Saturday, July 31, 2010

Personal Strengths and Weaknesses Essay Sample

Most people know their personal strengths and weaknesses. I know my own and use them to better myself. I am very confident on the work I do and feel I perform better than any of my associates, my education in the electrical field is wide and broad, it has made me a leader for my associates and they respect me for it. There are areas where my expertise requires the help of others, especially in the area of mechanics, knowing this to be my weakness I choose those persons with a strong knowledge in the area to be near me when I need them, this arrangement makes us look like a very strong team at our workplace and gives us recognition as experts. A great team is formed by individuals with lots of different strengths and weaknesses important so they can excel in areas where others struggle.

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One area where I continuously excel is in the area of sales, most people after talking to me are convinced I can sell them anything they want, if I don’t have it I can usually get it at a low price for them, I can sell from computers to food or clothing items. I also have two friends who help me sell what is hard to sell and get good commissions on the sales, they know that good profits will be theirs from their continuous association with me; I know I make money from my salesman.

It is incredible how quality people attract quality people, losers seek losers and how everyone realizes that to get the most out of everyone, losers, leaders, experts need each other to maximize to the fullest the benefits of any organization.

I constantly feel responsible for those who can not overcome their weaknesses and always try to educate them so they can become strong at something. One day they might prove useful to me.

I know that to keep up with others I have to continuously improve myself, that is why I am now going back to school, my associates now realize that they need to better themselves and now are also interested in school. My strengths and weaknesses could better be described by my friends, I cannot look myself in the mirror and fully describe myself, and this weakness is hard to get rid off.

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Friday, July 30, 2010

Essay on Pediatrician

Essay on Pediatrician

What are the educational requirements to become a pediatrician? How many years to you have to study? What other training requirements, internships, licenses, continuing education, or membership in the professional societies is required?

To become a pediatrician you first have to complete a general college education which may or may not focus on the sciences. As long as you do well in your studies and take a core set of pre-med courses you can major in just about anything. In fact, medical schools are eager to take students whoa re well rounded and have shown diverse interests before applying. Once in medical school there are usually 4 years of training, some in lecture form, others in practice situations and then you graduate with a degree - MD - then you first have to train in your chosen specialty - in the case of Pediatrics the training is at least 3 years long but may take even longer if you have a special interest such as pediatric cardiology or pediatric hematology. After the training period you are able to practice as a pediatrician but of course education should never stop - continuing to keep up with what’s changing and new is a vital part of your job. Most docs take a special test after training in order to become Board Certified in Pediatrics. This then entitles you to admission to the Academy of Pediatrics, a society of docs dedicated to the betterment of child health. They also provide constant sources for self education and updating on all areas of pediatrics. Some docs also belong to societies that are interested in their particular area of subspecialty such as pediatric pulmonology or pediatric gastroenterology etc. and of course there are meetings for each of these societies.

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What is the cost of education and training for this profession?
The cost of education is always rising - it is no longer feasible to pay for this education without loans and grants so that many docs in training are also working simultaneously to pay back the borrowed money and even after training ends are often in large debt to these educational loans. Some join public services in order to work off the loans and some docs join the armed services for the same purpose and work in public health hospitals. The actual cost varies from school to school but it is not unusual for a graduate to owe $100,000 or more for their education.

What is the salary range (from entry to accomplished level)?
Salaries depend on specialty within pediatrics though the usual range for general pediatrics is $75,000 to $150,000 per year. No one chooses pediatrics for the money - it is among the lowest paid of specialties in medicine but I think it’s the most rewarding.

What are some opportunities for advancement in the pediatric profession?
Advancement can include movement upward in administrative positions in medical centers or public health establishments where pediatricians are needed to help formulate policy regarding the future healthcare of our children. Advocating for children can take many forms and some pediatricians even do so for the legal system or for school districts. The teaching aspects of pediatrics can also be an opportunity for advancement as many pediatricians enjoy teaching while treating sick children in hospitals.

What is the future of this profession?
The future is bright - preventive healthcare focuses it’s efforts on the young and so pediatricians will be the first to see the benefits of gene therapies, new vaccinations, eradication of diseases and the improvements in health that better nutrition and better lifestyle choices can result in. I believe pediatrics will also increasingly be available to parents via the internet and parents will have a greater role in their children’s healthcare than in the past. There are new and less invasive devices and tools that are designed for the care of children that will make the practice of pediatrics more appealing and more satisfying.

What are the typical work conditions in general and specifically?
Work conditions depend on where the job is - you can have your own office, you can work in a clinic setting, you can work within a hospital and you can choose intensive care of very sick children. Some docs do school based care and work in many sites often changing locations daily. Some docs do "roaming" care in city sponsored vans or buses set up to reach children and teens who have little access otherwise to healthcare.

How is science and/or math related to this profession?
All of medicine is science based and of course there is also the healing aspects that include human touch and understanding. Math is handy for figuring out dosages especially in pediatrics since most medications are given on a per kilogram basis - a simple calculator can help you along.

What are the job duties and responsibilities of a pediatrician? What is the typical day like?
Typical day depends on where you work. I typically see patients in the hospital in the very early morning (both sick children and well babies) before seeing patients in the office. I see about 4 patients an hour unless there are complex issues that need more time and in between I make phone calls to other doctors and answer phone calls from patients. At the end of the day I often return to see the patients in the hospital, usually the sick ones. Often at night I participate in seminars or teach medical; students. The days are long and if I am "on call" I may be called to return to the office or emergency room to see a sick child even in the middle of the night. In my case I take call about every 3rd night and weekend.

Is medical school really as hard as people say?
Medical school is hard but not any harder than any other field that you try to excel in - if you feel a calling, a dedication to helping others, medical school will be exciting and stimulating and not "hard" in the laborious sense. You will enjoy learning and you will enjoy the thrill of helping people and that will over shadow the long hours of study you will need to do to learn all the information you will need.

I don't want to be a doctor just for the money. I want to help children grow and help them with their problems.

You should never become anything just for the money and in the case of medicine you will not be guaranteed a great deal of money regardless of what you may have heard in the past about doctor’s salaries. The times are changing and medicine though clearly a stimulating and demanding vocation, is no longer as lucrative as it once was. You will however feel great at the end of the day and you will always be employable. If you want to help children grow pediatrics is a fine and noble way of doing that. Good luck.

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Thursday, July 29, 2010

Pathological Gambling Essay

Pathological Gambling Essay

Pathological Gambling is a slow progressive disease that destroys the gambler’s life, and everyone who he/she has a serious relationship with. Pathological Gambling is a serious problem in today’s world of gambling. It is an easy disorder to diagnose due to the associated features of the disorder. Even though it is easy to diagnose, a Pathological Gambler is very hard to cure. Pathological Gambling is a very unhealthy mental disorder, which affects millions of people each year.

Are you preoccupied with the thought of gambling? Are you always trying to chase your losses? Have you ever lied to your family/friends about how much time you spend gambling or how much money you gamble? Do you only feel satisfied gambling with large amounts of money ( To most people, answering no to the previous questions is the norm, but individuals with a pathological gambling disorder would answer yes to many or all of the questions.

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There are multiple ways to diagnose Pathological Gambling. Individuals with Pathological Gambling often continue to gamble even while making strong attempts to control, and or cut back, their gambling. When persons with the disorder attempt to cut back from gambling they often become irritable, and restless ( The same reasons alcoholics drink are sometimes the same reasons why Pathological Gamblers gamble; because they think it’s a way of escaping from problems or it relieve feelings of helplessness, guilt, anxiety, and depression ( When an individual has urgent needs to gamble to “chase” losses is another sign of Pathological Gambling. These are all signs of someone who desperately needs help. There are no winners in gambling, and a pathological gambler doesn’t want to acknowledge that simple fact.

Curing the disorder is said to be impossible. Like alcoholism, the only answer is to practice abstinence from gambling ( Pathological Gambling is helped by individual therapy, or group therapy. This is very similar to how Alcoholism is treated when an alcoholic goes to an AA meeting, a person with Pathological Gambling disorder would go to a GA meeting, Gamblers’ Anonymous. GA groups are sprouting up in more places across the country due to gambling being allowed in many different areas and places then before, making it more accessible and more tempting then in the past when gambling was only allowed in places like Las Vegas and Atlantic City ( Now not only is there is OTB betting, but many casinos have been built on Indian reservations like Mohegan Sun in Connecticut. Neither is Pathological Gambling limited to adults anymore; many teens are gambling these days, partly from the ease of access with the Internet.

The signs of Pathological Gambling are very easily spotted and should be taken seriously, like alcoholism, it is a disease that can be treated. Counseling is very important to people with the disorder. Without help, Pathological Gambling can destroy an individual’s life, family, friends, job, and in some cases has lead to suicide. By taking therapy seriously and working at it, individuals with Pathological Gambling can remove gambling from their life. Play your cards right, don’t let the cards play you.

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Wednesday, July 28, 2010

Essay on Milk

Essay on Milk

The milk contains all the food, including protein, fat, sugar, and other nutrients, a young mammal requires for a long period of time. Milk comes from sheep, cows, and goats. Milk is good for us because we grow up healty and have a strong body, we have sharp teeth and have energy. Everybody needs milk example: babies, toddlers, sick people, children, elderly and old people.

In various parts of the world, goats, reindeer, donkeys, yaks, water buffalo, and sheep are domesticated and milked. In most countries, however, dairy cows provide milk.

Milk and milk products are drunk and eaten in many forms, including buttermilk, cheese, yoghurt, and butter. Milk can be reduced to powder, concentrated in a thick liquid, and used in cooking. Fresh milk sours quickly, but, when changed into forms such as cheeses, it can be kept for a long time. People consume milk in fresh, dried, and condensed forms.

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Fermented-milk products, such as buttermilk, sour cream, and yoghurt, are also available. Milk is used to make food products such as butter, cheese,and ice cream. Under normal conditions, the milk of mammals is the only food necessary for the health and growth of that mammal’s young for certain period after birth. Cow’s milk can be substituted for human milk in feeding babies only if the proportions of water and sugar to other components are increased. Milk is composed largely of water; cow’s milk, for example, is approximately 87 per cent water by volume. The main nutrients, food elements are: proteins, the principal proteins in milk are casein and albumin. They contain all the essenial amino acid for building tissues, blood and hormone substances. Casein is found only in milk and gives milk its whiteness.

Carrbohydrates, the fat of the milk is called butterfat, or milkfat, and is the part of milk from which butter is made. It is an important source of energy and rich in vitamin A. Minerals, milk are one of the best natural sources of calcium and phosphorus.Its other minerals include iron, copper, sodium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur and iodine. Vitamins, milk contains all the known vitamins, but only four-riboflavin, vitamin B2, thiamine, vitamin B1, niacin and vitamin A in significant amounts. Milk is an excellent source of ribonflavin; it contains only a little less than does an equal amount, by weight, of lean meat. Microorganisms that Disease-causing organisms present in the cow can be passed on to the milk.

Contamination can occur when the milk is obtained, stored, or transported. Milk is pasteurised to kill and prevent growth of microorganisms. Milk products: Raw milk is natural, fluid milk. Pasteurised Milk is milk that has been heated to 63 Degrees.

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Tuesday, July 27, 2010

Essay on Medical Genetic Applications

Essay on Medical Genetic Applications

Genetic research is a new and upcoming field and until recently was just practiced strictly on a scientific level. In 2000, the complete decoding of the human genome was finished and the full sequence was recorded this last month.

In May, Duke University paired with a genetic pioneer J. Craig Venture and Venter’s Rochville based Center for the Advancement of Genomics. The collaboration will use the human genome to predict diseases and treat patients before diseases and treat patients before illnesses can occur. Similar agreements in are in the works with University of California, San Diego. The main objective is to find how to take the genome information and put it toward the good of the public.

Scientist believes that DNA holds the Key information to personalized medicine. They believe that doctors will be able to predict if a person is a risk for disease by reading their DNA and form a gene-based treatment before it takes effect.

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Traditional medicine is focused on diagnosing disease after a person has developed symptoms. Genomics based medicine predicts which people are susceptible to particular diseases and making a plan to prevent them from developing in the first place.

Another benefit is the reduction of health care costs. It is easier to treat a disease if a person can detect systems before they occur. Catching diseases before they occur can prevent expensive medical procedures.

Craig Venture left his last company to peruse this new field. He hopes to cut the cost and time in the process time in reading DNA. Previously it took several years and millions of dollars to accomplish the DNA interpretation, now he hopes to cut it down to several minutes at a cost of about $1000.00. This goal would make genetic research affordable to most patients and allow health care to use it for treatments.

The real problems lie in its ethical application. The nature of interpreting DNA to cure disease has a true and strong need, but will the research have boundaries. There is a great deal of information that comes out of a person’s DNA and can be used for other things that will possible have bad or devastating effects.

Two major problems can come from this new research. First, knowing what problems and diseases a person will have can lead insurance companies to deny services to anyone that is predicted to have problems later in their lives. Everyone is likely to have some sort of health problem in life and the use of insurance statistics will be unusable when facts will be given about individual people. Insurance companies would transform their coverage’s to only accident and injury policies only, leaving people with predicted diseases with high medical costs. A second problem is that newborn babies will be predicted to have illnesses that will lead to selective births. Parents in the future are likely decided if an unborn baby deserves to live according to if they will or will not have future health problems. One can look at Hitler’s master race theory and all the needless deaths that occurred in his attempts to create this master race.

The real question is “are we ready for this type of research?” The answer is no, our human nature is not ready for this type of genetic/medical applications. We as a human species are too subjective in our nature and let emotions dictate our actions. Possibly one day when our culture has developed and become more objective, we can learn what genetics can do and help us to live better and fulfilling lives.

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Monday, July 26, 2010

Essay on Jeffrey Dahmer

Case Study Essay on Jeffrey Dahmer

The cause of Jeffrey Dahmer’s horrible spree of murder, mutilation, and cannibalism cannot be clarified with a single explanation. One must accept his twisted psyche to have resulted from many influences including biological predisposition and external factors. From a psychoanalytic perspective, one can uncover events from Dahmer’s life that served to strengthen his obsession with murder and death.

Jeffrey Dahmer’s incorrigible actions cannot be attributed to his childhood; his environment growing up was relatively normal and stable. Dahmer’s horrific actions were merely a method of satisfying his innate, twisted impulses. According to the psychodynamic model, human beings are solely driven to satisfy their pleasure needs.

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For normal people this would involve things such as passing through Freud’s oral and anal stages, as well as overcoming an Oedipal complex. In the case of Jeffrey Dahmer, his childhood instincts for obtaining pleasure were rather obscene. Freud proposed that most young children experience their first sexual arousal from a parent of the opposite sex. This phase naturally passes when the child matures and begins to look towards other people for sexual pleasure. In Dahmer’s case, his initial childhood fantasies were predominantly violent. In order to satisfy his id impulses, he needed to engage in violent behavior. As a child, he found satisfaction in examining road kill. The pleasure obtained from deceased street meat served to satisfy his sexual drive and provide him with gratification. Dahmer became conditioned to associate death with pleasure, thus finding satisfaction and sexual gratification only while in the presence of death.

Throughout grade school, Dahmer remained an outcast. He could not associate with others because he received no sort of fulfillment from forming interpersonal relationships. At this point, dead animals were losing his interest. Soon after graduating high school, he moved on and claimed his first victim.

As an adult, Dahmer frequently tried to repress his fantasies. This is evidence that his superego was functioning to some extent because he was trying to conform to societal standards. For example, after killing a man at the age of 18, the young Dahmer felt repulsed by his action and resorted to alcoholism to aid his repression. He even joined the military briefly. After eventually abandoning alcoholism, his superego broke down and he quit repressing. This marked the beginning of his infamous killing spree. All of Dahmer’s victims were killed din similar fashion. He would drug them, engage in sexual acts, kill them and then further mutilate and molest the dead bodies.

Jeffrey Dahmer was born with an upside down pleasure drive. The discrepancies between his fantasies and the accepted societal norms prevented him from maturing into a well-adjusted and sane adult. His id became the dominant component of his psyche, for he had no ego or superego to control his sexual impulses. In the end, Dahmer’s twisted fantasies became a reality, making him one of the most notorious killers of present day.

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Sunday, July 25, 2010

IVF Essay

IVF Essay

IVF (In vitro fertilisation) is an assisted reproductive technology in a process by which egg and sperm are fertilized outside the body and then placed in a woman’s uterus after fertilisation. It usually involves the removal of eggs from the woman’s ovary and the collection of sperm from a male. The embryo, which results from fertilisation in the laboratory, is transferred to the woman’s uterus about two to five days later. At this stage, long before any organs have formed, it is still visible to the naked eye and consists of only a few cells.

IVF has had huge publicity and has gained a false reputation as the solution for infertility. In practise, it is one of the most demanding of all procedures in reproductive medicine and is the least successful compared to some alternatives. Strictly speaking, IVF is not even a “treatment” for infertility as it does not alter the underlaying cause of infertility. It is simply an attempt to help someone who is infertile to have a baby, the attempt can be repeated several times, but the basic cause of infertility remains. Although IVF does not change the underlaying cause of fertility, it is best where possible to seek therapy which may improve the chances of becoming pregnant naturally. But there is no doubt that IVF has revolutionized the treatment of infertile people and increased our knowledge about many aspects of what initially causes infertility.

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In vitro fertilisation means literally “fertilisation in glassware” (from the Latin word vitrum), even though glassware is hardly ever used in IVF clinics because of the need for absolute cleanliness and the impossibility of washing glass thoroughly enough. For this reason, doctors prefer to use disposable containers and equipment which are used once and then thrown away.

IVF is often confused with artificial insemination (AI) which is completely different. Artificial insemination refers to conception that does not take place by sexual intercourse. It involves a doctor or nurse placing sperm directly into a woman’s vagina or uterus with a syringe or some other artificial method; fertilisation then occurs in the woman’s fallopian tube in the natural way.

It is important to realize that IVF is not always the ideal treatment for most infertility patients and certainly it should not be the first option to be considered. More that half the women referred to IVF clinics could be better treated by alternatives. Too frequently no systematic assessment of the medical condition of the patient is made in the early stages. There is a real need for referring GP’s to make better judgements as to wether a patient would most benefit from IVF treatment or consider other alternatives. Often patients themselves push for IVF when there may be a more suitable, possibly cheaper, treatment.

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Saturday, July 24, 2010

Florence Nightingale Essay

Florence Nightingale Essay

Florence Nightingale was born on May 12, 1820. She is most remembered as a pioneer of nursing and a reformer of hospital sanitation methods. She was a victorian women and in the era in which she lived it was almost impossible to gain any recognition as a scholar and an expert in her field. She accomplished this feat with the use of power. The purpose of this paper is to explore the avenues of power that she used in order to cause the changes in nursing that she believed were so important.

When Nightingale was a child, she fought with her mother for the right to study mathmatics. Her mother held firm to the belief that girls were only supposed to study poetry and philosophy, this would give them the background to make a good bride and be able to hold intelligent conversasions at parties. Nightingale fough against this and finally convinced her father to allow her to study mathmatics. When she turned of age, she again shocked her family by enrolling in a nursing program at Kaiserworth, Germany. Most people believed that a nurses role should only be filled by common women and prostitutes. Nighingale made it a personal priority to change this image( Baly,57).

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She spent three years in Germany training to become a nurse, after this she recruited a small number of untrained women and took them to a British military hospital in Scutari, where she trained them and taught them her philosophies of nursing. She believed that fresh air, water and sunshine were critical to the recovery of her patients. Efficiant drainage of wounds, cleanliness and a healthy diet were extremely important, in the days when these methods were not taught. She beleived that moving a patients bed to 3 give them a better view was a nurses responsibility, along with the responsibility to provide a healthy diet and to record what was eaten daily. Her emphasis on cleanliness of bed linens and patients was scoffed at by the medical profession but proved to be an innovation for the medical field in the future. She always held nurses responsible for the health of their patients, this included not only cleanliness, but also the environment in which the patients were healing. Noisy hallways and rooms were not allowed. Unruly family members would be asked to leave. She believed that if she changed a patients environment she could eventually bring about changes in the patient( Chitty, 250 ).

It has often been said that Nightingale refused to accept the germ theory, this theory stated that all illness came directly from germs. Florence Nightingale believed in germs she just added to this theory by explaining that germs were not the only thing that caused illness. Over and over again her letters and essays laid down the law about the sterilization of instruments, in order to kill germs, however, she also believed that the environment of the patient played a crucial part in the healing process and that this factor should never be overlooked.

Sterilization and aseptic technique came slowly to London. In 1886, steam sterilization of dressings was pioneered in Germany and sterile rubber gloves for operations were first used in 1890. But as late as 1933 there were still surgeons that still performed abdominal surgery “ the aniseptic way, dousing bare hands, swabs and instruments with lysoform and often smoking cigarretes while performing surgery”(Cope,168). Nightingale taught her nurses that this method was incorrect and insisted that the nurses under her instruction uses a correct method.

By the time Nightingale composed her polar area diagram she had extensive knowledge in nursing and mathmatics. It was this knowledge that her power in the nursing community was based on. After training in Germany and spending some time nursing the wounded in the Crimean war he had made extensive political contacts and these also played a role in her political power. She used the contacts to no only improve the medical fielsd but also to critsize them. It was her critical nature that made her the enemy of many doctors and medical communities.

After the war Nightingale realized that many soldiers had died not of there original wounds but from nocosomial infections.It was at this time that she decided to use her power to change some things in the medical field. Her political contacts did not always agree with her, especially if her knowledge seemed to upset traditions that were held in the medical field. As explained earlier, she believed that the environment played an essintial role in the body’s ability to heal. If an environment was not clean the germs and bacteria would grow and contaminate the body. This was a direct contradiction to the beliefs that were held by the majority of doctors(Goldie,74).

Nightingale founded the first school of nursing that based it’s ideas and education on her methods. It was in this way that her knowledge and power had a major influence on nurses everywhere. Most nursing schools are based on her model and subsequently hold on to her beliefs that environment plays such a huge role in the body’s healing abilities. Time and time again the medical community tried to hush Nightingale, but through her political contacts she was able to make her ideas known.

Her mathmatics abilities provided her the knowledge to compose the first statistical analysis of the medical community. In her Polar- area diagram, she meticulosly plotted all deaths resulting form nocosomial infection. It was officially known as the Diagram of the causes of Mortality in the Army in the East. It showed that most of the deaths of British soldiers in the Crimean war died of sickness rather than wounds suffered on the battle field. It also showed that the death rate was higher in the first year of the war, than after the sanitary commisioners changed their policies and gave inspections to improve hygiene in the camps and in the hospitals(Smith,139).

The government would not allow her to publish he most damning statistics which showed that hospital conditions were the main cause of death, but through her political contats she was allowed to publish the diagram. She tried to support her case for better hygine by using the published army figures to show that the death rate decreased after the sanitary commision cleaned up the hospitals. However, her opponents claimed that the reduction in the death rate resulted from other changes that were made at the same time(Smith,158).

Florence Nightingale’s knowledge and power in the medical field changed the way nursing is done today. Her political influence and power were directly based on her knowledge and experience of the subject. Eventhough her contributions were not recognized at the time, they are understood now and appreciated by nurses all over the world. We, as nursing students have her to thank for changing the atitudes held about nursing and and or introducing the idea that germs are not the only thing that causes infections and that we, as nurses, have a responsibility toward our patients to not only insure a clean environment, but a well lit, and peaceful and comfortable surrounding.

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Friday, July 23, 2010

"David Copperfield" by Charles Dickens Essay

"David Copperfield" Essay

There was a storm and it was wild night. His father was dead an his mother had only Peggoty, her loyal servant. The mother was having baby and she was feeling ill. That’s when David Copperfield was born. The years went past and soon he was six, but still young to understand many things like her mother new marriage with Mr. Murdstone, he and David didn’t like each other, that man treated him so bad. He was sent to a school by this man far from there. In this place he met Steerfoth and Tradles his new friends. But one day the director told him that his mother and his little new brother were dead, so Mr. Murdstone decided to send David with a officer in other place of England to work with him and he would have to pay to eat. He met many people there, like Mr. Wickfield and his daughter Agnes, because of him Copperfield wanted to be a lawyer. But at that time he was so poor. So decided to look for his aunt. She helped and invited him to live in her house. The time went past and he was almost a man, he met again with Steerforth his best friend, they went to Mr. Peggoty’s house where there was Emily a friend of childhood and she was in love of Steerforth, but someday Emily escaped with Steerforth and nobody knew about them. David continued meeting people of the past, most of them asking him for help or advices because most of those people were having trouble with money like Mr. Wickfield, Agnes father, he lost all his money because a bad guy.

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One day, he met a beautiful lady, her name was Dora, he just fell in love at the first sight, so after time, he asked her to marry him but like always, the problem was that he wasn’t a gentleman, he didn’t has money, and that scared her, because she was a lady. Her father didn’t like that relationship but he couldn’t do anything to avoid it, because he died. But after time, David and Dora got married, they love each other so much, David did everything to give Dora what she deserved as a lady, but Dora wasn’t so clever at home, she was like a child, she couldn’t be a good wife, and besides everything he kept loving her. One day Dora wake up very ill and she died. Emily returned with Mr. Peggoty, but Steerforth was missing… In Yarmouth the climate was bad, then a ship was in trouble and many of the crew were dieing because of the sea and the storm, David was watching that form the shore, then someone saw a bodey, it was Steerforth’s body, he was dead. David was so depressed about all his dead friends that he left England. The only person he had contact with, was with Agnes, he thought that he just love her like brother and sister, but that wasn’t true, when he realized of this, he returned to England and look for her to marry her. He found her and obviously she was in love too. They got married and had five children. He finally found happiness with Agnes.

I like this book because most of the situations that happened, happen in real life. What I’m trying to say is that it’s like normal life, and what we have to achieve whatever we want in life.
For example: Something that I noticed on this book was the importance that people gave to money, everyone’s life changed because of money, everyone was looking for money, money was the main cause of their problems or the main solution for them. Nowadays the money keeps being all these , people is always taking care about money, and like in the book, they just were happy if they had money then if they have someone to love, is the same as now.

Before reading this book I didn’t think so much about money in general, obviously I knew all these stuff, but it’s different if you think that even if you don’t want to give money that big importance, it really has it, we are living in a material world, where money is necessary, indispensable to live and also gives happiness, it isn’t all in life, we can be happy without it if we really want to ‘cause happiness depends on us, but sometimes it’s hard to feel it without a economic stability.

Also, I think that this book shows a little bit the fight for goals and fight to find happiness, to don’t give up just because of some troubles, life is short and we have to enjoy it and keep going ahead like David Copperfield did, he passed on big difficulties since he was born, but he didn’t give up and take a easy way out, he continued living and going ahead. That’s what I think is important form this book.

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Thursday, July 22, 2010

Comparative Essay on Lord of the Flies

Comparative Essay on Lord of the Flies

The actions of Jack and Simon, the situations in which they place themselves and the reactions of other characters show the diversity of Jack and Simon. Jack is bold where Simon is subtle and the boys on the island mistake these qualities to make a good leader.

Through the actions of Jack and Simon we see their most obvious differences. It is clear that Jack is aggressive where Simon is timid. In several meetings we see Jack stand before the assembly and speak freely on how he feels things should be run, Simon however will rarely ask to speak and is easily discouraged from doing so. Jack always points out that they need hunters for the island this shows his savagery. Jack is very controlling, this is demonstrated when Jack starts his own tribe and uses the fear of the beast as a way to make the other boys join his tribe. Simon however is civilized and sees the natural beauty in the island (and therefore innocence) because of this he gains the knowledge that the beast is not real, but a mere presence of innate human evil.

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From the reactions of other characters in the book we see the respect that Jack receives in comparison to Simon. The other boys are obedient and listen attentively to Jack, but they often snicker and make fun of Simon. Again this is most prominent in the meetings. When Jack speaks all of the boys listen to what he has to say and the hunters are especially attentive. Simon on the other hand chooses to be quite and only makes reflections within himself because of how the other boys disregard him.

The situations in which Jack and Simon place themselves show their different personalities. Once Jack becomes the chief of his own tribe he quickly gains control over the other boys in his group. This is shown when Ralph and Piggy go to the feast and see that Jack now has the other boys as his servants. This hints that Jack is dependent on the respect and attention of the other boys on the island. Without this attention Jack assume no special authority. Simon is a very independent character; he is the one who poses the idea that the beast is not a real creature but something inside all humans. He is also the one who is confronted by the Lord of the Flies and realizes that the figure on the top of the mountain is a dead soldier with a flapping parachute. Even in the settings that they two boys place themselves we see their diverse characteristics. Jack situates himself at Castle Rock while Simon climbs into a hidden a Jungle Glade. Symbolically, Castle Rock is much like hell, full of fear and violence with one person in charge. Jack being this person represents the devil’s advocate. The true devil in The Lord of The Flies is the innate human evil. Simon’s hidden Jungle Glade represents The Garden of Eden in that it is a pure and safe place to be. Simon can be by himself and feel very protected and secure by simply marveling at the beauty of nature.

We see that Jack gives into the evil within himself and lets go of all his innocence, where Simon rationalizes what is happening to the boys on the island and preserves his innocence. Although Jack gains authority over the island through his actions, surroundings and the way other characters react to him we see that he cannot preserve his innocence as easily as Simon. I believe this is because Simon stays quiet and does not strive to power over the other boys. In the end we see that even though Jack is the appointed leader and lives till the boys are rescued that he has died and lost all of his childhood fun. In comparison, Simon dies on the island trying to explain to the boys what has really happened to him but his innocence lives until the end of his days.

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Wednesday, July 21, 2010

"Billy Budd" by Herman Melville Essay

Critical Essay on Billy Budd

Billy Budd, a novel by Herman Melville, is an allegory of good versus evil. Billy, a young man forced into service in the British Navy during the late 18th century is the embodiment of innocence. John Claggart, whom is the master at arms aboard Billy’s second ship, is evil personified. Their impending confrontation is the basis for the main prevailing theme of good versus evil. When the two collide and Billy kills Claggart in a fit of rage, Captain Vere, Captain of the Bellipotent and advocate of Billy, is forced to decide how important duty and principal are to him and essentially provides the basis for another important theme in the story: when does one’s conscience supersede the law?

Billy Budd is a physically beautiful human being, whom Melville claims could pose as the likeness of Adam before the fall, one of many biblical references in the novel. He is the only sailor selected to move from the ship Rights of Man to the Bellipotent and quickly is accepted on his new ship because of his charm and good nature. He brings smiles to the faces of all the sailors aboard the Bellipotent, young and old. His primary feature is his extraordinary innocence. In twenty-one years, he has never even directly encountered evil and thus believes that people harbor nothing but the best intentions towards him. Ironically, it is these most admirable qualities which will prove his undoing in the end.

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Claggart develops a hatred and jealousy of Billy Budd almost from the moment Billy steps on the ship. Claggart is not well respected by the other sailors on the ship and when Billy almost immediately earns this respect through friendliness and innocence, Claggart begins to plot against him. Claggart clearly desires what he cannot have, which in this case is not only Billy’s good looks, but also his innocence and sincerity. Whereas Billy lacks the ability to see the difference between actions and intentions, Claggart uses deception and deceit to fool the sailors into thinking he is a genuine human being, while at the same time still carrying out his disingenuous plots. Even Claggart’s exterior is quite disturbing. His pale complexion lead some to believe that he does not even psossess a drop of blood. Claggart feels that because he uses these same underhanded methods, that everyone else is driven by hidden malice. He feels that the other members of the ship are always conniving a devious plot and often looks too deep into peoples’ actions to find their plots.

Claggart’s underhanded methods are seen throughout the novel as he has sailors rummaging through Billy’s belongings and trying to get him to agree to participate in a mutiny. Billy’s ability to resist the temptation to the Master at Arm’s underhanded deeds only further infuriates Claggart. The final straw is when Billy spills the soup in the mess hall and the soup makes its way to the feet of Claggart, who takes Billy’s mistake as an intentional act, and makes an apparently makes a lighthearted comment about the action. Billy interprets this as a symbol of Claggart’s respect for him. In actuality, Claggart is sure that Billy is contemptuous towards him and is going to overcome this enemy anyway possible.

This confrontation between Billy and Claggart is the central them of the novel. It is a constant struggle of good versus evil, or more specifically innocence versus evil. It is clear that Billy is being compared to a Christ figure throughout the novel, representing the best qualities a man may possess. Claggart is clearly being compared to Satan, tempting Billy into evil and working to destroy him throughout the novel. Similar to the way Christ is killed, Billy is also an innocent victim in a hostile society. Claggart is similar to Lucifer in the lack of knowledge anybody possesses about him. Lucifer is vague figure people know about only through stories and it’s quite possible to meet him and not even know it. Melville even alludes to the possibility that Claggart could be a criminal placed on the ship instead of jail because of the desperate need to protect England from France.

When the two conflicting parties clash, Captain Vere is forced to act non-partisan judge of the situation. Claggart presents the idea of Billy leading a mutiny to overthrow the captain. Vere calls for Billy and has Claggart repeat his accusations. Upon hearing these accusations, Billy is overcome by emotions and begins to stutter, his one known shortcoming. Because of his innocence, Billy does not know how to deal with these accusations and ends up punching Claggart in the face. The blow kills Claggart and leaves Vere to play the role of God, deciding the fate of an innocent man’s life. This is a true test of Vere’s ability to Captain the ship. His persuasion is clearly what is going to sway the drumhead court and he decides that duty is more important than personal alliances and that a crime must be punished no matter what the intent or who the accused is coming to the final conclusion, “The prisoner’s deed-that alone we must deal with.” (p. 157). It is clear that Melville had established Vere as a father figure to Billy since the moment Billy stepped foot on the Bellipotent, similar to God and Jesus Christ, and that only made this decision that much more difficult. In the end he was forced to convict Billy to prevent other sailors from believing that murder was an excusable event. In a time where mutinies were quite prevalent, Vere was forced to make this difficult decision which was in the best interest for the ship, even if it meant sacrificing a man he was so close to and felt so deeply for.

In the end, ironically it is Billy’s innocence which proves to be his undoing. His innocence and naivety prevent him from seeing the nefarious qualities that Claggart possesses. It would seem that because Claggart died, he was the one who was punished for his underhandedness in the form of death, but in actuality Claggart achieves his ultimate goals, which were to destroy Billy’s innocence and ultimately, to destroy Billy. Though Claggart has destroyed Billy, his innocence still rings true in his death, as we see by his serene peace prior to his hanging and his final words of, “God Bless Captain Vere.”

The themes examined by Melville are themes which are still hotly debated in society today. The theme of good versus evil is something one encounters every day, a prime example being the scandals encountered in corporate America. The idea of when does one’s conscience supersede the law is examined almost on a daily by the Supreme Court. Billy Budd is a novel which examines many of the roots of human nature. Melville has written a masterpiece inspecting issues which have plagues mankind since the times of Chris and are not going to subside in the near future. This is a novel which will continue to be read and examined for many years to come.

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Tuesday, July 20, 2010

Chinese Nationalism Essay

Nationalism in China Essay

Mao Tse Dung was able to galvanize the hopes of his country mostly because of their desperate plight; economic production was low and foreign intervention between the Opium War and Japan’s Nanjing Massacre had taken their confidence. Like Hitler, Mao’s aura of charisma was able to induce them to melt down all of their metals in an effort to create mass industrialization during The Great Leap Forward. Employing nativist nationalism harkening back to history and China’s weaknesses, his call for a defense of the homeland enlisted the males of the masses in the army and created widespread xenophobia. Corruption was prevalent and millions perished, but the state was stable. Deng Xiaopeng’s reign brought in pragmatist nationalism, bringing together both communism and the Western command economy. What is interesting about this nationalism is that has brought wealth and accession to the WTO, but also instability as China has embraced elements of its past and future. Portions of the military, people, and the Government all show signs of a China that has the torch of a bright future but the remembrance of a dark past.

Local government in China is split into four divisions of provincial, county, township and village with each level down having a smaller and distinct role in the life of the individual, in order to stimulate grassroots activity. Economic reform was based on taking the state owned Soviet system and switching it to the aforementioned village level. This move essentially revitalized the Chinese economy, quadrupling output by 2000 and creating an export giant; between 1990 and 1997, the growth of China’s exports has been twice as large as the world average (Murray 222).

Most of this is due to the privatization of the SOE’s (state owned sectors), which were and still are a major controller of scarce economic resources, transportation and energy. Controlling much of the heavy industry of China such as iron ore and coal, SOE’s only contribute 33 % of China’s GDP, while consuming 67% of the country’s capital resources (Overholt 47). By privatizing many of their areas, 2.6 million small enterprises were in operation for Deng only four years after Deng began reform in 1983. (Fewsmith, 126). Today, SOE’s composed approximately 77.6 percent to the economy, in relation to the 28.5 percent they once had (Overholt 47).

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However, because of this, ten’s of thousands have been let off from their jobs and urban unemployment has skyrocketed to ten percent. In addition, many of those in the rural land have yet to see the results of China’s 5.7 trillion dollar purchasing power parity. Much of this has to do with the corruption especially prevalent at the village level, as party cadres basically have free reign. Per Capita Purchasing Parity is only 4,400 dollars and disparities between the cities and rural areas increasingly heighten tensions. Uprisings have occurred in response to this, similar to the Tiananmen Square situation which was incited in response to the inflation that occurred when expectations of the state were not met. Much of this has to do with variations in state control, as in Guong Dong (Southern China), where economic controls are lessened as the commercial area is very distant from Beijing. . Discontent with the system is also increased by the fact that the production of heavy industry and construction which is central to foreign exports has created widespread health problems. Acid rain is common and chronic asthma is experienced by a great portion of society.

The army under Mao Tse Dung was central to nativist nationalism, representative of the great power in numbers of the land. Today, however, the reality is that by opening up a market in which intelligent and educated citizens can potentially make sums of money beyond their dreams, the military loses out on a vital class of citizens who might have given their expertise if their other future wasn’t so bright. Even those who have incentives are not sure if its worth it; the constant back and forth motions of prioritization and subsequent de-prioritization such as the PLA defense budget dip from 18.5 percent in 1979 to 8 percent in 1989 cause many to wonder if their sacrifice of higher living for service to their nation would be as valued when military modernization is fourth on the list of current modernizations (Lewis 87). It is no wonder then that the army holds the lowest morale and a lesser array of technology; one-third of troops stationed on the land depart from “active duty” annually (Federation of American Scientists).

The Chinese have therefore turned to weapons in place of large armies in hope of not having their territory torn apart like in the imperial ages.The First Academy’s personnel of 27,000 is easily China’s largest research and development sector in the China Aerospace Corporation (Stokes 115). Coincidentally, their weapons, which are a confirmation of the nativist view, are the only indigenous weapons system China has fashioned thus far. Nevertheless, the Academy does not mind its sole independent position in the military, as their purpose is to mold its existence with two goals and concepts. First off, to perfect the ballistic missile and assure its place in Chinese history as the most dependable and capable weapon, therefore enhancing its psychological deterrence and ability to coerce (Stokes 117). With production and development moving at a strong and consistent rate independent of any other government processes, the prediction of 1,000 ballistic missiles in the next year is sure to fulfill this aforementioned goal (Stokes 117). Secondly, the PRC’s emphasis on nuclear proliferation is based on the policy of “limited deterrence”, where a strike upon China would be followed by a retaliatory strike against the enemy in huge proportions ; 15-20 percent of the United States would be targeted in “population centers” if military conflict came to a tee (Stokes 118).

The Party and State of China are symbolic of the change that has come since pragmatic nationalism came to the scene. The National People’s Congress, composed of 3,000 delegates chosen every five years, has instituted The Rule of Quiaoshi which codifies procedures and eliminates the personal squabbles in committees, which sometimes led to murderous outcomes.

Hu Jin Tao, President of the People’s Republic of China is emblematic of the more legalistic fourth generation, as people have been bringing court cases to the Supreme People’s Court for the first time in history. Premier Wen Jiabao of the State Council (executive organ) is representative of the concept of limits instead of continuity, only being able to serve two five-year term limits. However, the Communist Party of China still has supremacy over the state. The Standing Committee of the Politburo comes to a consensus on party matters and is made of nine people, six whom are Jiang Ze Min’s friends, which may seem to bring some of the corruption of that regime with it. This has become a pattern with China, of former leaders exerting pressure on the government in rule. Deng took the head of The Military Affairs Commission, just like Jiang Ze Min has done at the present time. In charge of the third bureaucracy of China, the former ruler is allowed to have to opportunity to be in charge of a position that rules “at the barrel of a gun” and disallows the Fourth generation from consolidating power. Even as The Central Committee which does the day to day work of party organization has had an age limit of sixty eight instituted, it is still based on loyalty and ties to the past. The fact that decisions move downwards somewhat makes the National Party Congress nothing more than a gala of unity. Held every five years and attended by the 3000 delegates, it is essentially just a rubber stamp for the policy decisions of The Central Committee.

China is indeed split in many ways. Though economic fortune is upon them, poverty in rural lands and unemployment in urban areas and physical plight of industry plague the people. The army shows a lack of resolve while the emphasis on weaponry promotes instability with the areas of Taiwan and Japan with its contention of Theatre Missile Defense, as “the CCP has sacrificed substantial gains from trade in order to protects its power [before]” (Yushi 45). While the state improves its ways, the party still is mired by connections to the corrupt regime of Jiang Ze Min. All of this being said, the pragmatic nationalism that has taken place in China shows how fragile the country truly is. The government of China must therefore act more carefully in these years of the WTO to continue six to eight percent growth. If not, the riots of Tiananmen Square in 1989 may become more of a widespread reality than ever before.

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Monday, July 19, 2010

Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt Essay

Comparison between Mesopotamia and Egypt Essay

Mesopotamia and Egypt were two civilizations that while similar in some ways, also had many differences. Not only did they differ in the geographical layout of the civilization, but also in many aspects of basic life. Although different in many aspects of life, there are also several similarities between the two civilizations.

Mesopotamia was originally focused in the river-valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, but the civilization eventually spread throughout an entire region. The Mesopotamia culture was affected by the erratic and sometimes destructive flooding from the two rivers. In contrast, the Egyptian civilization remained focused on the Nile River and the surrounding deserts. The Egyptian culture viewed the Nile River as a source of unending bounty to be received with thanks, not as a menacing cause of floods.

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Unlike Mesopotamia, Egypt moved almost directly from the pre-civilization state to a civilization ruled by a large government without passing through the city-state phase. Because the culture was unified around the Nile river, the authoritarian government in Egypt had fewer problems with its political structure than did Mesopotamia. Because it was considered to b a city-state, Mesopotamian provided the opportunity for councils and other participatory government structures.

Egyptian culture was influenced to some degree by Mesopotamia, Egypt separated from Mesopotamia in many ways other than politics. The Sumerian cuneiform alphabet developed by Mesopotamia was not accepted by the Egyptians; instead, they developed the hieroglyphic alphabet. In both Mesopotamia and Egypt, the system of writing was complex and therefore mainly used by the upper classes. Through the development of the papyrus, the Egyptians were able to reduce the cost of the writing materials and it developed extensive record keeping practices. Egypt, did not however establish the epic literary tradition that was prevalent in Mesopotamia.

Science in the Egyptian civilization was based on mathematics and astronomy, and was less advanced than the science of Mesopotamia. Egypt was first to establish the calendar of the solar year. The Egyptians used a calendar based on the natural cycles and it suggests that they were trying to predict the cycle of Nile flooding. The Egyptians also made important advances in medicine, some of which were passed to the Greeks and then to the Middle Eastern and European civilizations.

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Sleepwalking Essay

Sleepwalking Essay

Sleepwalking, or Somnambulism, is a state in which the sleeping person rises from bed and unconsciously performs physical activities. This is something that at least 10% of us have all done at least once. However, it is more common in children, specifically from ages 4-12, peaking at about ages 11-12, and occurs more often in boys than in girls. In can occur in adults, but it is more rare (1 in 200), although if a person begins sleepwalking later in life, he or she will be likely to have the disorder for the rest of their life. Adult sleepwalking is more serious in that it is often more aggressive, and so has more potential for self-injury. Sleepwalkers are not allowed in the armed services of the United States. Severe stress, depression, or substance abuse can be leading causes for this disorder. Children tend to grow out of the somnambulism when the chemical activity and changing sleep patterns from puberty begins to affect the brains activity.

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Activities can range from mundane walking about or pushing objects or complex tasks such as driving or preparing meals and eating them. Some people forage for food at night and voraciously eat unusual snacks like cigarettes and butter or coffee ground sandwiches. The sleepwalker will have no memory of these events. Sleepwalking occurs during deep non-REM sleep. The sleeper goes through several stages of sleep during the night and the stages cycle over. Somnambulism can be dangerous because certain actions can damage the sleeper if they were to encounter an object or tumble down flights of stairs. In some instances, the sleepwalker will tackle a large object, flee randomly from an unseen horror, or exit through a window.

Several court cases in which the defendant pleaded not guilty to murder due to claims of sleepwalking. Some are King vs. Cogdon (smothered her only daughter because she thought spiders were attacking her. She was acquitted.), Regina vs. Parks (a man drove 14 miles to stab his mother five times and was acquitted.), and Arizona vs. Falater (guilty). This man admitted to killing his wife, only he had no memory of the brutal attack. He had stabbed her 44 times and then held her head under water in the swimming pool. The jury in this case found Falater guilty of First-degree intentional homicide. He may be facing the death penalty.

In treatment, Hypnosis has been effective for children and adults. Also, Benzodiazepines (anti-anxiety or sleep-inducing drugs) and anti-seizure medicines have been proven useful in the treatment of this disorder. A small dose of diazepam (Valium: sleeping aid and muscle relaxer) eliminates the episodes or considerably reduces them. In the home, preventive care is the best assistance for the chronic sleepwalker. Secure dangerous objects and close off access to stairwells. Remove tripping hazards from spaces the sleeper may occupy in his nocturnal travels. It may be wise to put alarms in the area to awaken the sleepwalker or a family member to help.

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Sunday, July 18, 2010

Essay on A Doll's House: Is a Tragedy?

Essay on A Doll's House: Is a Tragedy?

Is the work of Ibsen, A Doll's House, an example of a traditional tragedy in literature? First, we must look at the classic definition of a tragedy in literature. According to Webster’s Dictionary, a tragedy is: medieval poem describing the fall of a great man and serious drama with a conflict between a protagonist and a superior force ending in sorrow or disaster that brings forth pity or terror. Our text and class lecture notes further and more specifically define a tragedy as needing to have a member of royalty as the heroes, not members of the middle class (Introduction to Literature, page 821), the tragic hero is put into an extraordinary position, the hero or heroine has a tragic flaw which leads to the downfall in the end, and the center of the overall conflict is a moral or ethical dilemma. Also, like most all other works in literature there are always protagonists and antagonists.

I will analyze A Doll’s House in relation to the above traditional definition. Ibsen’s story does not fit the first part of the definition in that there is no royalty at all in the story. The closest thing would be in that one main character was a prominent businessman, Torvald Helmer, and the other main character, his wife, Nora. Neither of them could be classified as royalty in that they were members if common society even though they were financially well off. Other highly visible characters were a medical doctor and a lawyer. Again, none of these characters were anywhere near being members of royalty.

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The heroine, Nora, was put in an extraordinary position, even though some of severe circumstance was self-imposed. She also lived and suffered through a moral dilemma, again self-imposed. She was put in a subordinated position initially by her father as he gave her away in marriage to Torvald. She was passed from a situation where she was protected and controlled by her father to her husband where he also severely controlled her life. Even though Torvald did not perceive he was doing anything detrimental to Nora, she suffered from her lack of freedom nonetheless. He felt he was protecting her, and she needed his protection and nothing else, such as being free to be her own person, with her own interests in life. She was being emotionally suffocated. She could no longer live in the role that her husband put her in and society expected her to stay in. She felt that there was nothing to their marriage late in the story and she had to decide whether to live a superficially happy marriage or leave and gain her identity.

Years before, Nora arranged for medical treatment for her husband, even though he did not know what she had done and the way she obtained the funds to do so. She arranged for a loan from a less than honorable acquaintance, the lawyer Krogstad, who was an old friend of Torvald. It turns out she had also done something illegal in signing her father’s name to guarantee the loan to Krogstad. This debt to Krogstad hung over her head and controlled much of her life. Even after her husband found out about the note that described the loan, Torvald still wanted to control her even though he said he would forgive her. However, Nora wanted nothing to do with his forgiveness. After the way he reacted and some of the things he said, Nora realized there was nothing left of her marriage to Torvald.

At the end of the story Nora had an awakening and started a move to a new life without Torvald. She saw there was not way to grow emotionally in the family and social situation she was in. She was so set on a new beginning that she was willing to leave their children with her husband. Even though it was such a drastic change in the live of Nora, she felt she had to do it and leaving was the only way she could improve her stifled freedom. It was her decision for once to control her life. She had to leave to gain her pride. Nora did face these moral dilemmas, yet, it was not a downfall in the true since of the definition such as death, that is seen in the classic tragedy.

There was a great deal of conflict in this work. There was the husband and wife conflict, the conflict between Nora and Krogstad, and most importantly, the conflict that Nora suffered in living in the classic role of a wife in the eyes of society. Nora was the protagonist and suffered at the hands of many antagonists starting with her husband, Torvald, the money lending Krogstad, and the expectations of the society she lived in. This conflict and the protagonist and antagonist roles fit the classic definition of a tragedy.

After the analysis of this literary work, I feel that A Doll’s House does not fit the classic definition of a tragedy. Comparisons have been made and it is my feeling that many of the parts of a tragedy are not met in this work. The lack of royalty and no true downfall of the heroine do not fit, but the moral dilemma and conflict does fit. Part of the reason it does not fit is by design. As discussed in the text, the Realism writers that started in the late 1800’s did not involve royalty, did not write in poetry, and did not select characters that had control over society. In fact, in many ways, A Doll’s House was the antithesis of classic tragedy. The characters were commoners, the text was in prose, and Nora suffered because she was in a position where society controlled her.

In closing, even though the story did have some features of a classic tragedy, it did not fit the complete profile of this type of literary style.

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Saturday, July 17, 2010

Carrie Pollitzer Essay

Essay on Carrie Pollitzer

During the early nineteen hundreds, lived a young woman named Carrie Pollitzer. Her life in America was much different compared to present day. Women did not have much freedom to be independent and their accomplishments were based primarily on gender. A woman would go to college to meet a husband, stay at home with the children, and would have a hard time living a high standard of life if not marrying. Economically, businesses were run by the white man. Men owned the land and often had poor white women and African Americans working the farms. Industrially, the factories were owned by men and many women that were unwed would work in the factories.

Politically, the white man ran the national and state government. They were the only American citizens who were allowed to vote. My study of the southern women has shown, culturally, there were many different ways of living and prospering in the south. One is the poor African American communities, in which the people did not have anything. Another was the rich white plantation owning families who only associated themselves with other rich upper class plantation owners. This was a time when the civil war was over and the African Americans were not slaves anymore, so new problems were arising for the South since there was no longer free labor. Many women wrote letters to communicate with their friends and family. Now that I have set a basis of the time period and have explained women did not have many rights, I will look into Carrie Pollitzer’s life and her struggles as well as accomplishments being a woman in the early nineteen hundreds. A time when feminism in America was as alien as space travel is in the eighteen hundreds and early nineteen hundreds. For example, 1913 was a time when people said a woman’s place was in the home and almost everyone believed it. Women did not work or go to college as much as men. In general men thought women were to stay home and take care of the daily house hold chores if money was not available for a nanny or maid. Most women had to depend on their husbands for money and a high standard of living. Men ran the government for the state and federal legislation. Their opinions were based on the writings of the English author Sir William Blackstone, who wrote, “The man and the wife is one, and he is the one.” This was the popular opinion of most white men living during the early nineteen hundreds. Soon women were to fight back and gain some independence and freedom to take part in America’s decisions on government.

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The number one campaign in women’s suffrage was the right to vote. In 1913 two Charleston women decided to rebel and join a newly formed party, which would later be known as the National Women’s Party. The two women’s names were Carrie and Mabel Pollitzer. Later their younger sister joined in the year 1916. Her name was Anita Pollitzer. The campaign of the National Women’s Party was to win the right to vote for women living in the United States and would change all three women’s lives.

Carrie Pollitzer wrote many letters to her family and friends. Through her letters, I have been able to take a step back in time and experience what life may have been for her. She was born December 5, 1881 in Charleston, South Carolina. She was the daughter of Gustave M. Pollitzer and Mrs. Clara Guinzburg Pollitzer. Her father was the owner of the firm, G.M. Pollitzer & Company of Beaufort and Charleston. His company exported sea island cotton and cotton seed. His family was German Jews who emigrated from Vienna to New York before Gustav was born. He made his way to Charleston when he was age sixteen. Carrie’s mother was from Baltimore and was the daughter of a rabbi. Her family had emigrated from Prague in 1848. She taught German having graduated from Hunter College before she was married. Carrie had two younger sisters, Anita and Mabel Pollitzer. Anita, born October 31, 1894, was the youngest born and considered the smartest. She had learned how to read, write, and play the piano before she even entered school. She also graduated from Columbia University with a degree in art and education in 1916. Her middle sister, Mabel was very active and helped Carrie with women’s suffrage. She organized the biology department at Memminger high and normal schools in 1906. She also established the Charleston Public Library in 1929, which required obtaining legislation. Her brother was a pediatrician who spent most of his life in Greenville. The Pollitzer family was very prominent and somewhat wealthy. There was an invitation to the president’s banquet at the Charleston hotel in 1903, found in the family letters. This implies Carrie’s father had an influence of a higher society. My impression is the family was a part of the ellite class in Charleston and as young women in the early nineteen hundreds; the Pollitzer sisters accomplished the unusual for that time. Carrie Pollitzer died in October 24, 1972, at the age of ninety-two. Anita died when she was eighty-one in July of 1975, and Mabel lived to be ninety-four and died in April of 1979. Gustave died in 1909, six years before Carrie joined the Woman’s Party and Clara lived to 1942.

Carrie Pollitzer was the oldest so she had to set an example and she really did. During the time when Carrie was a little girl, it was rare for women to have gone further than a high school education. Carrie proved this to be something of history. She started at Miss Hutchet’s private school and moved on to public schools. She graduated from Memminger Normal School in 1901. She was the age of twenty. She attended many colleges and universities, such as, Harvard, Columbia, Cornell, Michigan, Colorado, Wellesley, and Vassar. She then went on to graduate from the South Carolina Kindergarten Association Training School. After her graduation from the training school she took part in two years of post-graduate work at the New York Kindergarten Association. This set her career in being a teacher. She spent her main bulk of her teaching career at Memminger Elementary School, which she taught for forty years. She also taught at Beth Elohim Sabbath School. Carrie has so many accomplishments and has succeeded at many of her goals; she is in a class of her own. Once she started teaching she became a kindergarten Director. This is when she pioneered in health work, social work, home visiting, kindergarten lunches, and programs for parents’ meetings. She held offices in the Charleston Federation of Women’s Clubs; offices in the Free Kindergarten Association; Recording Secretary of the Charleston Natural History Society; was a member of the Board of the Temple Sisterhood; was a speaker at Women’s Clubs and Parent Teacher Association meetings; and was a participating member of civic, cultural, and educational organizations.

Carrie was a local leader for Women’s Suffrage before the passage of the Suffrage Amendment, and inaugurated a city wide Suffrage Day. She was a founder and organizer of the Annual Community Children’s Festival, and served as director for the children’s festival for twenty-three years. She served as Chairman of the Committee of the Charleston Federation of Women’s Clubs, which was successful in obtaining the admission of women to the College of Charleston in 1918. She was an active participant in several cultural organizations; the community chest drives, the Red Cross and Sabbath school education, and raised many fund raising drives to expand the school’s facilities. While being a kindergarten teacher, Carrie was never married and lived with her sister Mabel at 5 Pitt Street in downtown Charleston. For as many accomplishments as one white woman can receive in the early nineteen hundreds, she should definitely set an example for all women to accomplish anything you want, especially being single.

Carrie’s motivation for writing letters was that of communication with her family and keeping them informed of what was going on in her life and what was going on in theirs. She did not write about political matters so much, but friendly letters to her loved ones. She had speeches and other writings which I found some parts of, but mainly I read her letters. She would write to her sisters and father the most about what she was accomplishing in college and in her activities. Her father would write her back and tell her he was proud, but the number one concern for her was her health. In one of her letters to her sister Mabel, she writes about weighing herself and only being seventy-nine pounds. She blames the scale because she thinks she really weighs eighty pounds. I liked to read her letters and find out what daily life was like. She talked about walking into town and different places she knew the family and friends had been. The letters and family papers that the source was coming from contained all types of writings about the family and their role in the community of Charleston. Carrie’s papers included letters of her activities and accomplishments, as well as, friendly comments to find out what her other family members were doing. One interesting letter was about the time when she was organizing the community children’s fund to help support the kindergarten program, a tornado and hurricane ravaged the two Kindergarten buildings. These took place mainly when she was in colleges and universities. She also had written some fiction, which was a story, but there was no title. There were just some sections of the story. The individuals that mainly came up were her father, Mabel, Anita, her nephew Richard, and to some sources I was not sure who they were. Her ideas were happy ones and she gave updates on how she was doing. Events that she discussed were the major movements she was a part of. These included: women’s suffrage, women attending the College of Charleston, and the importance of children’s education starting at an early age.

The main interesting topics that Carrie Pollitzer accomplished and was a part of, were the Women’s Suffrage Movement, and her part of being a leader in the movement allowing women to attend the College of Charleston. Her involvement in the movement to let women attend the college is her most well known feat. She made this a personal goal after World War I. Carrie gave a great speech to the College of Charleston in regards to letting women into college. Some of the speech said in 1918 is: “The old order changeth’, and because of existing international, social, and economic conditions, the women of today, as the co-workers, partners, and guardians of precious civilization, are to be accorded this opportunity, so long ago accorded to men.” The move to gain admission for women to the College of Charleston was spear headed by Carrie, which she was the executive board member of the administration. She instigated a petition from the federation to the college and, after more than a year of conferences with college officials, was notified that women would be accepted providing the federation would pay the salary for a woman matron and have provided funds for special facilities for women students. Carrie called a meeting at the Chamber of Commerce, and then considered men’s exclusive territory and invited prominent speakers and she started a drive to collect necessary funds. She would walk the neighborhood during the hot summer in which her efforts were looked down upon. She wrote in one of her letters, “The fact that women, in that era, were asking for money was looked upon with amazement.” By mid-summer of 1918, her group had raised 1,500 dollars in order to have facilities made for the women. A newspaper gave some good quotes about Carrie and her involvement with the College of Charleston. One was based on her speeches given in 1918 to exclusive male groups such as the Chambers of Commerce. Pierrine Smith Byrd, the colleges first female graduate in 1922, says “Carrie thought a woman should be able to attend classes from elementary school to college without leaving Charleston.” “She was very, very determined,” said Mrs. Byrd, who lived in Greenwood. “She appeared before all the Charleston groups. They thought she was very bold and didn’t want to let her speak.” One quote from Carrie to the newspaper was, “You should have seen the expressions when I asked that women be admitted to the college. I felt like Henny Penny telling them the sky was falling.” Another aspect of Carrie helping educate women to be independent and successful was her work training other young women to become kindergarten teachers. She also cared for her students and visited families to attempt to solve environmental problems of her students and scheduled physical examinations of the children.

Her movement in woman’s suffrage and their right to vote was another great cause Carrie was involved in. She once told The News and Courier, “that getting men to listen to a woman in 1918 was quite a feat.” Her movement in women’s rights even goes further back than when she advocated women in college. In 1912, she and her sisters became members of the newly formed National Women’s Party. She wrote letters to legislators urging them to pass the equal rights amendment and to treat women fairly. Women being able to gain the right to vote was a very important goal to Carrie and her sisters. She always handed out pamphlets or set up a booth at the corner of King and Broad Street advocating her cause of women’s suffrage and the right to vote. For her efforts in women’s suffrage and speaking out, which was not heard of during those days, she got put in the Hall of Fame from the Charleston Federation of Women’s Clubs and she also won a plaque from the Charleston chapter of the National Organization for Women. The plaque read: “With deep appreciation for contributions towards women’s equality, from the Charleston NOW chapter.”

Carrie had a great personality. She was considered a strong woman who believed that if you were going to accomplish anything, you had to start at the child’s level. She was dedicated to what she believed in and it made a difference. William Pollitzer, Richard’s son, says that all four Pollitzer children grew up with the belief that they should serve others. He says, “It was kind of expected of them and in a way, all of them did that.” William, who is the nephew, also said, “Carrie struck me as a proper Victorian lady in her dress and attitude.” He also said, “Although she was interested in the equal rights movement, she wasn’t what you think of today as a liberated feminist.” She was very much the little, old lady of the nineteenth century in that respect. She was known as Miss Carrie, since she was never married. She lived with her sister, Mabel, and they both belonged to the same cause of women’s rights. Mabel and Carrie lived on Pitt Street together and were usually seen together. They must have been simple women since neither had a car. The personality of Carrie showed up in her letters. She was very proper and spoke well and educated in her writings. In the commentaries that were written by her family and friends, there was nothing negative to be said.

Carrie compared to other significant southern women that I have looked is she seems to be a little more accomplished and focused on making her and her children’s lives better for the future of women. Fanny Kemble relates the most to her out of the women we have studied. Fanny was very independent and worked as well as educating herself to become what she wanted to be. She was a successful actress and showed great strength when she separated from her husband. Fanny fell victim to the unequal rights women had because she could not see her children or she did not receive any benefits from her husband financially. Fanny grew a hatred for the United States and soon tried to help out her own cause which was to not take part in the use of slavery for free labor. She did not advocate very much, but she really did not have much power. Carrie had the chance to advocate her cause while other women backed it up. Fanny would not have had as much support. The both were upper class white females living in the south dealing with issues facing their future.

The social activism of Carrie Pollitzer and her sisters are different then the stereotypes of southern club women. At a time when few women in the south were suffragists, Carrie identified with the National Women’s Party. She came from a time when women were not allowed to be jurors until 1967 and a time when the Nineteenth Amendment did not ratify until 1969. She was one of the earliest and most tenacious supporters of the Equal Rights Amendment. She was a brave and strong woman by voicing her cause in public and in front of men. Many women during the time met in private. She managed women suffrage booths in the heart of the city’s business district. By reading her letters and researching her accomplishments, I have concluded Carrie Pollitzer was a feminist who would forever bear her southern heritage. She was a white southern woman who came from an elite family, but she worked with and around as well as against regional stereotypes of gender, race, and class. She set a new path for southern lady hood. The only shortcomings that came from her letters were the lack of historical facts rather she wrote more on her opinions and what she was accomplishing. Her writing was often difficult to read as well.

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