Sunday, January 31, 2010

American Imperialism Essay

Essay on American Imperialism

Imperialism is the advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas. This is how America came to be the most powerful nation, by eliminating racial discrimination. In the late Nineteenth Century, American imperialism was encouraged by interests, ideology, and strategic interests.

Economic interests in other countries is what helped America improve their economic status. Making more trading routes around the world will increase trade with other countries. A base in Hawaii increased trade with other countries since Hawaii is in the middle of the Pacific ocean. The Philippines help set up eastern markets for the US companies. But, America has every right to intervene if American companies are at risk.

This is what helped America to be a very wealthy country.

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Ideology is what helped America to steer in the right direction. People like Anglo Saxon had an impact on America. Anglo Saxon colonized America and increased Americas population. Other things like “White Man’s Burden” help America to realize that if America want to be a powerful nation, they have to eliminate racial discrimination. If America stayed the way they were, then America wouldn’t be a strong nation.

Strategic Interests help America to have a strong navy and military power. The protection of trade routes were vital to America. Alfred Mahan believed that America’s survival depended on a strong navy. Countries near the U.S. must be kept status to keep the U.S. safe. Since America has a strong navy, they control most the oceans which increased trade with other countries.

Economic interests, ideology, and strategic interests are important to America. These three things helped America to be a strong nation. Today, America has a very strong navy and more naval bases are being built. More resources are being traded and America is getting stronger.

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Short Essay on Alexander Graham Bell

Essay on Alexander Graham Bell

He was a great man. Alexander Graham Bell that is, he is awesome. He created many things. He invented the telephone and the light bulb. Withought the telephone, we would have hard time communicating these days. Practically everyone uses the telephone.

Most people use the light bulb also. This was a great invention of Alexander Graham Bell. It would be annoying if we didn't have electricity and had to use lanterns all the time, even though people do that...the Amish.

Alexander Graham Bell is a great man and we all love and cherish him very much for his inventions. We find much use in them. We use them everyday and without them, life would be more difficult.

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Alexander Graham Bell is dead now, of course. He lived a great life with everything he did for everyone. He made life easier and more helpful for people. Everything he did was positive, and made everything more efficient. It is great to know that people in the past have created great things to help the future out. We are grateful for his accomplishments.

Even though many people might think that it's not a big deal now, it really is. It was especially a huge deal back when he invented them, because no one had seen anything like it before. Now, we are used to it but still appreciate it very much.

This is a great person, and everyone should realize how important that he really was. His accomplishments were very important and it is a great deal to everyone. Many other inventions were created by many other people alos, but Alexander Graham Bell created some of the most impressive and important.

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Thursday, January 7, 2010

Cold War Essay

Essay on Cold War

The Cold War is a term used to describe the open yet restricted rivalry and hostility that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War lasted from the mid-1940s to the early 1990s. Numerous consequences resulted from the war, such as, the Korean War, the Truman Doctrine, and the Warsaw Pact.

Although it centered originally in Europe, the Cold War animosity eventually drew the United States and the USSR into local conflicts in almost every quarter of the globe. (Legvold 1).

Hatred between the United Sates and the USSR had its roots in the fading moments of World War I. Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin resolved to withdraw Russia from the war, but in 1918, the US and its allies intervened militarily in Russia to restore the collapse of the Eastern Front in their effort against Germany. The US and the European Powers took offense to Russia’s leadership. In 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the USSR, was formed as a federal union of Russia under Communist control. Joseph Stalin ruled the USSR from 1929 to 1953. (The Cold War and post-Cold War eras: An overview 1)

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The United States and the USSR had become divided over political future in Poland, even before the defeat of Nazi Germany in May 1945. Stalin’s forces had driven Germans out of Poland in 1944 and 1945 and he established the pro-Communist temporary government there. The US accused the USSR of expanding Communism in Europe and Asia. In 1947, President Harry S. Truman issued the Truman Doctrine, which authorized aid to anti-Communist forces in Greece and Turkey. In the summer of 1947, the US committed itself to a massive economic aid program. This program was called the Marshall Plan, after the US secretary of state George C. Marshall. It was designed to rebuild Western European economically. (Legvold 3)

Many significant events that helped shape the Cold War were the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which was signed in April 1949 and followed the Berlin Blockade. In 1953, a serious impact to the Cold War was the death of Stalin. Meanwhile in 1955, a group of Eastern European communist nations led by the USSR formed the Warsaw Pact. The Construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 was to prevent East Germans from fleeing into West Germany. (Legvold 4)

In addition to these occurrences, in June of 1950, Stalin had looked as if to support the plans of North Korean Communist leader, Kim II Sung to attack South Korea. He assumed that the US and other powers would not get involved. This mistaken assumption led to the Korean War. Another instance where the Cold War turned hot was in the Vietnam War, which began in 1959 and lasted until 1975. It was a long bloody conflict and placed the Communist North Vietnamese and the National Liberation Front against the South Vietnamese. Also, the Cuban missile crisis informed both sides that nuclear war in pursuit of political objectives was simply too dangerous. (Legvold 4-5)

The Warsaw Pact was a military alliance of eight European Communist nations and was formed in 1955 in response to West Germany’s entry into NATO. Its terms included a unified military command and the stationing of the Soviet troops in the other member states. Though its obvious goal was to protect against NATO attack, the only occasions on which Warsaw Pact troops were called into action were to overpower uprising in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovak. Although the Warsaw Pact was officially renewed in 1958 for another 20 years, the political transformation of Eastern Europe at the end of the 1980s strongly weakened the organization. The alliance was dissolved in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet bloc, and the Soviet troops departed. (Burant 1, 4)

The Truman Doctrine was a pronouncement by President H. Truman. On March 12, 1947, he called for immediate economic and military aid to Greece, which was threatened by communist insurrection, and to Turkey, which was under pressure form Soviet expansion in the Mediterranean. While in the Cold War with the Soviet Union, the US sought to protect those countries from falling under Soviet influence after Britain announced that it could no longer give them aid. In response to Truman’s message, Congress held 400 million dollars for the two Mediterranean nations in aid. The uses of the Truman Doctrine expanded the nation’s role in checking the spread of communism in the postwar era. (Truman Doctrine 1)

The Korean War was a conflict arising after the post-World War II division of Korea. Negotiations failed to reunify the two halves, the North half being a Soviet client state and the South half being backed by the US. In 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations Security Council passed a resolution calling for the assistance of all United Nations members in slowing the invasion. President Truman ordered US troops to the assistance of South Korea. At first, the North Korean forces drove the South Korean and United Nation forces down to the South tip of the Korean peninsula. Although the brilliant tactics of General D. MacArthur turned the tide in favor of the United Nations troops and advanced to near the border of North Korea and China. The Chinese then entered the war and drove the United Nations forces back south. The front line stabilized at the 38th parallel. (Johnson 1)

MacArthur favored bombing China at this point and was relieved of his command when he refused to accept Truman's decision to fight. President Eisenhower participated in the conclusion of an armistice that accepted the front line as the actual bounder between the two Koreas. At the end of the war, Soviet forces accepted surrender of Japanese forces in the North while US forces accepted surrender in the South. The war resulted in the deaths of 1.3 million South Koreans, 1 million Chinese, 500,000 North Koreans, 54,000 Americans, and smaller numbers of other nationals in the United Nations forces. (Cumings 1)

In 1991, the USSR dissipated, and Russia and the other Soviet republics appeared as independent states. Even with all the numerous consequences that came into play during the Cold War, much of the basis for the war had disappeared. However, the collapse of the Soviet power in Eastern Europe, and then of the USSR, gave a crushing conclusion to the end of the Cold War period. (Legvold 6)

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Sunday, January 3, 2010

Nike Essay

Essay on Nike

Situation: The case talks about how awareness was created about the abysmal working conditions of the (Nike’s) factory workers in the third world countries. It clearly states the various incidents and instances, which confirm child labor and the appalling work conditions in these sweatshops.

In 2001, Jonah Peretti, a customer, was trying to customize his Nike shoes with the word “sweatshop” on it. The company rejected the order saying ‘sweatshop’ was an inappropriate slang. In response, Peretti changed his order and wanted a ‘snapshot of a 10-year old Vietnamese who makes his shoes’ instead. Nike had to face a lot of the negative publicity because of this incident. Nike has faced a number of sweatshop allegations in the past for almost a decade now. In 1998, Thomas Nguyen, founder of Vietnam Labor watch, reported several cases of worker abuse. He reported that workers were allowed one bathroom break and two drinks of water in each 8-hour shift. In 1997 former Atlanta Mayor, Andrew Young was hired to review Nike’s overseas labor practices. He concluded that Nike was doing a good job and can do better and came up with a 6 recommendations to improve. Nike announced to implement them all. Nike also decided to expand its education programs for these workers. It also raised the minimum hiring age from 14 to 16 and then finally to 18.

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Issues: Management’s defense to all these allegations is that the wages of their workers are much higher than the average monthly wages in those countries. This has a tremendous negative impact on the local economy. The prices in these countries shoot up because of the few companies like Nike; the other work force cannot afford the high prices. This causes a lot of economic and social instability and eventually leads to increasing the marginal poverty in that region. The solution is not just increasing the wages of the workers but to invest some of its profits in developing their communities. The issue of sweatshops is more than just an ethical issue for the people living in these countries.

The attitude of the management is also an issue here. The CEO was not disturbed by the fact that they were employing 14 year olds in their factories. The idea of hiring the teenage kids in preference to the (abundant) adult workforce has immense implications in the long run for these countries; the adult workforce when employed can support their children’s educational needs. This in the long run will result in increased wages in those countries. Companies like Nike will then lose the advantage of having their factories in the third world countries. So they don’t want it to happen.

Stakeholders: Nike and the workers in Nike’s factories are the primary stakeholders in this case. The sweatshop allegations can result in an ethical outrage and the customers of Nike can reject their product and this in turn would affect the company and the company’s stock price; thereby the shareholders. The shareholders and the customers have large stakes. So do Nike’s competitors. The various Unions and organizations like, ‘The made in the USA foundation’, have some stake in this issue. The other non-Nike workers in these countries also have a stake. The athletes endorsing Nike’s products will have a stake. The various third world countries’ Governments have some stake.

Alternative actions: It is not enough that Nike pays their workers more; Nike should invest more of its profits in developing the community. Educational programs for the workers as well as the community can be implemented. Nike should take steps so that the disparity between the rich and the poor is not increased because of its efforts.

Final outcome: In my opinion, Nike should not bring all its profits to its home country but should invest more of it in the countries where they manufacture or operate.

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