Parliament, and there are many more key facts such as this one relevant to the operation of the political institutions that are not detailed within the Constitution (Parkin & Summers 2002:8).

The Australian political system heavily relies on the use of convention, to establish the meaning of some sections of the Constitution (Steward & Ward 1996:37). The purpose of conventions is to fill in the gaps and inconsistencies that may occur throughout the life of the written Constitution, it is said that a formal constitution can only be put into practice if it is supported by the use of conventions (James 1982:15).

The use of conventions allows some flexibility in the operation of the government and has enabled the evolution to an independent system of Australian government (Brennan 2001:7). It is said that for the smooth functioning of the government conventions are very necessary, as they allow political practices to informally change over time (Steward & Ward 1996:39). It is also argued that some conventions could not be easily converted into writing and may in some cases may also be risky, for example it would be challenging to put the Governor-General's "reserve powers" into words to be included within the Constitution (Irving 2001).

On the other hand, the use of conventions is criticized as the system of conventions can be used to change the way in which government operates for the political gain of the political parties in power (Steward & Ward 1996:40). The meaning of some sections of the Constitution can be difficult to identify, as the unwritten conventions used to establish their meanings are not included within the document (Steward & Ward 1996:37). For the average person who is not aware of the British system of conventions, reading the Constitution would be quite confusing as in some cases political practices do not correspond to what is written in the Constitution and many practices are not even mentioned in the written document (Irving 2001).

The written Constitution does not adequately fulfill the purpose of a constitution to "establishes the fundamental institutions of the political system"(Singleton et al. 2003:23) As if the Constitution is to properly establish the institutions of the political system it should include appropriate descriptions of such things as the role of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, and how government is formed, as they are fundamental in the running of the political system (Irving 2001).

The Australian Constitution is seen by some critics as inadequate and morally deficient because it does not include a Bill of Rights. Many other liberal democracies around the world, most notably the United States have included a Bill of Rights into their written constitutions. The purpose of including a Bill of Rights into a constitution is in theory to protect the rights and freedoms of individuals, for example allowing citizens the right to vote, freedom of speech and assembly (Steward & Ward 1996:41).

During the federation conventions in the 1890s, proposals to include a Bill of Rights in the Australian Constitution were rejected by the majority of delegates, as it was believed that individual rights would be adequately protected by Common Law, the Parliament, convention and the political culture of Australia (McKenna 1997).

Critics argue that not including a Bill of Rights within the Constitution leaves the rights of individuals improperly protected, and an ambivalent attitude towards civil liberties has developed within the Australian political culture (McKenna 1997). The adoption of legislation and common law decisions relating to the protection of certain individual rights is dependent on the current political and social ideologies (McKenna 1997). Therefore minorities may be disadvantaged in regards to their fundamental rights, and may have limited avenues for seeking justice in cases where there is an abuse of rights (Stott Despoja 2000). An example of this is evident in the case of Kruger & Ors v. The Commonwealth of Australia, where is was found that legislation that enabled members of the Stolen Generation to be removed from their families was not unconstitutional, thus leaving them with limited avenues for recourse (Stott Despoja 2000).

On the other hand, it could be to their own credit that they did not include their own ideas of rights and values in the Constitution, as some of the rights that could have been accepted as part of a Bill of Rights may be questionable in today's society (Irving 2001). If a Bill of Rights was to be entrenched within the Constitution now, it is possible that people of the future generations may be more enlightened and find the rights included within a Bill of Rights inadequate (Irving 2001).

The values of society are constantly changing, therefore it can be argued that it is better that Parliament be able to make and change laws in line with society's values at any given time (Lightfoot 2000). In countries where there is an entrenched Bill of Rights it is difficult to change, therefore evolution or advancement of those rights is limited, for example the United States Bill of Rights has remained mostly untouched since it was created in 1789 (Lightfoot 2000). There are many conventions, institutions and instruments such as anti-discrimination legislation and many common law decisions to safeguard the rights of individuals (Lightfoot 2000).

Therefore it can be argued that it is more appropriate to not have an entrenched Bill of Rights included in the Australian Constitution, and keep the ability for Parliament and the Judicial System to make legislation and decisions regarding the rights and freedoms of individuals, to ensure the rights of Australian people move with the times.

There are parts of the Constitution that are still appropriate in the Twenty First Century, as in was concluded that the Australian Constitution is adequate without a Bill of Rights protecting the rights of individuals. As the rights of individuals are already adequately protected in Australia, and it is more appropriate to keep the ability to make and change provisions regarding the freedoms and rights of individuals within the Parliament and Common Law decisions and not have them set in stone within the Constitution. Because this allows the provisions to be changed so they are in line with the current ideas and values of society.

On the other hand there are parts of the Australian Constitution that are inappropriate and inadequate in today's society. It was concluded that it was inappropriate to retain the transitional provisions and obsolete sections of the Constitution, as they are misleading and makes the written Constitution hard for ordinary citizens to read it and actually understand it. It would be more appropriate to remove these provisions, as they no longer serve a purpose within the Constitution. The Constitution is also inappropriate as the system of using conventions to fill gaps throughout the Constitution is relied on too heavily. Some of the key concepts essential to the operation of the political system are not mentioned within the Constitution, therefore the Constitution is not an adequate guide to how the political system actually functions. In conclusion, although the Australian Constitution does have some strong points, overall the Constitution is not totally appropriate for the Twenty First Century. Reforms are needed to bring the Australian Constitution in line with how the political system actually operates in the Twenty First Century.

Get Custom Essay on Australia
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Australian Constitution now!

Friday, July 15, 2011

Essay on My Personal Flaws

Essay about My Flaws

Have you ever walked into a crowed room to later discover that your zipper is unzipped, or realized after a conversation that you have had food in your teeth the entire time? These are the type of accidents that happen to people everyday, and for the most part cannot be avoided. No, toilet paper stuck to your shoe is not the end of the world, but it is certainly something we would like to be informed of if possible. All a person can really do is rely on the kindness of others to point these flaws out to us before they cause too much embarrassment. But how likely are people to point embarrassing flaws out to others, especially to people that they do not know? This question, and the hour I spent with a large $1.00 price tag on my back, got me thinking, should we rely on strangers to point flaws out to us? More over, are there specific characteristics that would make one person more likely than another to point flaws out? To answer these questions I decided to use unobtrusive measures to find out for myself who I could trust if an embarrassing situation were to arise.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay about Flaws
for You!

I began my research by searching for any other literature that may have already been written, or experiments already conducted about my problem. Unfortunately, I wasn't very successful. This forced me to narrow my topic to watch for a specific characteristic. I now posed the question, who is more likely to point out a personal flaw, a man or a women? After much more research, this time looking closely at gender, that perhaps my question had already been answered. According to Margaret Andrews, author of the article "Mother's Assistant", " Centuries of research have show that women naturally tend to act in a "mothering" manner in any situation.Therefore, women can be counted on to take anyone under their wing to be nurtured and protected". Over and over again I found information explaining the tendencies of women to be more nurturing and protective nature. This idea does go against the modern woman's liberation, but no the less, it has been proven undoubtedly to be accurate. So, has my question been answered? Was it as simple as the fact that women are more nurturing so naturally they would be more likely then men to point out a flaw? To be sure, I would have to experiment for myself.

Based on my research I formed the hypothesis that women would be more likely to point out a flaw to a stranger then men. To prove this I used a research method know as unobtrusive measures. This simply meant that I observed the behavior of people who did not realize they were being observed. The restaurant I work in served as an excellent location for my research and guaranteed a random sampling of the population. To test the sample population I marked my face with a very noticeable pen mark before customers entered the restaurant. I timed how long on average it took the customer to point out the mark to me and recorded the time and gender of the customer who pointed it out to me. The observations were made during the time it took for the customer to enter the restaurant, be greeted by me and shown to their table. After 100 customers were observed I found that women were more likely to point the flaw out to me as I had hypothesized. What surprised me though was the length of time it took for customers, regardless of gender, to point the flaw out to me. I assumed that if someone were going to point it out to me they would do it immediately upon encountering me at the entrance of the restaurant. I found in most cases though that it took until I had already gotten them to their table and they were seated for anyone to speak up. This process normally took at least a minute, much longer than I had anticipated. I also observed that people were more likely to point the flaw out to me if I had casual conversation with them as I took them to their seat. These were to factor lead me to a conclusion that I had not considered before I began my research. Perhaps what people were more inclined to point the flaw out to me after they had become more familiar with me? When the customer entered the restaurant I was a complete stranger to them, but after asking them their seating preferences and in some cases having short conversations with them, I became more familiar to them. I also wondered if perhaps women weren't more likely to point the flaw out to me because I am a woman. To answer these questions I conducted my research a second time, this time changing some key elements.

During my second night of observations the first change I made was to replace myself with another employee and simply observe the experiment. My new recruit was a man this time around my age, but under instruction to keep conversation to an absolute minimum and try not to reach a personal level with the customers. Now this is something hard to do in my line of work, but my fellow employee did an excellent job. I found once again in this experiment that women were more likely then men to point out the flaw, but other aspects had changed with the other adjustments. Although average times remained much the same, on the whole less customers, male of female, pointed out the flaw to him. This answered most of my questions, but still had me wondering if the change in numbers related to how many people over all responded to the flaw we based on the gender of my co-worker or his attempts to remain unfamiliar to the customer. Although these questions still tugged at me I decided not to ask my already lenient boss for yet another night of experiments. I wonder if the reliability and validity of this experiment may not be what I hoped they would. Still my hypothesis had been proven and women were shown to act according to nature and point out a potentially embarrassing flaw to someone.

While reviewing my data, I noticed other factors that may have played an important role in the reactions of the customers I observed. For example, the age of the customers also seemed to be a factor in my results. Customers that appeared to be college age or older very rarely pointed the flaw out to me. Adults closer to the age of my parents, on the other hand, were much more likely to respond to the flaw. One overwhelming trait among the customers was that every mother that came into the restaurant with their child quickly (average within 20 seconds) pointed out the flaw to me, and many of them offered or tissue or something close to that to me to clean it off with. This undoubtedly linked my experiment to the research that described women's tendencies as mothering and nurturing.

After conducting my experiment and my research I was still at the same conclusion I had been at before beginning. Helping others to resolve problems before they become just that is simply in the nature of women. Perhaps women act this way because they hope that in a different situation another women may point out a flaw to them before others notice it. This is meant by no means puts down the other sex, but merely points out what seems obvious to many already. It is really hard to know for sure, although others factors, as I have gone into previously, did have effect on the outcome of my observations; I feel that my questions have been reliably answered. My results showed that an average of 59% of all people pointed out the flaws to both my self and my co-worker. As for how to avoid a situation like this from happening to you in the future, there is no real way to guarantee that is won't happen. My best advice, if you have to rely on the kindness of strangers, you shouldn't be to bad off.

Get Custom Essay on Awareness
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Flaws now!

Essay on Aztecs

Essay on Aztecs

Through written and artistic accounts of the first encounters between the Aztecs and the Spanish, we are able to see how the first impressions of each group affected how they dealt with each other. There is much evidence of the Spanish first impressions of the Aztecs, but because the Spanish destroyed most of the written and artistic accounts of these events, we are left with little evidence of the Aztec perspective towards meeting Cort's and the Spaniards for the first time. However, with the evidence that still exists, it is possible to see at least some distinction in how these images and impressions of the Spanish may have impacted the Aztecs. Whether in speculating the differences in clothing, physical appearance, or practices, the Spanish and the Aztecs perceived each other differently and that affected the outcome of their actions towards each one another.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Aztecs
for You!

Probably the strongest piece of evidence in the Spanish first impression of the Aztecs, are the letters from Fernando Cort's to the Spanish Emperor Charles V. These letters are firsthand accounts of Cort's encounters with the Aztec people. Cort's described the Aztecs as people of "middle size and features well proportioned". He said some had body piercing in which they put large and ugly objects into their piercing. He described the clothes they wore as "long veils, very curiously worked" and made distinctions between what common people wore and what the superiors wore. He also compared the food they ate, which was mostly maize and grain, to what the native people ate in Cuba. What fascinated Cort's and his men the most about the Aztecs was their amazing architecture, the likes of some of which had never been seen before in Europe at the time. This painted the Aztecs as very intelligent people because they were capable of such architecture, but it is the Aztec's religious practices that cause Cort's to believe the Aztec were misguided. Cort's explains in detail the "horrible and abominable" practices of human sacrifices made by the Aztecs. European artistic images show the Aztecs cutting their own people apart and boiling them alive. These practices caused the Spaniards to think of the Aztecs as heathens and enemies of the Catholic faith and thus must be instructed in their beliefs or punished.

When the Spanish first arrived, they were in awe of the architecture of the Aztecs and this amazement may have contributed to them possibly respecting the Aztec people at first for their accomplishments. Differences in religion, however, probably sparked most of the aggressive behavior of the Spanish towards the Aztecs. They saw the human sacrifices and other practices of the Aztec religion as barbaric. This caused them to view the Aztecs as inferior and ultimately as enemies against their faith. With that state of mind, it was no longer necessary for the Spanish to try to peacefully deal with the Aztecs. Cort's also speaks of an event in which a female translator tells him about an Aztec plot to "fall upon...and kill" the Spanish conquistadors. It's not proven whether this actually happened, but if it did, then this is what pushed the Spanish to kill the Aztecs and pillage Tenochtitlan.

The Aztec accounts of the Spanish aren't very reliable because they're adaptations of stories passed over the years, but in comparison to the actual letters from Cort's, a lot of the events are the same. Upon the arrival of the Spanish, the Aztecs greet them with many gifts. It is believed by some that the Aztecs may have thought of the Spanish as gods and this would explain why the text describes an event in which the Aztecs began making human sacrifices to Cort's and his men. It's quite easy to speculate why the Aztec would think of the Spanish as gods because they had never seen such humans before. The Aztecs were astonished by the strange iron armor worn by the Spanish, covering almost their entire bodies. They were also shocked by their light skin, facial hair, and blonde hair. What surprised them the most though was the different food the Spanish ate in which they described as "like human food" large and white, and not heavy "something like straw, but with taste of a cornstalk." They were probably describing some sort of pasta. Also, the Spanish brought horse with them which were animals the Aztecs had also no familiarity with. This is obvious since they described them as giant deer. The most detail is probably given to the Aztec's description of the Spanish cannons. The roar, the smoke, the sparks, and the explosion were unlike anything the Aztec had ever heard or seen before. "If the cannon is aimed against a mountain, the mountain splits and cracks open. If it is aimed at a tree, it shatters the tree into splinters. This is a most unnatural sight, as if the tree had exploded from within." Obviously such a weapon would make the Aztec very wary of the Spanish, but also make them think of them as magical people such as gods. One of the last things described is the mysterious illness the Spanish brought with them that killed off most of the Aztecs. Accounts read that "The sick were so utterly helpless that they could only lie on their beds like corpses" and sores broke out all over the body. Smallpox was the deadliest weapon of the Spanish.

The weapons of the Spanish are probably what intimidated the Aztecs the most and are probably what made them wary enough to have guards watching the Spanish at all times in the city. The Aztec knew they were no match for the Spanish armor, iron swords, and cannons. At first, the Aztec dealt with the Spanish out of kindness and perhaps even worship, but after their first impression, they probably became more and more fearful of Cort's and his men. With a lot of their people suffering from small pox, the Aztec's numbers were no longer much of an advantage over the Spanish, thus making the susceptible to an easy defeat. The Aztecs could really do nothing, but watch their own be slaughtered by the Spanish because their weapons and war practices were inferior compared to the conquistadors. The Aztecs were used to battling other tribes and taking prisoners as opposed to shedding a lot of blood. All of this led to the conquering of the Aztec empire by the Spanish.

Though the accounts of the Aztec aren't as reliable sources as those of the Spanish, it is still possible to get a great understanding of the impressions each group of people got from each other upon their first encounter. With this understanding, it's also easy to derive an idea as to how these impressions affected how the Spanish dealt with the Aztecs and how the Aztecs dealt with the Spanish. The strong differences of these two cultures ultimately lead to a conflict which quickly turned into a massacre by the Spanish conquistadors.

Get Custom Essay on Aztecs
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Aztecs now!

Wednesday, July 13, 2011

Essay on The Planet Earth

Planet Earth Essay Sample

What is planet Earth?

Planet earth is one of nine planets in the Milky Way galaxy that orbit the Sun. The Earth fully rotates on its axis once a day and orbits the Sun once every 365.24 days. It is estimated that planet Earth is 4.5 billion years old ("Time's Origins", 2003).

The Earth is composed of layers of rock which is usually a mixture if various minerals. Each mineral has its own chemical compound that allows it to react differently to gravity, motion, and heat. The outer layer of Earth, known as the crust, is made up of low-density silicates. Silicates are minerals that contain mostly silicon and oxygen. Also, the crust varies incredibly in thickness. The crust has shown to be thinner under oceans and thicker under continents. The next layer, known as the mantle, is composed of dense silicates. Although the mantle is denser than the crust, it is not as dense as the core. The inner layer or core is composed of dense materials such as nickel and iron. The reason for layers is due to a process known as differentiation. Differentiation is the process in which gravity separates materials by density (Bennet, J., Donahue, M., Schneider, N., Voit, M., 2002, p. 229).

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay about Planet Earth
for You!

The outer most layer of Earth is often referred to as the biosphere. The biosphere is the layer of living organisms that cover the surface of the planet and it readily distinguishes the planet from all others in the solar system ("Biosphere", 2003). Due to its flowing water and oxygen, Earth is the only planet in the galaxy that is naturally habitable by humans. It is estimated that life has existed on Earth for 3.5 to 4 billion years.

The Earth's surface developed much like the other planets in the galaxy, through four major geological processes. The first process is known as Impact Cratering. Impact craters are the result of comets or asteroids impacting with the surface of a planet. Second, is the process known as volcanism. Volcanism is the result of molten rock and lava spewing from the Earth's interior to its surface. Third, is the process of tectonics. Tectonics is the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses. Fourth and finally is the process of erosion. Erosion is the result of wearing down or building up geological features by wind, water, and other planetary weather.

Between the crust and mantle of the Earth, a layer of rock known as the lithosphere exists. The lithosphere is a hard layer of rock that is composed of mostly crust but does include a small portion of the mantle. The lithosphere is broken into plates and allows the softer rock, known as the asthenosphere, to move and flow. This process results in the lithosphere gradually moving and "creating the phenomenon known as continental drift" (Bennet, J., et al., p. 230).

The study of the Earth's interior is aided by measuring the seismic waves that are generated from earthquakes. The two types of seismic waves, primary and secondary, are measured using a device known as a seismograph. Seismographs are located throughout the planet and allow the comparison of measurements and recordings to determine the path of the seismic waves. Primary or P waves are the faster of the two and are similar to sound waves. Additionally, P waves have the ability to travel through liquid, gas, and rock. Secondary or S waves, have the ability to travel through rock but are unable to travel through gas or liquid. Using this information, it has been determined that some part of Earth's interior is liquid. While P waves reach the side of the world opposite of an earthquake, S waves do not.

In closing, the question "What is Planet Earth?" is not so simple to answer. Earth is a mixture of minerals, elements, and life that continues to evolve. The question should not be what is planet Earth, but what will planet Earth become?

Get Custom Essay on Earth Science
ATTENTION!!! HotEssays.blogspot.com provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. EssayLib.com essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on planet Earth now!