Tuesday, August 31, 2010

The Hawaiian Culture Essay

Hawaiian Culture Essay

Your tired from you hot and cramped airplane ride , as you peel yourself off the seat after spending the last five hours listening to bob break up with his wife’s best friend. You step off the plane into the land of Aloha and being welcomed into paradise by being showered with leis.

A lei comes from the ancient Hawaiians, which were Polynesians who wore them. During 300 and 600 A.D.(http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108204.html) the leis had a different meaning and look then they do now. Originally they were braided leaves. The more modernized lei is native Hawaiian flowers strung together into a necklace. These flowers are symbols of love and friendship. The Polynesians offered them to their gods as gifts of love. The lei grew to be more poplar then even in the1800’s during the boat day. Traveler who visited Hawaii would be greeted with leis. Many legends of the lei were formed. It was said that if the visitor was leaving the island and threw their lei into ocean and it floated to the beach it meant that one day they would return to the island. The lei is an important symbol of Hawaii and has its own day on May 1st called lei day. (Eyewitness Travel Guide p.22)

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Another tradition of Hawaiians is their music and dance which is put together with a feast called a luau. A luau is a feast to celebrate special occasions. In ancient times Hawaiians believed it was importune to honor their gods with feasts. In the late 1850’s is when luaus were originated . In Hawaiian luau means the young edible leaves of the taro plant. The leaves from the taro plant were used to wrap and cover the food put into the underground oven called an imu.(www.alternative-hawaii.com/hacul/food.htm) Along with the roasted pig, usually at a luau you can find seafood, chicken, sweet potatoes and taro pudding.

Hula dancing is traditionally done at a luau. Hula dancing began in the 19th century. At first it was a religious ritual to present to the kings and upper classes. Today it is still to honor the ancients gods . The hula is preformed with chants and accompanied with percussion instruments. The instruments are called the Ipu heke and the standing pahu drum. (Eyewitness Travel guide pg.16-17)

Clothing is an important factor of the hula dancing. The ancient Hawaiian men wore Kupe’e which was a dog tooth leg piece, today sea shells are used. A kupe’e lima is also worn around the wrists of men. A lei po’o is a lei that’s work around the men hula dancers head. A long grass or leave skirt was worn by the men to complete their outfits.(http://www.geocities.com/~olelo/hula.html)

Women hula dancers wore holoku’s which are long fitted dresses. Sometimes a shawl is worn by either men or women, which is called a kihei. Hula dancers also wear lole lima puha’uha’u which is a puffed up arm piece. Another type of dress that can be worn is a mu’umu’u. Both women and men can wear a pa’u heihei, which is a hula skirt made out of leaves.(http://www.geocities.com/~olelo/hula.html)

A big part of the Hawaiian culture is the crafts. Woven baskets, leis, wooden bowls were crucial elements to every day life in ancient Hawaiian times. Everything made came from any available sources, such as coconuts, trees, feathers , stones and wood. braiding and weaving was important part of Hawaiian life it helped create carpets, sleeping mats, pillows, baskets and fans.

When asked to describe paradise many name Hawaii. When asked to describe Hawaii and things that represent it, most would say leis, luaus, and hula dancing. These cultural festivals indicate a very rich culture.

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High School Essay Writing Help

High School Essay Writing Help

High school students all over the world write academic essays assigned by teachers. Writing a high school essay is a process that requires from students good writing skills. The purpose of high school essay writing is to monitor knowledge level of students to get prepared them for final exams, research paper writing and writing term papers. Some high school students, however, do need professional writing help in high school essay writing.

How to create a good high school essay tips can be read online at educational websites and resources with writing guidelines. Also, free high school essay examples and sample high school essays can be found at essay databases with a huge amount of various samples and examples of essays for high school students. But you should beer in your mind that all free high school essays – plagiarized – they can be used by high school students as writing instructions. High school essay help can be found at many websites that provide tutorials and assistance in writing high school essays. Reading similar instructions and articles you will have a great opportunity to write your high school essay and to get the best grade for your academic paper. But what to do if you need fee-based high school essay writing help? Where can you find a professional high school essay helper online? Are there any writers who can help write high school essays for money? Surely. These writers work on a freelance basis at online essay writing services to write custom high school essays from scratch. All custom high school papers are written in accordance with your writing topic, subject, high school requirements, format (APA / MLA / Turabian), number of sources to be used in your academic high school essay, deadline of your paper etc.

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Monday, August 30, 2010

Biography of John Dickinson Essay

John Dickinson Essay

John Dickinson was born on November 13, 1732 in Maryland to Samuel and Mary Dickinson. At the age of eight, he moved to Delaware where he was privately educated. In 1750 he moved to Philadelphia in order to study law. After passing the Bar exam, he became a prominent lawyer in Philadelphia in 1757.

In 1759 until 1760 Dickinson served at the Assembly of the Lower Three counties, representing Delaware. He gained a seat in the Pennsylvania Legislature as a Philadelphia delegate in 1762. He attended The Stamp Act Congress of 1765 and was the author of the resolutions agreed to in the congress (Bradford 100).

Dickinson wrote The Late Regulations Respecting the British Colonies on the Continent of America Considered, which told people to repeal The Stamp Act. He wrote newspaper articles in the Pennsylvania Chronicle, which collectively became known, as his famous Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. These letters informed the people of Britain’s taxation policy and their unjust laws. They urged resistance, but emphasized the possibility of a peaceful resolution.

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These Letters were so popular that he received an honorary LL.D. from the College of New Jersey and public thanks from a meeting in Boston (Pickett). In 1770 Dickinson married Mary Norris and bore two daughters. In 1771, Dickinson returned to the Pennsylvania legislature and drafted a petition to the king, which was unanimously approved. He chaired the Philadelphia Committee of Correspondence and attended the First Continental Congress. In Continental Congress he was named one of the “cool devils” that tried to stall independence as much as possible (Bowen 58).

Dickinson was the author of the Declaration and Resolves of the Continental Congress, and the “Song of the Farmer”- the Revolution anthem. In 1775 he served in the Second Continental Congress as a representative from Pennsylvania and wrote the Declaration of the Causes of Taking up Arms (Bradford 100). In July 1776, Dickinson voted against The Declaration of Independence. He believed that his countrymen were not yet ready for a complete separation from England and there could still be a possibility of a compromise. Thus, he did not sign the document.

Dickinson joined the military and was given the rank of Brigadier General, which was a big honor. When he was not reelected this rank, he resigned from the military and went to his home, “Popular Hall”. In 1779 he was sent to the Continental Congress as a delegate from Delaware. He wrote and signed the Articles of Confederation. Shortly afterwards, he returned to his home because of tragic problems with “Popular Hall.” On November 6, 1781, Dickinson was elected President of Delaware (Pickett). One year later, he moved to Philadelphia and became president from 1782 until 1785. The following year, Dickinson attended the Annapolis Convention representing Delaware (odur.let.rug). In 1787, he was sent by Delaware to the Constitutional Convention where he was one of the strongest advocates for a national government.

Since Dickinson was coming from a small state, he was in favor of equal representation. He did not want the bigger states to overpower the smaller states. After all, “we are a nation! We are a nation although consisting of parts or states” (Bowen 41). He declared that the government be like that of the solar system. Let the general government be like the sun and the states like the planets, repelled yet attracted, and the whole moving regularly and harmoniously in their several orbits. [Or] Thirteen small streams, pursuing one course (Bowen 79).

Dickinson believed that the senate should be chosen by the state legislatures and not from the common people. This would “more intimately connect the state governments with the national legislature.” The senate should have the most distinguished characteristics and have a strong likeness to the British House of Lords. It is more likely that the state legislatures will choose this type of person rather than the common people. The senate should be numerous in order to balance the popular branch (Van Doren 67).

Dickinson did not think that The Constitution should authorize the importation of slaves to the states. The men at the Convention could not abolish the importation all together, but they delayed the prohibition until 1808 (Bowen 204).

If he could, Dickinson would have made the government a limited monarchy. He thought it was the best type of government, but it was out of the question in America. He believed that the Legislative, Executive and Judiciary departments should be made as independent as possible. Each state should retain an equal voice in at least one branch of the national legislature (Van Doren 59).

Although Dickinson did not agree on all the forceful opinions of Madison and the other nationalists, he helped make the Great Compromise and wrote public letters supporting constitutional ratification.

Unfortunately, Dickinson had to leave early from the Convention because of illness. He appointed his colleague, George Read to sign his name in the Constitution. He wrote a series of essays titled The Letters of Fabius while the chairman of Delaware’s constitutional convention in 1791. The purpose of these letters was to produce a favorable feeling in the United States toward France, whose revolution he believed to be at an end. In 1792, he was elected to the Delaware State Senate and served for two years. He decided not to serve any longer due to health reasons (Pickett).

Dickinson is referred to in history as the “Penman of the Revolution.” He died at the age of seventy-five on February 14, 1808 at his home in Wilmington. He was a man of great moral courage, and stood for his beliefs. Many people have said that in the Constitutional Convention he did not live up to his infamous reputation.

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Dominican Republic Essay

The Dominican Republic Essay

Gaining its independence as the Dominican Republic on the twenty-seventh of February in 1844 the Dominican Republic is a Spanish speaking country with more than ninety-five percent of Dominicans professing to be Roman Catholics. Practicing a representative democracy the Dominican Republic’s capital is Santo Domingo with Chief of State and Head of government being President Rafael Hipolito MEJIA Dominguez.

Located in the Caribbean Basin the Dominican Republic takes up two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. The Dominican Republic is shaped in the form of an irregular triangle, bordered by Haiti, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Mona Passage. Divided into the northern, central and the southwestern regions by mountains and valleys the Dominican Republic total area is approximately 48,442 square kilometers. Bordering the Atlantic Ocean the northern region, consists of the Atlantic coastal plain, the Cordillera Septentrional, the Valle del Cibao, and the Saman Peninsula. Running eastward from the Haitian border and ending in the Caribbean Sea the Cordillera Central dominates the central region which also contains the Caribbean coastal plain, which lies south of the foothills of the Sierra de Yamas. South of the Valle de San Juan the southwestern region encompasses the Sierra de Neiba. Running 296 kilometers from the Cordillera Centralto to the Bahнa de Manzanillo on the northwest coast is the Yaque Del Norte, the most significant river in the country. Covering an area of more than 3,000 square kilometers Lago Enriquillo is the largest lake in the Dominican Republic located in the southwestern part of the nation. Its drainage basin includes ten minor river systems.

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Primarily a tropical climate the Dominican Republic has more local changes in temperature than seasonal ones but a seasonal predictability in rainfall. The average annual temperature ranges from 25° C to 18° C. Rainy season lasts from May through November with May being the wettest month and the dry season lasts from November through April with March being the driest month. The average annual rainfall for the country on a whole is 150 centimeters. The season for tropical depressions, tropical storms, and hurricanes which occur on average every two years in the Dominican Republic, with over sixty-five percent of the storms striking the southern part of the country, lasts from the beginning of June to the end of November.

Historically the country has primarily been an exporter of sugar, coffee, and tobacco with its agriculture community producing sugarcane, coffee, cotton, cocoa, tobacco, rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas, cattle, pigs, dairy products, beef, and eggs. An estimated fifty-seven percent of the Dominican Republic's total territory is devoted to agriculture-related activities with forty-three percent being moderately if not well-suited for cultivation. Containing the republic's richest agricultural lands and producing most of the nation's food and cash crops, with the exception of sugar, are the Cibao and the Vega Real regions, with sugarcane cultivation centered on the coastal plains of the south and the east. Employing only seventeen percent of a 2.3 million - 2.6 million labor force agriculture accounts for eleven percent of GDP with industry accounting for thirty-four percent and services fifty-five percent and generates approximately half of all the exports. However poor distribution of the country's generally adequate rainfall results in less than fifteen percent of arable land benefiting from irrigation. Also the average farmer has fewer resources such as fertilizers, and tractors than counterparts in many other Latin American countries. This, along with a growth in tourism and free trade zones, has accounted for the service sector in recent years overtaking agriculture as the economy’s largest employer, employing fifty-five percent. With twenty-five percent of the country lying below the poverty line and a fifteen percent unemployment rate the country suffers from noticeable income inequality with the poorest half of the population receiving less than one-fifth of GNP, while the richest ten percent enjoy nearly forty percent of national income.

The main causes of death in the country as a whole are pulmonary circulatory diseases and intestinal diseases with enteritis with diarrheal diseases and protein energy malnutrition being the major causes of death in those under four. The country has 516 dentists with a ratio of physicians to inhabitants of 1:2,600. Life expectancy at birth for the entire population is 67.9 years, 66.4 years for males and 69.5 for females. The infant mortality rate is 34.9 per 1,000 live births. Toxemia, hemorrhages and sepsis associated with birth or abortion caused a maternal mortality rate of 1.66 deaths per 1,000 live births. The Dominican Republic has reported 130,000 cases, almost three percent of its population of 8,715,602, of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and of these, 7,800 have died.

Social welfare in the Dominican Republic is well established. Formal education includes primary, secondary, and higher education levels with a six-year primary cycle being compulsory. Three years of preschool are offered in some areas but are not compulsory. There were several types of secondary schools but the majority, ninety percent, attends the six year liceo, which awards the bachillerato certificate upon completion and is geared toward university admission. Other secondary programs included teacher training schools, polytechnics, and vocational schools. All primary and secondary schools are under the formal jurisdiction of the Secretariat of State for Education and Culture and results in a total population literacy rate of almost eighty-five percent. Social security coverage includes old-age pensions, disability pensions, survivors and maternity benefits, and compensation for work injuries. General tax revenues supplement employer and employee contributions. Wage earners, government employees and domestic and agricultural workers are eligible, although the benefits that most domestic and farm workers received are limited. Most of those enrolled are in manufacturing, commerce, and construction.

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Sunday, August 29, 2010

The Puketakauere Battle Essay

The Puketakauere Battle Essay

The Puketakauere Battle of 1860 began much earlier on. In 1854 a rift arose between the land selling and land holding groups of the Te Ati Awa tribe when a member of the tribe, Rawiri and some of his followers offered to sell tribal land near Waitara. Rawiri was subsequently shot dead by the landholding group (supported by Wiremu Kingi - also known as - Rangitake).

Then in March 1859 Governor Browne implemented a change in policy. On his visit to New Plymouth, Governor Browne announced to a Maori meeting that he wouldn't permit violence within the limits of European settlement nor would he permit any interference in land sales by anyone who couldn't lay claim to the land. This denied the tribe's Chief, who acted as trustee for tribal land to veto land sales by an individual.

This left an opportunity open for Te Teira (a minor chief of Wiremu Kingi's hapu of Ati Awa). He offered to sell the Governor a section of the Waitara block. Governor Browne consulted his advisors and proceeded to accept Te Teira's offer, as long as he could prove his title to the land.

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Wiremu Kingi objected to this immediately ; "Listen Governor, not withstanding Teira's offer, I will not permit the sale of Waitara to the Pakeha. Waitara is in my hands: I will not give it up".

Te Teira's intention for wanting to sell this land was not revealed, though it has been documented that Te Teira may have sold the land as a result of a grudge he held against Wiremu Kingi. Earlier, a Maori girl dumped Teira's brother to marry the son of Wiremu Kingi and Teira knew that when Wiremu Kingi's father was on his deathbed, Wiremu Kingi had sworn never to sell Waitara.

Armed with this knowledge, when Governor Browne offered to buy land without Chiefly approval Teira saw the perfect opportunity for revenge. In the end, of the 6 000 acres the Government purchased from Teira, only a tiny portion actually belonged to him. It was mainly owned by Maori who were against the sale or who were never consulted about the sale. The European settlers applauded the Governor's decision to purchase land in direct defiance of both tribal and chiefly wishes.

Governor Browne proceeded to defend his decision by stating "The right to sell land belonging to themselves without interference on the part of the Chiefs (not having a claim to share it) is fully admitted by Maori custom".

This statement is incorrect as a tribal Chief acting as trustee for his tribe, had a definite right to veto "alienation of land" by a single member of his tribe.

Government officials performed what many call a substandard inquiry following Teira's offer to sell them land. Wiremu Kingi continued to protest the proposed sale. While at the same time Teira was begging the government to finalise the sale. The Government agreed, stating Teira had "indisputable title" to the land. Plans for the survey began. The Government decided the surveying party should have a military escort. When the survey began on February 20 1860 the surveyors were met with resistance form some Maori women (loyal to Wiremu Kingi) who proceeded to pull out the surveyor's pegs.

This was the beginning of the Taranaki war.

On the morning of June 27 1860 Major Nelson moved out from the Waitara camp to attack the Pa's.

He was joined by Captain Beauchamp-Seymour and his 350 men who were divided into three groups.

The artillery opened fire at 7 am from level ground north west of Onukukaitara, but failed to commit enough damage to the stockade. The Maoris didn't sit and wait to be attacked in their Pa's - they came out fighting. They concentrated their fire on Captain Messenger, while Major Nelson and Captain Beauchamp-Seymour got into the thick of it. Maori reinforcements were sent for from Kairau. The British got themselves into trouble; Major Nelson was expecting reinforcements from New Plymouth as he had arranged with Colonel Gold that signal rockets would be sent up the night before the march against the Pas. Gold promised that he would march at daylight with 400 men and two guns. There was a communication problem and the rockets were never sent up, meaning Gold wasn't aware that Nelson had marched on Puketakere until he heard heavy firing in New Plymouth. Gold marched quickly but was forced to turn back at Waiongana as the river was flooded. Also firing had ceased so Colonel Gold assumed that assistance was unnecessary. Major Nelson's company of the 40th suffered heavy defeat against the Maori, Forcing Major Nelson to call "Retire" there wasn't any sign of reinforcements and ammunition was running short. Many of the dead and wounded were abandoned. Captain Messenger who had attacked the pa's from behind fought a lost battle against the well-prepared Maori and was also forced to retreat. The few survivors broke away in small groups or singularly. Overall the Puketakauere battle was yet another defeat for the British vying for land in New Zealand.

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The Battle of Britain Essay

The Battle of Britain Essay

The Battle of Britain began to become intense on July 10,1940, with German dive-bombers attacking convoys off the South and East coast of England and with raids on coastal towns from Dover to Plymouth. The RAF's seven hundred fighters faced four times that number of enemy fighters and bombers. Shipping losses increased but the real objective of destroying British fighters in combat was not achieved. At the end of the first week in August the RAF had lost ninety-six fighters and the Germans one hundred and ninety-two aircraft.

The second phase of the Battle began on the 8th of August, when the Luftwaffe intensified its attacks and also struck at fighter airfields and radar stations. A week later the Germans mounted their greatest effort in a series of attacks from Northumberland to Dorset, losing seventy-five aircraft to the RAF's thirty four. Pressure was maintained until August 18 but bad weather for the following five days gave RAF pilots a much-needed rest.

Over the next two weeks, the third phase, the Luftwaffe continued its attacks on fighter airfields, with a daily average of a thousand or more aircraft taking part. The proportion of fighters to bombers was increased to 3 to 1 in the attacking German formations and the defending RAF squadrons had their most difficult period, losing two hundred and eighty-six fighters to the Luftwaffe's three hundred and eighty.

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This wearing down process was having a serious effect on Fighter Command and had the attacks on airfields continued the outcome of the Battle might have been very different. Suddenly on the 7th of September the Germans switched their attacks to London itself, in both day and night raids, know as the “Blitz”. On the 15th (now celebrated as Battle of Britain Day), over a thousand enemy aircraft were involved of which fifty-six were lost. It is interesting to note that the RAF claimed 185 aircraft destroyed but later research has reduced that number to 56.

Throughout September London was the main target and many battles were fought in the skies above it. Hitler abandoned his invasion plans until furthur notice. This was predicted by Goring’s promise that the Luftwaffe could defeat Britain without any help from the Army or Navy. The air battles continued throughout October, by the 31st, was the official end of the Battle.

Nearly 500 pilots and aircrew had been killed, 500 more were wounded and 915 aircraft were destroyed. The up till then undefeated Luftwaffe had been beaten and lost 1733 aircraft and crews in the process. There are 2950 names on the official list of 'The Few’. Churchill made a speech on August 20th saying, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".

Over the course of June and July 1940, it became obvious that Britain was not going to lay down to the Luftwaffe. The Germans recognized that the destruction of the Royal Air Force had now become essential to the achievement of their strategic plans. On 1 August 1940, Hitler issued his Fundamental Directive No 17 for the "Conduct of the Air and Sea War against England." The Luftwaffe was to use all means to overpower the Royal Air Force in the shortest time possible.

Attacks were to be directed primarily at flying units, their ground installations, and their supply organization as well as the aircraft industry in order to "establish the necessary conditions for the final conquest of England." To try and achieve this aim, the Luftwaffe had to produce around 3,358 aircraft. Fighter Command was outnumbered more than 3:1 overall.

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Saturday, August 28, 2010

Essay on Abuse of Human Rights

Essay on Violation of Human Rights

Despite the horrors of the Holocaust, abuses of human rights have continued in the post World War II era. There are many atrocities that continued, however there have also been efforts to stop these abuses.

Document 1 demonstrates the pass-system of apartheid in Africa. The pass-system was a system established by the English, where only the Native Americans had to carry a pass around with them in case they were stopped and checked by the English Police. This “pass-system” violated human rights because only blacks were subject to this system. If they were caught without a pass with them, they would be arrested. This was unfair to the blacks and violated their rights.

Document 4 also states examples of how human rights were still being violated in the post World War II era. Document 4 is an article entitled “The Killing of Cambodia” published in 1982. It states that education and religious practices were not allowed. This violated the human right to freely practice religion and education. This article also states that families were broken apart in Cambodia, which is also another violation of human rights.

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A genocide in Rwanda violated human rights as well. Document 6 states that 500,000 people were carried out in the spring of 1994 in Rwanda. Thousands of Africans were raped, tortured and beaten. The international community did not do anything about these human rights that were being violated. The United Nations took action and got involved to get rid of these abuses of human rights. However, rationalizing prosecutions seemed impossible since Rwanda’s justice system had been destroyed.

Although many woman’s rights were violated post WWII, efforts were also taken to end these violations. Document 3 states actions that were taken to end apartheid. For example, in 1973, the United Nation General Assembly declares apartheid a crime against Humanity. Also in 1990, Nelson Mandela is released from prison and legal end of segregation in public places occurred.

Document 8 also identifies actions taken by Amnesty International to protect human rights. For example, publicize the cases of prisoners of Conscince or persons who have otherwise been subjected to disabilities in violation of the provisions.

Document 8 also states how the statue of Amnesty International will now investigate and publicize the disappearance of persons where there is reason to believe they may be victims of violations of the rights set out in Article 1. These are only a few examples of steps taken to correct the violations of human rights.

There were many examples of human rights abuses in the post-WWII era, such as apartheid in South Africa, segregation, racism, and much more. However, many steps were taken to end such atrocities in order to stop the violations of human rights and create all men equal.

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Essay on Absolutism in the Seventeenth Century

Absolutism Essay Writing

During the 1600’s, monarchial systems were changing. This was called the Age of Absolutism. Absolutism, the political situation in which a monarch controls all aspects of government, became the type of government in France, under the rule of Louis XIV. Louis XIV was a model of absolute rule. Louis XIV achieved royal absolutism and helped France become the most powerful nation in the world during the 1600’s. His ideas and actions made him be a model of absolutism.

Some ideas and actions praised his significance, these included; taking the sun as his symbol, claiming the “Divine Right of Kings,” and having morning and evening ceremonies called, “La levee”. He also had excessive power to control the people and economy. The system of mercantilism, expanding territories, never having the Estate General meet and building Versailles represented how much power and authority he obtained. He created a strong army, gave the nobles special privileges and revoked the Edict of Nantes, which insured his policies would be followed and to eliminate turmoil.

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Louis XIV, a Slavic emperor (czar), took absolutism to extremes by claiming himself as a servant of God, known as the “Divine Right of Kings.” This encouraged absolutism. People believed that when you claim the “Divine Right” you power comes directly from God. The French obeyed the Czars orders, fearing that if they didn’t, God would punish them. Louis XIV was known as the “Sun King,” due to the fact that he took the Sun as his symbol. The Sun was the center of the Solar system, as Louis XIV was the center of French life and he is necessary to the survival of France. An event which symbolizes his importance and reflects absolutism was the “La levee.” The “La levee” is a ceremony that occurs in the morning as the Czar rises. At night the ceremony is repeated but in reverse. Nobles competed for the privilege to assist the king, which showed utmost authority over them. By showing his importance through actions and ideas, the French obeyed Louis XIV ordinances leading up to him becoming an absolute power.

Power is an aspect which Louis XIV had. Louis XIV strengthened his own office while weakening the General Assembly of France. Not once did he call the Estate General to meet during his reign. The Estates General is a group of representatives from all 3 classes: nobles, clergy and townspeople. Therefore, the people didn’t get a chance to give their opinion. The czar, ruling an absolute monarch, made sure the people had no power. Colbert, Louis XIV organizer, promoted mercantilism and encouraged overseas trade, which helped to expand territories and increase power. A tariff, or a tax on imports, was then used to make money. The mercantilism policy made France the wealthiest state in Europe. Meaning, the King had control over all aspects of government, from economics to foreign policy, as is the definition of an absolute monarch. If the wealth increased, the power of Louis XIV increased too. There’s a saying, “ Keep your friends close but keep your enemy closer.” This is exactly what the King did by Building the Palace of Versailles. This became the perfect symbol of his wealth and power. Acting as both his home and of the government, it housed 10,000 people, which consist of nobles, bourgeoisie, and peasants. By having his workers live with him, he was able to keep and eye on them, control them and prevent any type of rebellion against him. The circumstances he went through increased his wealth while increasing his power.

One more action that Louis XIV took was to insure loyalty and to eliminate any form of rebellion or threat. He provided nobles with special privileges such as not having to pay taxes and being given the best jobs. Some jobs given were in the government, army or church. He did this to insure loyalty of the nobles. He also created a strong army. This army encouraged him being an absolute ruler because he used the army to insure the policies were being carried out and to put fear in the peoples eyes, knowing that if they didn’t listen to his rules they’d have to deal with the consequences. The army protected the Czar and controlled the people. Another action taken was the revoke of the Edict of Nantes. He took away religious freedom from the Huguenots (French protestants). This encouraged absolutism because it insured religious unity and eliminated the Protestant threat.

Based on his thoughts and actions, during the seventeenth century, Louis XIV is the epitome of absolutism. The actions and ideas of Louis XIV both reflected and encouraged absolutism. These helped him to gain power, symbolize his importance to society and to insure his policies. He ruled for seventy two years and wrote a book for his heirs on how to be an absolute monarch. The book insured that this type of government would last beyond his death. Louis XIV was a model of an absolute ruler.

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Friday, August 27, 2010

Patriotism by Yukio Mishima Essay

"Patriotism" Essay Sample

In this essay I will analyze the suicides of Shinji and Reiko. They are the main characters in Yukio Mishima’s "Patriotism". Both of their deaths are heroic acts, but I intend to show that Reiko’s suicide was more heroic. To do this, the definition of a hero must be addressed. Then I will show that each character’s conflict defines how heroic their respective suicides were.

A hero is someone who takes action for the benefit of someone else. An act that benefits few people is more heroic then one benefiting many people. When a hero helps few people, less good will is to be gained from the act. The act must also have possible detrimental consequences. More detrimental consequences make the act a more heroic one. Here is a good example. The soldier who charges a machine gun to save fifty fellow soldiers is a hero. The action benefited the other soldiers. Their lives were saved. The personal consequences for the soldier who charged the machine gun are ominous. The action puts his life in serious danger. Is the charging soldier’s action more heroic if death is the consequence? Yes, if the soldier dies the consequences to the soldier are greater then if he lives. Now consider if that solider charged the machine gun to save two, instead of fifty, fellow soldiers. Is this sacrifice greater when two are saved over fifty? Yes, because less good will is to be gained from saving two people then fifty. This is how a hero is defined.

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Can a suicide be considered heroic? Yes, using the above definition. If the suicide will benefit someone the act is most certainly heroic. With suicide, the consequence to the hero is death. In “Patriotism” both Reiko and Shinji’s actions meet the definition of heroic. When we analyze each characters conflict we see that their suicides benefited others and were committed at great consequence.

Shinji’s conflict stemmed from the mutiny. Many of the soldiers who mutinied were his friends. He could not rebel so he has orders to attack his friends. Shinji refused to fight his friends so his suicide resolves the conflict between his loyalties. His action is heroic because people benefit from his death. His friends do not have to fight Shinji, which would lower their resolve. In addition, his death means one less soldier for them to fight. The suicide is committed at great expense to Shinji. He gives up a life filled with joy and a beautiful wife.

Reiko kills herself because Shinji is. This is her conflict. Reiko’s suicide is committed for the sole benefit of her husband. Only her loyalty makes her commit the act. From the beginning of their marriage she knew that this day might come. On their wedding day Reiko received a “soldierly lecture” on the responsibilities of being a soldier’s wife. Death could come at any moment for a soldier and she needed to be steadfast in her resolve to accept it. She produced a dagger, and in a symbolic gesture to her husband, said she would die when he did. Will she commit suicide solely out of commitment for her husband, for his benefit? She does at great expense to herself.

Reiko’s act is more heroic then Shinji’s because the consequences of her suicide are greater. Through her resolve, she gains the pleasure of watching her husband commit suicide. This must have been a terrifying process to watch. Her husband’s death was a gruesome ordeal. His method of suicide is self torture then suicide. He cut his stomach and intestines out. Which will not kill a person, death will take many minutes this way. Then tried to stab him-self in the neck, but couldn’t penetrate it without Reiko’s help. Here is an excerpt from the passage, “The volume of blood had steadily increased, and now it spurted from the wound as if propelled by the beat of the pulse. The mat before the lieutenant was drenched red with splattered blood… the entrails burst through, as if the wound was vomiting… as they slipped smoothly out and spilled over into the crotch.” To watch this is a major loss for Reiko.

She loses her life for much less good will opportunity then Shinji. Shinji is benefiting more then one person with his suicide. He benefits the soldiers who committed mutiny, his country, and him-self. Shinji is the only person Reiko wants to benefit and the only person to return good will. Solely out of her commitment, she kills her self, a selfless act. Using the above definition, her suicide is the more heroic one.

Reiko’s promise of suicide gave Shinji the strength to commit his heroic act. “The lieutenant felt almost mesmerized by the strength in those eyes.” Thus, Reiko’s act gave Shinji the strength to commit his suicide. This is true because he did not question his wife’s resolve. “The lieutenant was confident there had been no impunity in that joy they had experienced when resolving upon death. They both had sensed at that moment that those permissible pleasures which they shared in private were once more beneath the protection of Righteousness and Divine Power, and of a complete and unassailable morality. On looking into each other’s eyes and discovering there an honorable death, they had felt themselves safe once more behind steal walls which no one could destroy, encased in an impenetrable armor of Beauty and Truth. Thus, so far from any inconsistency or conflict between the urges of his flesh and the sincerity of his patriotism, the lieutenant was even able to regard the two parts of the same thing.” The described by the quote was the strength of their relationship. The unity provided the confidence and strength to commit suicide. Reiko’s resolve and commitment to Shinji made this unity possible, making her act the more heroic one.

"Patriotism" is a tragic story. The opening paragraph has a fitting description, "The last moments of this heroic and dedicated couple were such as to make the gods themselves weep."

Each committed the ultimate sacrifice, trading their lives for the benefit of others; Shinji for his country and fellow soldiers, Reiko solely out of love and commitment to her husband. Her selfless act gave her husband the strength to commit his heroic suicide. She did this with tremendous courage and resolve which earns her the title of most heroic.

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Thursday, August 26, 2010

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Example Essay on Oedipus Rex

"Oedipus Rex" Essay Sample

The play "Oedipus Rex" is often viewed as an example of a classic Greek tragic drama because it contains both tragic and dramatic elements. The main character, the protagonist; Oedipus, due to his hubris, makes errors in judgement which lead to his eventual downfall. This process contains many instances of dramatic irony, which build up tension in the audience and leads to the catharsis, the final realization by the audience.

Greek tragedies were played at religious festivals, thus the audience knew the basic storyline, and so to keep the audience involved and entertained, dramatic irony had to be used. The words spoken take on double meanings only apparent to the audience, and thus keep their attention until the tragic end. This is clearly evident in Oedipus Rex as some of the first words he speaks is "the world knows my fame, I am Oedipus". Of course, the world is well aware of his fame, but as someone who was prophesied to kill his father and murder his mother, whereas Oedipus thinks he is famous for having rid Thebes of the Sphinx. Not only is this an instance of dramatic irony, it also shows Oedipus" nature and personality as an arrogant and confident ruler. Another typical aspect of Greek tragic drama reflected in the first scene is that none of the characters are aware of the fact that Oedipus is the cause of the corruption in Thebes and Reon's words "Drive the corruption from this land - don't nurse it in your soil - root it out" foreshadows what will eventually happen, which add to the dramatic irony.

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Throughout the play, various scenes and speeches build up and reflect Oedipus' character, which causes many instances of hamartia, leading to his tragic downfall. He is shown as arrogant, confident and headstrong; unwilling to stop even when he knows it may lead to dire consequences. After he is told that to rid Thebes of contamination, he must find the killer of Lauis, Oedipus first curses the killer, "let the man drag out his life in agony", then himself, "Should he be an intimate of our house". This shows his willingness to act swiftly in order to save Thebes; an important quality in a leader, but also one of his downfalls as he acts too quickly. These two lines are also ironic as the audience knows the real story. Oedipus attempts to cajole; "We beg you on our knees", and then threaten; "Mock me for that, go on and you'll reveal my greatness," the blind prophet Tiresias to tell him just who is responsible for the plague in Thebes, and Tiresias leaves him with a clue. He says, "This day will bring your birth and destruction." It foreshadows the events about to occur and is a hint to Oedipus; however, Oedipus misses his point. Thus this is one of many instances of error in his judgement. Another is the instance when Jocasta realizes a possibility of the truth and begs Oedipus not to pursue the matter further; "Oh no, listen to me, I beg you, don't do this", but he ignores her and this leads to the truth being told to Oedipus and eventually leading to his downfall. The audience at this stage realizes that Oedipus eventually does find out the truth, but still clings on to a faint hope that he does not. However, the climax of the play is when Oedipus threatens the shepherd with death so that he may be told the truth. This not only shows Oedipus' character as determined and willful because he pursues the matter so far, but is also the peripeteia of the play, the point where a complete reversal of the situation occurs. This is when Oedipus says, "I stand revealed at last, cursed in birth - marriage - the lives I cut down". At this, the audience is certain of the outcomes of the play and is somewhat sated if not content with the results as Oedipus does eventually learn the truth. This leads to the audience reflecting upon the process of the play and the eventual catharsis when any tension or doubts they may have had are resolved.

Oedipus' downfall is due to his overbearing personality. He is so confident in himself that he believes he can challenge the Gods, fate and defy the prophets. Oedipus is regarded as the hero that saved Thebes, a confident ruler of the city who tried to save himself by challenging fate, but the riddle he answered brought salvation only to the city of Thebes and not to Oedipus himself. He believed that he didn't kill his father because he did not know the whole story. He saved Thebes, but was then condemned for it. Oedipus is portrayed as the victim to a certain extent; however, he is still in some ways responsible. Thus, the audience sympathizes with Oedipus because of the instances of paradox exhibited in the play.

A further dramatic element of the play is the presence of symbolism. Oedipus' name literally means "sore foot" which foreshadows his earlier predicament. Oedipus eventually blinds himself, this is symbolic of the fact although throughout the play, he could see, he was "blind" to the truth, and is juxtaposed with the blind prophet Tiresias, who, although blind, could "see" the truth. This adds to the many instances of dramatic irony already present in the play, his self punishment reflects his lack of insight and is linked to his headstrong nature. Mount Cithaeron is used to symbolize Oedipus' life. It was where his troubles began when he was left there as a child, and presumably, where it will end as he says, "let me live on the mountains, on Cithaeron." He was cast away on the mountains as a child, and will be cast away again as an older man.

Through the personality flaws of the main character, a tragedy is derived. Oedipus displays many errors of judgment, and an overbearing hubris which makes this play the tragedy it is. Sophocles uses dramatic irony and symbolism to emphasize the extent of the tragedy, that and the presence of the peripeteia and catharsis leads to the play Oedipus Rex being regarded as a classic Greek tragic drama.

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Satire in Catch-22 Essay

Critical Essay on Catch-22

Serious presentations of anti-war themes provide us with truly great drama in which modern day society can find truly relevant. As well as providing a source to reflect on those tragic realities associated with war. However, the capabilities of serious presentations of anti-war themes can be over shadowed by the sharp nature of satire when addressing similar ideas of anti-war themes. Satire can have such an affect through its ability to diminish the emotion of serious anti-war presentations as the film Gallipoli.

There have been many diverse forms of satirical literature with powerful anti-war motives such as the novel Catch-22 that focused on the reaction of people when faced with the daily likelihood of annihilation. In addition, the more dubious likes of Play Little Victims that pursue a more comical approach to present its anti-war themes. Finally, a cartoon by Roger Matthew's that presents a very critical opinion on important issues currently concerning the American community. These three sources of satire address similar themes of war, as does the more serious presentation Gallipoli. The themes were: the negative reaction of those individuals when involved in the war, the serving of self-interests in the face of war and the unjustifiable death of thousands of individuals at the hands of war.

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Firstly, the acclaimed novel Catch-22 written by Joseph Heller has established itself as one of the most recognized satirical literature of the modern era. Catch-22 is about death and the reactions of people when faced with the daily likelihood of annihilation. For the most part what they do is try to survive in anyway they can. The reaction of those characters in these circumstances is to erect individual and institutional defenses against the anxieties engineered by unconscious fantasies of the threat of annihilation. These defenses are extreme, utterly selfish and survivalistic in nature. These reactions are observed throughout the novel by the behavior of numerous characters; however the character most notably affected is the main character Yossarin. Yossarin has made it clear he no longer cares about the outcomes of the war and wants as limited as possible to do with the war effort. It's via this anti-war transformation that Yossarin becomes overwhelmed by the survivalist instinct and becomes apparent in his behavior and mind state. This is supported by the narrative statements "Yossarin was a lead bombardier who had been demoted because he no longer gave a damn whether he missed or not".. "Yossarin had decided to live forever or die in the attempt, and his only mission each time he went up was to come down alive".

The increasingly corporate nature of American society is also a large satirized feature of Catch-22. This is primarily represented by the endeavors of M&M Enterprises led by Milo Minderbinder, the acting mess hall officer which is involved in various trade deals with surrounding islands and lastly the enemy. M&M Enterprises opens their black-market transactions in the selling of the squadron's silk parachutes in exchange for cotton. Later business transactions included the sale of some of the military's most vital supplies as diesel engines, shoes and morphine for items that represent no value to the base.

M&M Enterprise's final trade was however the worst judgement of all as in order to rid the army of the masses of worthless cotton earlier purchased, Milo made a deal that risked the safety of his own base. The deal involved that the GermanТs would buy the cotton from the army providing they would agree to drop explosives on their own base.

The audience can relate to Milo Minderbinder as a terrifying but accurate symbol of immoral international business practices because of his practice of twisting the military system to satisfy his own purposes.

In conclusion, the use of satire was a major contributor in the creation of such a masterpiece as Catch-22. Catch-22 presented very powerful anti-war messages as the negative reaction upon those individuals when involved in the war, which was initiated by the main character Yossarin.

Yossarin expressed this by his strong survivalist instincts that were supported by his non-interest in the war effort. Secondly, the serving of self-interests portrayed by the lucrative entrepreneur Milo Minderbinder in the form of M&M enterprises as he served, as a symbol of immoral business transactions because of his practice of twisting the military system to satisfy his own purposes.

Secondly, the novel Play Little Victims by Kennith Cook is a very intelligent piece of satirical literature in its ability to confront various issues concerning modern history and transfer them into a very simplistic form. The novel has an ability to do this through the creation of a dynamic fairytale existence of a civilization of mice that draws numerous parallels to that of modern day society.

The chapter concerning war however serves most relevant to the topic and is very intriguing in the way the writer portrays the civilizations interpretation of the major objective of war. This interpretation of war is that it's a tool to control factors of over population according to their understanding of modern history involving war. It's through this interpretation of war the writer is able to raises many issues concerning war and as satire does, best ridicule those elements involving war and bring out the blanketed realities of war.

The major anti-war theme confronted was the unrealistic amounts of power that those military leaders had, which in the novel were portrayed by the war council. This is strongly supported in their reaction to the problem of over population the board paid no courtesy to those individuals that they were prepared to personally sacrifice for self- benefits. This sacrifice came in the face of war when the board assembled two sides of half a million each to battle in reaction to the problem of over population. This aspect of Play Little Victims is supported by the statement by Adamus when addressing the events of their first war. "This is only our first war and I regard it as a great success" "We'll do better next time and we can have a battle once a week if we want to." This shows that the board had no compassion towards the hundreds of innocent victims as a direct result of their planning and execution and rather regards those individuals corpses laying in the valley a signal of success on their part.

The novel Play Little Victims also sees Kenneith Cook launch another satirical attack on the justification by governing parties for their declarations of war. The satire associated comes with the selection of sides by the War Council to depend on the participants prominent hand. This simplistic division of two sides is designed to ridicule the justification given by Political and Military leaders in modern times for their given reasons of war being based on international boarders and religious beliefs.

The third anti-war theme presented in the novel that also used the civilisations interpretation of war was the unjustifiable death of thousands of individuals at the hands of war. As it was according to the War Council that wars were a simple tool to control factors of overpopulation in the modern world and death is the sole outcome and purpose of War. This statement is supported by the optomistic remark from the war council "The theory is this one battle should reduce our population of around three million by at least half a million". This aspect of the novel is a very serious criticism of modern society and especially those past and present political leaders that have engaged in war. Despite this format of the novel as being seen as a laughable aspect on the surface. It's through this ability of Satire Kennith Cook's Play Little Victims is able to address such serious issues as war and be able to raise questions over the handling by authorities that otherwise would be never have been presented.

In conclusion, the novel Play Little Victims can be regarded as one of the greats of satirical literature in its ability to confront serious topics of modern history then transform them into a simplistic form as to question their meanings. The novel addresses various themes of war as the serving of self-interests in the face of war, which is strongly supported by the leaders of the War Council. The War Council in Play Little Victims can be represented as modern political and military leaders acting in self-interest by the declaration of war resulting in countless deaths of citizens. In addition, the unjust reasons for the countless deaths throughout history which is cleverly presented by the interpretation of the mice civilization as the main reason for war is as a tool to control population. The novel Play Little Victims has the ability to do this through the creation of a dynamic fairytale existence of a civilization of mice. The novel through its satirical aspect is better able to broadcast these themes then more serious presentations through its more comical and easy reading approach, yet amplifies very serious points increasing community awareness.

Thirdly, a cartoon by Roger Matthew's that makes a very subtle point about the naivety of the reactions of individuals and communities when emotionally fueled over war. The cartoon primarily focuses on the United States and its reactions to the September 11 attacks on the twin towers although can be extended towards all parties contemplating or involved in war. The cartoon initiates the perspective's of a particular individual during different periods of time the first being in 1969 during the Vietnam War and the second being after the September 11 attacks.

The artist draws on the similarities of "the war on terror" and the Vietnam War and how opinions can be transformed when observed from a different perspective. This is aspect is presented by two frames the first showing the individual in his twenties dressed as a stereotyped sixties "yipee" and the second presenting him thirty years later attired as a professional member of society.

The artist in the first frame attempts to focus on the individuals vulnerability to be called upon to go off to war. The frame itself is given its direction by the banner which the individual is holding which says "American troops out now!" This is a reaction to the acquired survivalist instinct and as he feels under threat by the direction of the war his perspective's are very ant-war. The second frame is of the same individual in similar circumstances of the threat of war. However, the individual has changed his perspective's on the issue of war, as he is no longer vulnerable to the impacts of war being an older and more professional member of the community. Satire comes into effect when he again presents a similar banner, however reverses the banner to say "American troops in now". This shows that because of ones position in society there can be a complete reversal of perspectiveТs by an individual.

The artist by the use of satire makes very strong allegations against the Americans of letting their emotions control their actions and aren't able to put the issue of war into perspective. By the use of such an event as the Vietnam War, he projects the obvious outcomes and risks that are an unfortunate part of war. These unfortunate outcomes of war referred to are as discussed in the two pieces of satirical literature previously analyzed in the novel Catch-22 by Joseph Heller and the novel Play Little Victims by Kennith Cook, that looked at the negative implications on those individuals when involved in war, the serving of self-interest in the face of war; and the unjustifiable death of thousands of individuals at the hands of war.

In conclusion, the cartoon by Roger Mathew's presents a very strong allegation primarily focused on the American community and their emotionally fueled reactions to the September 11 attacks. These pro war reactions are according to the cartoon failing to take the ordeal into perspective and don't show an understanding of those negative outcomes associated with war. The cartoon however can also can be extended towards other nations or groups that are currently involved in war or contemplating the declaration of war.

Finally, the film Gallipoli, which is truly a captivating modern day drama, is superbly directed by Peter Weir in the presentation of a very serious piece of anti- war literature. It follows the epic journey of two young Australians, who join the ill-fated ANZAC expedition. The movie is a very moving film in its ability to bring out the reality of the "Gallipoli" campaign, which has been deemed one of the great disasters in Australian military planning and execution.

The film Gallipoli is aimed at the emotions of the audience through its moving portrayal of the events of Gallipoli. ItТs importance as a film is to give an accurate insight into those tragic realities that unfolded on the beaches of Gallipoli during the First World War. The Movie has a large impact on the emotions of the audience by it's focus on such a devastating event as Gallipoli, however in comparison to that of a finely-crafted piece of satire as Catch-22 and Play Little Victims isn't able to achieve anywhere near the impact on the audience.

This concept is predominantly because of the structure of serious presentations as Gallipoli that focus on the delivering of an account of an event. Satire unlike those serious presentations doesn't make such a centralized focus on the issue, it aims are towards the presenting of material that is thought provoking where the audience is pushed towards a reaction. This is an extreme advantage of satire over more serious presentations as it further involves the audience in the material, where they are then able to relate the material to other issues rather than be informed of a specific event.

The second advantage in which Satire has over that of more serious presentations is the ability to attract significantly more attention from the community in turn increasing overall awareness. This ability of satire to attract attention is through its general nature of ridicule and the issues or individuals it does ridicule as Satire is renowned for its often-sensational claims that are designed to devalue individuals and groups of high societal standing. Therefore satire posses this ability of increased awareness through its practices of making sensationalist remarks that attracts a large audience because of its entertainment value. Therefore the increased awareness provided by satire is a distinct advantage over more serious presentations as it moves away from the over exposed forms of serious presentations and to give a more entertaining experience that leaves a greater impact on the audience.

In Conclusion, serious presentations of anti-war themes are able to supply the audience with truly great drama, in which the audience can use as a source to establish an accurate insight into those tragic realities associated with war. However as observed from the earlier analyzed pieces of satirical literature of Catch 22, Play Little Victims and the Cartoon by Roger Matthew's serious presentations aren't able to have anywhere near the impact on the audience. The powerful impact which satire has over the emotions of serious presentations are its ability to stimulate the audience through it sensational accusations and ensure a dramatic thought provoking exercise upon the audience as a result of its general.

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Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Childhood in Wuthering Heights Essay

Essay on Childhood in Wuthering Heights

In this essay I will be discussing the gothic aspects in "Wuthering Heights", a novel written by Emily Bronte. She was born in 1919 and died in 1848 after a very short illness. Emily Bronte loved the freedom of the moors, in all types of weather and whatever the season she was very familiar with all the different kinds of birds and animals that inhabited them.

Emily Bronte grew up at a time when the industrial revolution was changing the face of the British Isles. At the beginning of the nineteenth century most people still lived and worked in the countryside, and small towns were expanding rapidly. New shipyards, factories and railways brought a lot of wealth to small groups of manufactures and business people, as the century progressed. Factory and mine workers were forced to work in dreadful conditions.

At that time young children worked twelve hours a day. Many families were broke up by the fact that they worked long unsociable hours in order to survive.

‘Wuthering Heights’ in the wild and rough moor land of Yorkshine in the north of England is the home of the Earnshaws, and Thrushcross Grange is the home of the Lintons. The story of Wuthering Heights is one of passion and a very intense love story between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff. The story contains a lot of emotion, and this is the feeling right from the start of the novel.

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In ‘Wuthering Heights’ every relationship but one is broken by either death or separation. Family love is also shown in many different ways. Throughout the novel family relationships are marked by cruelty, neglect and jealously. Throughout the novel nature is described in connection with human emotions. The childhood world in the novel is very important, because children were treated very strictly, and in ‘Wuthering Heights’ many of the children are treated with cruelty and neglect.

During the nineteenth century death was much more common. Many women died during childbirth and from diseases that we have cures for today. Emily Bronte knew all about death as a very young woman, especially as her mother, two sisters and her brother had all died. In the novel there are many deaths. What is important is the way in which the dead have such a powerful effect on the living.

In ‘Wuthering Heights’ we get a very important insight into the people who live there. In the way that Emily Bronte describes the “stunted firs” and “gaunt thorns” . These are the impressions, which resemble the disturbed and miserable people who live there. Their lives are so bitter and unhappy that they are unable to ‘grow’. The house is described like a castle with its “narrow windows” and corners defended with “large jutting stones” . This gives the impression that strangers are regarded with suspicion, and this is shown to Lockwood when he arrives at ‘Wuthering Heights’.

Lockwood is a rich young man from the south of England who has moved to Thrushcross Grange, a mansion on the Yorkshire moors. He pays a visit to his landlord Heathcliff at ‘Wuthering Heights’. Heathcliff is rude and unwelcoming towards Lockwood. Lockwood is curious as to his landlord’s unsocial behaviour and his strange household.

Heathcliff was bought from Liverpool to ‘Wuthering Heights’ as a very young boy by Mr. Earnshaw who named him Heathcliff after his own son who had died. Heathcliff was found after being abandoned on the streets, and he was brought home to ‘Wuthering Heights’. Catherine soon became great friends with Heathcliff and he won over the love of Mr. Earnshaw. Heathcliff was a silent and strange boy, and he seemed to put with the ill treatment and blows he received from Hindley and never tried to defend himself.

Mr. Earnshaw’s health went down hill and he grew more and more alienated from his family. He thought that everyone did not like Heathcliff because he liked him. He was not impressed with his daughter Catherine’s charming ways. When he dies Catherine and Heathcliff grieve for him and console each other with thoughts of heaven. Heathcliff’s education is stopped and he is reduced to the level of a servant, but Catherine and Heathcliff continue to see one and other. Catherine teaches Heathcliff what she learns in her lessons. Both Catherine and Heathcliff love the freedom of the fields, and they would run away to the moors all day to play, and worry about their punishments afterwards.

Lockwood’s description of Heathcliff is that he is a very handsome man and dresses very well; he has the manners of a gentleman and is very dark skinned. Throughout ‘Wuthering Heights’ Heathcliff’s personality is described as dark, menacing and brooding. Heathcliff is seen as a dangerous person and for his mood swings. He is quite capable of showing his hatred and is not willing to forgive or reach any kind of compromise. Throughout the novel it is clearly established that Heathcliff has a wild and explosive temper. Even as a boy when he first arrived at ‘Wuthering Heights’ he is seen as a “dark skinned gypsy”. No one really knows where Heathcliff comes from accept to say that he was found on the streets of Liverpool, and so his origins remain a mysterious and dark secret.

When Catherine decides to marry Edgar Linton so she can have a good social background, as Heathcliff is not suitable to marry as his roughness and ignorance speaks for itself, even though she loves Heathcliff very much. Heathcliff runs away. Catherine goes out all night in a storm looking for Heathcliff and falls ill with fever. Catherine and Edgar live in harmony for almost a year when Heathcliff returns.

Heathcliff has mysteriously lost his roughness and gained gentlemanly manners, education and has come into some money. Catherine is delighted to see Heathcliff but Edgar is not pleased. A violent quarrel breaks out between both men and Heathcliff leaves Thrushcross Grange. Catherine is angry at both Edgar and Heathcliff.

Catherine becomes ill and nearly dies. Months later Catherine is still not very strong and is with child (pregnant.). Heathcliff goes to visit Catherine and they have a passionate reunion during which they forgive each other for their betrayal of one another. Catherine dies giving birth to a daughter. Before Catherine dies she tells Nellie ”I am Heathcliff” and that means that their souls are one.

Heathcliff goes mad when Catherine dies and he begs Catherine’s ghost to haunt him. His grief shows the passion he continues to feel for Catherine. His loss of Catherine will last him for the rest of his life. Her desire to be buried in the open churchyard is also another sign longing for the moors and the wild landscape of her youth and a symbol of her nature.

The night that Lochwood stays at ‘Wuthering Heights’ he is plagued by very strange dreams. In his dreams he tries to break off the tapping fir branch outside his window. He breaks the pane and as he reaches out to remove the branch, which is the cause of his restlessness, his fingers seem to close on a small cold icy hand. “ I am home: I have lost my way on the moors” A weeping voice the spirit of Catherine begs to be allowed in, as she has lost her way on the moor. Lockwood is filled with terror at the sight of the child’s face. He tries to break his hand free from the ghostly grip, rubbing the spirits hand on the broken pane until the blood flows.

When Lockwood breaks free from the ghostly grip, he dreams that he puts piles of books against the broken window to keep put the ghostly presence. He wahes with a scream. When Lockwood tells Heathcliff of his dream he is very shocked to hear him mention Catherine. Heathcliff breaks down and begs the spirit of Catherine to return. The use of dreams and ghosts give us a sense of the overpowering uncontrollable relationship that was once shared by Catherine and Heathcliff.

Death is stressed by Lockwood dreaming of the dead Catherine, her ghost crying at the window is a symbol of her separation from Heathcliff. He was so obsessed by his beloved Catherine, that he goes to the graveyard where she is buried to stare at her dead body when her coffin is uncovered while Edgar’s grave is being prepared.

There are many indications throughout the novel that Catherine is not at peace or resting easily in her grave. When her ghost appears in Lockwood’s dream “ Let me in “ is a sign of an unquiet soul. This is also another sign of Catherine and Heathcliff’s separation, and the window coming between them. Heathcliff has been haunted by the spirit of Catherine and is aware of her presence, yet he is unable to reach her, and he is tortured almost to death.

In Dracula, Van Helsing opens Lucy’s coffin “ to mutilate her body- to stake her heart “ this is in order to release her soul from the undead and destroy her body. Heathcliff on the other hand only wants to embrace Catherine’s body in death, there by keeping her fresh in his memory.

Heathcliff tells how he opens Catherine’s coffin so he can get some ease by looking at her face once again. He breaks one side of her coffin so that when his coffin is laid beside hers, he instructs the sexton to do the same to his so they can be as one and nothing to separate them. Heathcliff begins to act very strange during the final days of his life.

He refuses to eat, locks himself in his room, and wanders off without telling anyone where he has been. But what is noticed is the strange excitement about him. He tells Nelly “ Last night, I was on the threshold of hell. To day I am within sight of heaven “ Heathcliff’s statement is obscure, as this does not explain his sudden change of heart. Heathcliff’s deep black eyes, his smile and his ghastly paleness made him seem like an evil spite. Nellie asks herself is he a ghoul or a vampire. The only thing that can cause Heathcliff’s strange mood is Catherine, even though she has been dead for a long time, and the sense of loss is now dominant in his soul. His mood has been heightened to a delirious agitation at the prospect of being with Catherine again. Heathcliff is found dead by the window.

In conclusion Catherine was a wild and passionate character both as a girl and a woman. Sometimes she was quite capable of real heartlessness. But in spite of her love affair with Heathcliff, she decided to marry Edgar who could give her a good social background. Heathcliff was not good marriage material because he was rough, ignorant and wild, with no social background. Catherine belongs to the moors and the stormy elements of nature the same as Heathcliff. Before she dies she warns Heathcliff that her spirit will not let him rest until they are reunited in death.

As Catherine became more beautiful and lady-like, Heathcliff became rougher in his appearance as did his mood and speech. When Catherine decides to marry Edgar, Heathcliff runs away.

When Heathcliff returns he has worked out a plan of vengeance on both Hindley and Edgar, we can see where he becomes a cruel and unfeeling demon. But the spirit of Catherine prevents him from bringing his plan to fruition. For some time he lives in spiritual torment, a frenzied man, having lost all desire for revenge and the will to live. Heathcliff’s death is mysterious as his origins. But the atmosphere of mystery and romance remains.

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How Socialization Influence a Person Essay

How Socialization Influence a Person Essay

Socialization is a process of learning through interacting with people who live in our environment. This interactive process is brought about through connecting with others and making our own decisions in our lives, some of which is through the process of “influencing those who influence us”. There are two main approaches on socialization, the first is the functionalist approach and the conflict theory approach to socialization, the second is the new approach to socialization.

Functionalists and conflict theorists both believe that socialization “conforms to an internalization model”.

Functionalists focus their research on the people who are being socialized, the people and institutions that do the socializing, and the results of socialization of the people being socialized.

Functionalist’s research is aimed mainly to find out exactly who athletes are being socialized from. When athletes were young it was found that the main influencers were their families, teachers, coaches, friends and role models. These influencers are described as the “significant others”.

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These researchers send out questionnaires to children and high school students to try to find out exactly who influences a person to play a certain sport, and what personal characteristics they have to require to be interested in sport. However many of these methods have presented “inconsistent and contradictory findings”.

Unfortunately the information form these questionnaires have not given a clear view on sport socialization as a process in peoples lives.

Conflict theorists even though they use the internalization model as well concentrate more on socialization serving “the economic needs of capitalist systems”, through trying to make people hard workers. They believe that people with money and are higher up in they line of work in society try to use “economic forces” to make sure that they stay in their powerful positions.

Conflict theorists focus on whether or not competitive sports encourage racism and sexism among athletes and coaches, if people less fortunate and of poorer backgrounds are denied playing sports the way they want to, and if the powerful people in society make sports the way they want them for money.

It has shown that athletes will go to all lengths for sport participation, even as far as violence to win and playing while injured which could cause them to never play again, but to them its worth it all for one game.

Some researchers have been dissatisfied with the methods of functionalists and conflict theorists that they turned to the “interactionist models of socialization”.

These researchers use more “qualitive rather that quantitive” methods to gain their information. They prefer to observe the players, their life styles and use one to one interviews to find out who they are and exactly why they participate in sport, rather than using questionnaires to give the answers that we need to know about sport socialization. These researchers’ main aims are to find out in detail peoples personal experiences in sport, how they make the decision to participate in sport and what they gain from sport.

The results found from using interviews, and observing and studying athletes while playing sport has shown that participation in sport is a decision that people make each day of their lives for different reasons. It has been shown that there are three main examples of socialization; the first is becoming the athlete, becoming known and accepted, and lastly the decision “to participate or not to participate”.

Research of how people become athletes has been studied by a sport sociologist, Chris Stevenson. He realised that there are two main processes that proceed to become an athlete; the first is the “introduction and involvement”. This starts off by young children being gradually introduced to sports through important people that influence them such as their family, friends and teachers. Gradually over time they decide to stick mainly to a particular sport that they feel they are good at and enjoy mainly due to the good experiences received while playing that sport. The second process is the “developing a commitment” to the sport that they have chosen to participate in. This process starts the children form good relationships with their coaches and other players, and as they start to get noticed and appreciated. As they get more encouraged to play at the sport and start to form strong identities as athletes they become committed to participating in the sport and want to be counted as an athlete.

Both of these processes are continuous processes that occur over time, they are complex and can not be taken for granted as circumstances like support and resources that the athletes require for participation can change and mean they may have to alter their sport participation. Stevenson has therefore shown through his studies that socialization is an interactive process that we all participate in.

To become known and accepted in any sport you first have to have knowledge about the sport, talk to people involved in the sport and get to know their views and opinions, and finally get known in the group as an athlete and part of the same team. Becoming accepted as an athlete in a sport all comes down to whether you are able to “talk the talk and walk the walk”. If an athlete does not manage to keep up with any changes then they may face losing their acceptance and support which overall could affect their participation. This process of having to become accepted occurs in every sport of every kind, each unique sport has it own way of communicating with each other. It is known that if athletes are not fully accepted, their participation in the sport may not last, which again shows that sport participation is complex and that socialization is interactive.

“To participate or not to participate” in sport can be due to many reasons, some to changes in circumstances, past experiences, and others due to lack of support or resources. Some young people use sport just to have a sense of control in their lives and show to be competent. These people base whether they play sport mainly on what it is they want to do in their future. People drop out of sport for many different reasons; injury, win-oriented teams and coaches, or never being accepted fully into their sport. Most of the time though people do not drop out of sport all together they decide to play less demanding sports or decide move into different roles like becoming a coach. This also portrays how socialization is continuous and interactive.

In conclusion there are different approaches to socialization that conform to either an “internalization model” or an “interactionist model”. These approaches show that socialization is a process which is continuous, interactive, and complex; that involves us to make decisions every day of our lives, and requires support and acceptance from others.

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