Thursday, December 27, 2012

Secondary Health Office Essay

Secondary health office is the facility responsible for the proper and timely assessment and treatment of minor injuries that occur during normal (day) hours.

Speaking about the ideal secondary health office, I would like to note that I would have to meet the following requirements as show in the essay below:

  1. Location. The best choice for ideal secondary health office would be close to the main roads/highways so that injured patients could be immediately brought to the health office. Another thing that needs to be noted here is that health office needs to be located in close proximity to the places where most injuries occur. Such location will guarantee that patients will be delivered to the health office in no time and get the proper treatment there. Thus, the ideal secondary health office should be located in the place where it could be easily accessed as well as in close proximity to the places where injuries happen.
  2. Equipment/supplies/Storage Space. The ideal secondary health office should possess the right amount of equipment to cater the right needs of the injured patients. The office should remain aware of the most common injuries that happen in the area the office covers and thus should possess the tools and equipment needed to cover these needs. Should there appear some other needs that the office is not ready to meet, the office should be ready to provide a car/vehicle to transport the patients to the nearest hospital or clinic that handles such injuries.

In reality whenever the ideal secondary health office covers a school district it should be located on the school territory. Should a student report injury the office will contact his/her legal guardians or parents. It is for this reason the office needs to possess extensive database of information about students and contact information about them and their parents.

The needed medication is supposed to be kept inside the ideal health office. After the office obtains parental permission it should proceed with treatment. The medication apparently needs to be stored in original pharmacy containers for safety reasons and is to be used whenever needed. All health abnormalities will be reported promptly to students’ parents.

Thursday, December 6, 2012

Fiscal Balance Essay

Essay on Fiscal Balance

Fiscal balance is the total balance, which includes the government tax revenues, proceedings from the sale of assets, and all the government spending deducted. When these calculations are complete, and there is a positive figure, it then indicates a fiscal surplus. In economics, it is the balance of the total income and expenditure the government incurs while carrying out its operations (Hansen, 231).
Gross domestic product is gross market value of all the consumer goods and services created in a country. The values that constitute in the calculation of GDP include the total customers, government expenditure, exports and investment. The most influential factor of the economy is the growth of the gross domestic product (Auerbach, 212). The table below shows the United Arab Emirates balance and the percentage gross domestic product in the years 2005 to 2010. Reports indicate that there was a fluctuation of the expansion and reduction in the fiscal balance and the gross domestic growth as indicated in the table.

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Year - UAE Fiscal balance and % GDP
2005 - 101.5
2006 - 163.9
2007 - 194.4
2008 - 304.7
2009 - 0
2010 - 27.1

The table above indicates a rise and fall in the fiscal balance in Billion Dirhams. The trend shows that there was a steady rise of the fiscal balance from the year 2005 to the year 2008, which had the highest growth of 304.4. A rapid drop of the fiscal balance experienced in the year 2009, which has a fiscal balance of zero billion. This drop in the balance was because of the world crisis that hit almost all the nations, and this did not exclude Dubai, which was among the hardest hit.

Dubai had a significant amount of debt; Abu Dhabi had to buy the largest part of the shares of Dubai. The economy has gradually grown since the year 2006, because of aid from Abu Dhabi. This recovery is supported with the aid of the slow expansion of the fiscal policy. The growth of the economy results from the economic activities that Abu Dhabi carries out, the country has increased spending on the investment sector.

The investment on the development of the real estate business is rapid and in aid of the expansion of the economy. The rise of the oil prices has increased the income of the United Arab Emirates. These economic investments resulted to increase of the total balance over the years.

In the United Arab Emirates, the central bank governor releases the reporting of the fiscal position of a company. In the past year, reports indicate that the country’s financial position was steady and desirable. There was a record of a surplus in the fiscal balance, which was approximately 3% of the gross domestic product because of the rapid profitability from the increase of the oil prices.

The governor of the central bank, Al Suwaidi, states that there was an expansion of GDP compared to the year 2010, and there was an increase of the fiscal balance because the previous year had a deficit of approximately 2%. The fiscal balance and gross domestic product in United Arab Emirates had been fluctuating over the years with 2009 being the worst although Abu Dhabi has been of help and there is expansion of the fiscal balance, currently due to the economic activities in the country.

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Monday, December 3, 2012

Russian Literature Essay

Essay on Russian Literature

Stylistic and Thematic evaluation and/or comparison of Nikolai Gogol’s „The Overcoat” and Fedor Dostoevsky’s „The Dream of the Ridiculous Man”
The following essay paper is going to concentrate on the two great masterpieces „The Overcoat” and „The Dream of the Ridiculous Man” written by Nikolai Gogol and Fedor Dostoevsky. The aim of the paper would be to analyze each of the works separately and then compare and contrast them. It is important to point out that the works of Gogol and Dostoevsky can be compared and contrasted because the writings of these authors usually have many themes in common. Both of these writers are well known mystics, who with the help of their stories describe and deride human characteristics in a way that makes the reader shiver at times. In fact, it is even said that Nikolai Gogol stands at the inventor of the Russian short story, and Fedor Dostoyevsky noted that all Russian short story writers had based their works on Gogol’s „Overcoat”.

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I would like to start with the analysis of the short story by Nikolai Gogol, called „Shinel“ („The Overcoat“) that is often named to be one of the greatest works of the Russian literature. In the „Overcoat” Gogol manages to combine realism and fantasy, comedy and tragedy, grotesque and sentimentality. The story dwells about Akaky Akakyevich a clerk living in a small city who discovers that his overcoat has become worn out and decides to take it to the tailor in order to fix it. However, the tailor proclaims that the overcoat is so worn-out that it is impossible to get it fixed. After wrangling with himself Akaky decides that there is not other way out of the situation except for buying a new coat. From the first pages of the novel it is seen that Gogol does not feel sympathy to his main character, on the contrary it seems that the author takes pleasure in describing how pathetic poor clerk is. In order to make the character unforgettable, Gogol apply metaphors, and hyperbolas, spicing the novel up with witty sarcasm.

The new overcoat Akaky purchases, becomes the central part of the story after the introductory part. This is so, because for poor Akaky a new overcoat is not simply a garment, for him it is a key to the future happiness. The author places the garment in the centre of the story for several purposes, partly to emphasize how important material things to people are, and partly to one more time humiliate Akaky and show that he is pathetic to the extent that he is in awe in front of the overcoat. In order to emphasize the latter, Gogol describes in detail the day new overcoat is purchased. That day Akaky feels on top of the world, he believes that the new overcoat will change the way he is perceived by other people, will make them respect and honor him, will make him a desirable bachelor and a  frequent guest. Wearing a new coat Akaky begins to walk the streets of the town like a new man, in fact, maybe like a man for the first time.

When the overcoat is stolen Akaky is head over heels in sorrow, he seeks help to recover the overcoat. The style, in which Nikolai Gogol describes the happening with the overcoat, is interesting. That is probably the only time in the novel when an attentive reader may feel that the author is to some extent pitiful towards the poor clerk. However, when Akaky starts looking for help and decides to go to the police where he is immediately turned down, the style and voice of the author gets more sarcastic. When after police Akaky turns to an „important personage”, that latter also refuses to help him, reminding him only about the laws of etiquette, and how inappropriate it was to come there without a prior documental complaint – Gogol’s tone is changed for good. The reader cannot feel any sympathy with the character anymore. That is why, when towards the end of the book, unable to bear the vicissitudes of fate Akaky comes down with flu and dies, we do not sympathize the Akaky at all.

After his death a ghost resembling Akaky wonders around the city stealing overcoats. This is the first time Gogol’s famous mysticism appears in the essay. It was very common for Gogol to apply the literary tools used for putting non-living things to life. Akaky ghost is wondering around the city stealing people’s overcoats. The ghost does things that his counterpart did not every do during his life. After Akaky’s death Gogol seems to be very enthusiastic and brightly describes the actions of the ghost and the horror it causes to people. This stylistic change, in my opinion, is used to again show how „little” Akaky was. 

This poignant story shows us the social injustice in the 19th century Russia. It shows the urban alienation and human isolation. Though his story, Gogol is trying to attract the attention to the fact that in today’s world bureaucracy has become more important than human life. Gogol also points out that in the corrupt society a person is no one, and will not be assisted by anyone unless he has money or connections. However, what is unclear whether Gogol would like to reader to sympathize with the fate of the poor clerk or whether one should regard this story as something funny. In my opinion, such ambiguity lets every reader form his/her opinion on this question.

„The Dream of a Ridiculous Man” by Fedor Dostoevsky is a short story that is in fact the last story Dostoevsky has ever written. This story is about a dreamer whose life changes after a series of encounters in his dream. The story begins, with the protagonist who is never named, planning his suicide. From the first minute the reader sees that the novel is very philosophical and deep. The language used by Dostoevsky is very advanced and the metaphors he employs are at times hard to grasp. The reader immediately sees that the protagonist is man of thinking, he tends to constantly be analyzing his life and deeds as well as the life and actions of others. He is willing to see the motives behind what the people do. On the verge of committing suicide he meets a crying child that turns to him, however, the protagonist pushes her away. Though, thinking about what he has done he realizes that he himself is selfish and cruel, these thoughts destruct him from suicide and give him a chance to sleep peacefully the first time in months.

While he sleeps, he experiences a wild dream. He dreams as though he has been taken to a different planet where there are absolutely different people. All those people are kind and loving, gentle and pure, in their world there is not place for cruelty and disgrace. This is the time in the novel when Dostoevsky first time introduces his religious beliefs. Actually, religion, though indirectly, is one of the major topics in the novel. When the perfect people learn of shame and poverty they become totally different.  The story shows us that people who have been living in the perfect world of love and care go through different stages that bring them to the place where we are right now. Soon, it becomes obvious to the reader that these „new people” that appear in the dream race, are actually, we – the people of today.

Before long the dreamer (the protagonist) understands that he no longer loves the people on the new planet. He sees that those people are slowly becoming the people he wanted to run away from when living on planet Earth. Though, the dreamer understands that now that these people know what sorrow is he loves them even more than he used to when they lived in the Garden of Eden. The above part of the novel again introduces Dostoevsky’s outlook on God and Godliness. For his God is almightily, though generous, thus the way protagonist did not stop loving people when they change, same way God will always love humans.

One may say that the above stories „The Overcoat” and „The Dream of a Ridiculous Man” have nothing it common. I realize that such opinion may exist, though only on the surface. Though in a different way, but Gogol and Dostoevsky touch upon the same topics that are, in reality, still relevant today.  One topic that both works have in common is the idea that society is a deception that is composed of hypocritical people and unjust institutions. The authors show that people have become slaves of bureaucrats and money-seeking officials. Moreover, when being put on the scales, the human life weights nothing in comparison with monetary or statutory advances.

However, it is very important to mention that the two prominent works present the main character and his life completely differently. In the „Overcoat” it is shown that Akaky becomes able to see the world around him only when he pulls his funds together and purchases an overcoat – that for him is a ticket to the new life. Though, after the overcoat is stolen Akaky, who has put all of himself into this garment, is destroyed. On the contrary, in the „Dream of a Ridiculous Man”, the protagonist is not victim, neither he is humiliated. The knowledge he has acquired from him dream has changed him, has made him a completely different person. His dream gave him a chance to live a different life, though when the dream was over and the „other life” was gone he did not go down and out. Quite the opposite, the first thing he did upon awakening was he helped the child he neglected before, and later became a preacher. So, both of protagonists are fighting with society, though while Akaky is destroyed, the dreamer leaves the battle undefeated.

In conclusion I would like to say that both of the works analyzed above are indeed the masterpieces of world literature. These two works are filled with deep symbolism and feelings. Both the novels deal with the topics that can be related to each other, such as the loneliness of a human being in the world, the abuse of power by bureaucrats, the cruelty and ambiguity of the modern world. The style the novels are written in differs greatly, primarily because their authors had explicitly dissimilar writing styles. While Gogol is usually very light, satirical, and bright, Dostoevsky is very philosophical and gloomy. Additionally, while Dostoevsky’s novel is rather Godly, Gogol chooses to employ the devil forces, such as a haunted overcoat. Another great discrepancy between the two novels lays in the way authors see their main characters. While for Nikolai Gogol the sad story of Akakiy is amusing, for Fedor Dostoevsky his ridiculous man is not at all comical. Conclusively, while dealing with related subjects, two novels take a different perspective on the human life and the world around us.

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Thursday, November 29, 2012

Self-Affirmation Theory Essay

Essay on Self-Affirmation Theory

Self-affirmation theory suggests that people can deal with threats to their self-identity by focusing on their self-worth and competence. This theory can be applied to many real life situations. I would like to describe the case of a friend of mine who used this theory to overcome threats to her identity and achieve success.

My friend comes from a very traditional Muslim family. Women in her family have always been limited to homemaking and child-rearing. However, my friend was inspired by feminist ideas and despised the notion that women have to be limited to private sphere, as her culture suggests. Therefore, she wanted to pursue a college education in law with a view of building a career and promoting the cause of gender equality in her work. Her family was opposed to her going to college, since they deemed it was inappropriate for a female.

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The family was well-to-do, so the girl would face no financial pressures in the future. At the same time, her desire for independence and self-actualization was very strong.

For several moths, she tried to avoid an open conflict with her parents and tried to persuade her that education and work are important for every person regardless of gender. However, her parents found a young man from the same cultural background for her to marry. At this point, the girl had to make a choice between family values and resisting the threat to her identity. The family told her they would not provide any financial or moral support if she decided to pursue education.

Knowing how competitive admission to law universities is, the girl was not sure if it was a good idea to start an independent life. However, she decided to focus on her strengths and competences in order to affirm her identity. She moved out, taken out a student loan and entered a prestigious law university. With the support of her friends and continuous self-motivation and affirmation, she was able to achieve her goal.

After seeing her succeed, her parents accepted her back. They have realized that pressure and blackmailing are not efficient in influencing their daughter’s decisions. The girl said that the most important lesson she had learned from that crisis was to follow her own dreams and fulfill her own ambitions rather than accepting authority unconditionally, even if it harms her interests. Positive thinking and confidence helped her a lot in those turbulent times when she had no one but herself to rely on. It is important to remember, however, that self-affirmation should take a realistic approach to one’s abilities. Self-affirmation should encourage continuous learning and personal development rather then discourage it. Expectations and goals should be realistic and achievable in order for this theory to work.

There are many situations in life when surrounding people try to enforce a certain identity and lifestyle on us.

Therefore, it is important to be aware of one’s own self and affirm one’s self through focusing on one’s self-worth that is derived from personal skills and strengths.

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Thursday, November 22, 2012

Essay on Product Placement

Product Placement Essay

The influence of tobacco product placement in American TV shows on the audience
The popularity and impact of traditional television advertising have been in decline in the recent years as a result of increased costs and competition. Product placement is a substitute for the traditional TV advertising. It has been used since the invention of the small screen. Product placement is gaining more and more popularity and at the same time has turned into a huge, profitable business for both the broadcasting companies and the producers. The result of this situation is that companies exercise control with their product to such extend that shows are rejected projection or the storyline is completely altered. It is true that broadcasting companies receive large payments for placing a certain product in a movie, but the possible predicaments are much more. If there is too much product placement in a show, or the advertising is too obvious, the audience will lose interest in it.

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Product placement is not a new advertising strategy, but it has gained popularity through the new technological developments and in the last years it has become more noticeable as a common practice in TV shows. Nowadays, its effect is not so much on a subconscious level, but on the contrary - people do notice the brands displayed on the screen. The viewers associate with the characters from their favorite TV programs and that is the reason why they want to use the same brands as them. According to Bleicher and Heisinger (2008), in that way they are identifying themselves with the TV characters, feeling closer to them.

The restrictions on tobacco industry tighten more and more each day- no TV advertisement, smoking bans, bigger pictorial warnings and recently there are more restrictions on the use of tobacco products appearing on TV. Despite that fact, the tobacco industry is constantly growing and developing. The only tool that is not so strictly overlooked by the government, yet and that can be still used by the tobacco companies is the product placement on the small screen. It has a great impact on the audience even though without brand exposure. (Saffer& Chaloupka, 1999)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the advantages of product placement of tobacco in the American TV shows, to compare it to the ordinary advertisement tools, and to investigate if it can be a good replacement. The growing restrictions and sanctions on smoking during TV time are to be presented and thoroughly examined. The current study is challenging and appealing due to the high public interest and the limited number of studies and papers conducted in this field and will be used to draw some final conclusions.

The focus of the following study is on the influence of tobacco product placement on the audience of the American shows. The survey will observe if smoking in TV shows makes people smoke more and whether tobacco placement should be restricted or banned at all. There are different studies conducted in the area, but very few present results that are not ambiguous and that can lead to general and final conclusions on the topic.

Another purpose of the study is to present valid results that will support or refuse the public opinion about tobacco use on TV. The answers to these questions will be of great use for our society, moreover the outcomes of this thesis can be easily applied to other industries different than tobacco to alter and improve their marketing strategies. The research and its outcomes will not only be useful to the public, but also to the TV producers fighting over TV ratings and tobacco companies.
The topic of the current study was chosen, because of multiple reasons. The matter of the subject is pressing and often spoken of in society by people working in the TV business or by government officials. The debates on the topic are intriguing due to the extreme opposite opinions of the parties participating.

Another reason for choosing the topic is the high interest in following the development and evolution of American TV shows. The ban on tobacco on Television is considered by some as violating the freedom of speech. The producers of the TV programs have to be careful to alter their stories to avoid smoking scenes. Many shows may lose their ratings or even worse may have to be removed from the air. People enjoy watching everyday life stories, so they can associate with the character. That will be difficult to happen if everyday things such as smoking cannot be displayed on TV.

On the one hand, banning the exposure of tobacco products will change the movie industry for ever. On the other hand, the exposure of minors to violence, drug abuse and excessive smoking is a serious problem and is desired by no one.

The audience intended for this research mainly is supposed to consist of scholars interested in the ways to measure the effectiveness of the placement of tobacco products in TV shows. The viewers of these TV shows will be interviewed and will be subjects to different field experiments, their perception and awareness of the product placement will be measured and described. However, as mentioned previously, the results will be of great use to all the parties involved in the tobacco business, its marketing and the TV shows managers. (Galician, 2004)

The writer’s point of view on the subject is certain. There should be various restrictions on tobacco products displayed on TV. The use of tobacco in TV shows should be also controlled. Different aspects, such as nature of the TV show, air time, audience and many more should be taken into account. The placement of tobacco in TV programs should not be banned, because then storylines and storytellers will be affected, as well as the viewers. Turning the tobacco into a forbidden topic, may have a negative result and encourage people to get involved, to object and protest against these restrictions. As a result, there is not an easy solution to this complex problem.

In the world of Television and Media, there are so many available channels to the viewers that many run away from the traditional TV advertisement, turning into real channel surfers. In that line of thought, placing a product in the TV shows, instead of placing it in the traditional commercial, increases the number of people viewing it and paying attention to it. (Galician, 2004)

The choice of TV shows instead of movies to conduct this research is due to the fact, that programs on the small screen attract a bigger audience and it is easier to estimate how many people viewed the episode with product placement and it is also easier to make the product irreplaceable part of the storyline. The problem of character smoking in TV shows has been a hot topic for quite long. There are constant debates and studies carried out to prove or disprove the impact of tobacco product placement on the audience. The purpose of the research is to investigate and to measure the impact of the tobacco products on the different viewer groups and their positive or negative attitude to such exposure. It will be explored in details which age groups are addressed by these placements, which ones are more prone to these messages and what messages are they conveying. Product placement for that kind of products will be compared to traditional advertising to point out its advantages and disadvantages and its public acceptance. (Mekemson & C.A., 2002)

The tobacco companies have a long practice of sponsoring tobacco smoking in movie productions, because they have understood its high efficiency. Although, they claim to have stopped that practice, tobacco marketing has been increasing, but becoming very difficult and innovative, developing new more complex marketing methods to defeat the restrictions and to deal with the increasing public concern about the dangers of smoking.  (Glantz, Slade, & A., 1996)

Traditional TV advertising has been in decline for the last years, however, product placement even though not a new marketing tool is gaining popularity and its uses tremendously increase. The TV shows business and product placement in TV shows has become a huge and very profitable practice, beneficial for all parties included, but the viewers. The media including movies, TV shows, magazines and internet form the everyday environment of young individual and thus have a great impact on their way of thinking. These media tools more frequently refer to tobacco products and in that way send pro-smoking messages to the public.

The tobacco industry and the motion picture industry have a long history of coexisting and working together. The product placement of tobacco is used to promote tolerance towards smoking and to increase its desirability among youngsters. The restriction on tobacco advertising mainly limits the print advertisements and promoting to children, but new means of marketing are constantly been researched and developed to balance its marketing strategies and their restrictions.

Unless more restrictions are introduced to tobacco placement in TV shows, that indirect advertising tool will remain the most powerful way to promote tobacco products, increasing the revenues of tobacco companies and endangering the public health. (Angus & Hastings, 2008)
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Friday, November 9, 2012

Standpoint Theory Essay

Essay on The Standpoint Theory

The standpoint theory itself lies in the necessity to get along with the dominant class for the reasons of survival. Therefore, the feminist theory arose on the basis of the social reality vision developed by women as a subordinate group (Swigonski, 1994, 390). In the process of formation, the feminist standpoint theory was designed by women searching for the methods to survive in the men-dominant world.

Feminism being a social movement referred to postmodern trends originally relies on the theory that there exist no differences between the two sexes, female and male, except biological ones (Harding, 2008, 14). However, it is argued that women are sometimes distinguished within the social conditions only and this causes controversies in the standpoints, while racial, economical, and historical views are often neglected and not taken into consideration (Harding, 2004, 318-321; 2005).

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According to Swigonski (2004, 391-392), the main tenets of the standpoint are developed through researches that identify the power of point and possession of knowledge as the determinative factors in choosing a role in the struggle for the feminist rights and freedoms. Education is a less powerful factor for that its impact cannot be objectively evaluated. Everyday life, however, provides deeper guidance in the relevant issues of oppression and can be the most influential source of maintaining a standpoint, especially in cases where previous factors are not easily accessible. 
Primarily mentioned in the 18th century, the standpoint feminist theory was accurately observed in the 1960-70s with the development of class and labor definitions and dawn of women movements (Harding, 2008, 14-15; Swigonski, 1994, 390) but not only the rich ones as originally observed. Later in the 1970s, the issue of discrimination arose involving women of virtually all races, cultures, and ethnicities.
In 1970s, women searched for the means of fighting inequality and dominance of the opposite sex in all aspects of human life. From diverse points of view, the movement pursued different goals.    
The following debates disclose where strengthening of the movement and improvement of confidence among the participants were originated from (Harding, 2004, 318). However, the participants were not always able to refer to the global audience because of the way how the various concepts within the feminist standpoint theory were socially situated (Swigonski, 1994, 390). 
As a matter of fact, the standpoints of women with different backgrounds do not coincide so unification of their experiences often fails. From the epistemological point of view, there is likely to be a group with a common interest in order to be able to struggle for this interest productively. In practice, feminists do not always share the same standpoint, and this negatively reflects on the performance of the whole movement. Harding (2004, 321) finds the right description for this calling supporters as “women who do not make up the majority of feminist theorists”. The fragmentation in terms of strategies and approaches makes the movement less attractive by blurring its main goal and idea.     
One of the feminism debates takes place around the position of a woman in the society. It is primarily argued that woman’s functions in terms of modern society are narrowed down to keeping household and bringing up children (Harding, 2004, 318). However, historical background identifies namely such division of roles between sexes pointing at these female responsibilities as the basic ones. Universalism theory complements this idea but emphasizes on treating any human as of universal quality, namely equally.
The debates also concern the context of the standpoint interpretation. Only feminist analysis observes women as an oppressed category. Social approach refers to feminists as a minority segment along with national, sexual, and other minorities that also fall under the so-called oppression. The way how the minorities are treated is virtually the same but with the only distinction in the objectivity and form of presentation, Swigonski (1994, 390) points out.  
Another misconception lies in the distinction between political standpoints where “female” and “feminist” refer to somewhat different meanings identifying that a feminist can be a person of any sex (Harding, 2004, 318). Therefore, it is obvious that the concept of feminist involves not only women but men as well, and there are certainly male supporters of the movement.
Final important issue mentioned by Brooke (2004, 99) and Swigonski (1994, 391) lies in the controversies of feminist members within the same group called “outsiders within”. The whole group of individuals can potentially have several standpoints, which should either apply to different realities or damage the integral concept.
Concluding the aforementioned, I would like to point out that the key to success apparently lies in the uniformity of the standpoint. If the opinions of participants and suporters differ, there is less probability that this group or community will get along. 
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Wednesday, October 31, 2012

An Inspector Calls Essay

An Inspector Calls Essay

"An Inspector Calls" is a play created by one of the most popular English dramatists J. B. Priestley. It is set in 1912, Edwardian England, just before the war. The time was rather difficult for England; definitely, that was the reason for the author to depict that very epoch because the time Pristley lived in himself had some resemblance with 1912. While reading the book, one can see a period when there were many strikes, food shortages and great political tension.

Taking into account the fact that the play was written and published in 1945, just after the World War II, we can mention that the country was also in disarray. Priestley tries to show the difference between these two epochs very effectively. Depicting people on their way to socialism, the author shows attempt to rebuild the society.

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Priestley reveals it in a very bright way using two types of characters, vivid conflict of generations and desperate efforts of the Birlings to keep image of kind, prosperous and responsible people. Pristley observes the classical unities of time, place and actions in his structure. The place – the Birlings’ dining-room – is constant throughout; and the action and dialogue all contribute to the central theme of the play, with nothing extraneous to distract the audience’s attention. The style of the play seems at first glance to be that of the straightforward detective thriller but Pristley is a master of different stylistic devices which keep reader’s attention up to the end of the story.

All the characters in the play are rather typical, which shows that the author tried not to depict a personality but to show the problems in society of the whole epoch using one of the upper class families and its inner and outer relations. All the characters are different but the most interesting person in the play, to my mind, is Mrs. Birling. The first outstanding thing about her is her leadership in the family. The author describes her as quite tyrannical person: “…about fifty, a rather cold woman and her husband’s social superior”. Evidently, she is more hard-faced than Mr. Burling, very snobbish, conscious of and uses social position for her private purpose.

Mrs. Birling is a chairlady of the Brumiley women’s charity organization. Taking into consideration her features of character it sounds rather ironically. So, let’s find out the reasons why it is so, why Sybil can’t hold such post. First of all, charity organization is created for poor or destitute people who need help, material as well as moral. So there should work people who sympathize with such people, who like them and are ready to help them whenever they need it. For sure, it’s not about lady Birling. She disrespects and even hates poor people, fearlessly expressing her prejudices against working class women like Eva. Sybil accuses the girl of being immoral, dishonest and greedy. Moreover, she can be seen as a heartless person in some respects, especially in the way she receives the news about Eva Smith's suicide. She dismisses the news, not able to see how the death of a lower class person could be of any interest to, or connected to the Birlings. Sybil seems to think that such people have different feelings to her own, that they are less human than she is. She sees Eva's pleas as being evidence of 'giving herself ridiculous airs' and of 'claiming elaborate fine feelings' that are restricted to people of Sybil's own social standing.

One more reason is that Mrs. Birling seems to be completely detached from the problems of her own family. She thinks that her son is still a little child though he had already become an alcoholic, she’s ignorant at her daughter’s troubles. So how can a woman so selfish, that doesn’t care about her own family, think about lower-class people?

Sybil is rather sly woman. When inspector stars asking her questions she hides behind words such as 'truth', 'duty' and 'deserving’, she finds every his word ‘offensive’ and obviously doesn’t feel responsible for Eva’s death though actually she refused to help the girl when she had asked to. If to suppose that the chair lady would have been a kind woman there wouldn’t be any suicide. The matter is that the girl felt too miserable, she appeared in a world of cruelty and lack of understanding. Eva came to charity organization because it was her last way out. But Mrs. Birling humiliated her and it was the last straw for the girl. The woman told her that it’s the father of the child who is responsible. The reader is aware of the fact that Eric is the father of the child, but Eva couldn’t stand that she was used by a rich alcoholic.

The ending of the play makes everything clear: all the members of the family are guilty in Eva’s death. But most of the blame is on Sybil who using her influence persuaded the other members of her charitable group not to help Eva in order to avoid problems in her own family. Nonetheless Sybil Birling refuses to accept any part of the blame for Eva's death, despite her actions, which contributed to its occurrence and is so sure of her beliefs that she states she is not at all ashamed. So we can see that even in the end Sybil didn’t learn to behave in a compassionate or caring way, her attitude towards lower class became even worse. That is why we can make a conclusion that Sybil Birling couldn’t be a chair lady of Brumiley women’s charity organization and should be removed from her position.
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Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Free Political Science Essay

Free Essay on Political Science

Interest groups get their abilities to influence the political process because in some major ways, their opinions are even greater than the process itself. One such group, the National Committee for an Effective Congress, puts it this way: “For all intents and purposes, the Democratic and Republican parties don’t exist. There are only individuals and professionals”. In many ways this is very true in the eyes of the public.

Candidacy for President, for example, used to be all about running on a stable political platform. While to a certain extent it still is about that, these days it has become a lot more about personal image and name recognition. This is exactly why interest groups have become so powerful in the political sphere.

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The public’s eyes have been averted from the politics of the candidate himself in order to focus on campaign contributions and donations to different organizations. These organizations then, with their enormous power of public relations, reciprocate by openly supporting that candidate.

Businessmen are another case. David Vogel and Leonard Silk, a political scientist and New York Times business columnist conducted research on a meeting of American businessmen in the mid 70’s. Their documentation suggested that businessmen believe that the government has completely stopped paying any attention to them and in some cases directly harassing them, resulting in a lack of motivation to invest their capital. Much of this animosity stems from the New Deal and the social programs of the 1960's. Their only outlet to make meaningful changes in politics, then, is to appeal to interest groups.

Over the years, interest groups have become something of a political substitute, as the different groups break down political issues into a more easily understood fragmentation. By paying attention to interest groups, people have a better understanding of the specific issues that those groups represent. Keeping one’s finger on the pulse of interest groups and paying attention to the information they provide, one could greatly decrease the amount of confusion notoriously generated by political debate. This is because one simply get the facts about certain political issues and are free to make up his/her own opinions regarding them.
This observation carries with it implications that certainly influences the political process. Voting, for example, is greatly affected by this because voting in an intellectually honest way, requires making an informed decision. What better way of being informed than by listening to organizations whose purpose it is to collect, analyze and interpret the data, information and statistics of their interest? Collectively speaking, society as a whole will change its political behavior based on the source of information that it gets.
The reason some interest groups today are more influential than others is because they may get the most support from its subscribers, members, contributions/external support, or sometimes even the government such as in the case of the New Deal program, which caused the government to strengthen certain interest groups.
It can be deduced then, that the US has become a beacon for interest groups. It has gotten to the point that certain countries now have interest groups influencing the US government. It is a dangerous road that America has been on for a while, one which, if it continues to traverse, might leave it in the dust. (Domhoff, 1983)
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Tuesday, October 2, 2012

Essay on Fiduciary Duty

Fiduciary Duty: Duty of Care and Duty of Loyalty

The recent financial crisis and the economic turmoil it has brought about unveiled more than a few weaknesses of the current financial services industry. Is has shown, for instance, that some of the latter’s economic predictions and financial investments proven to be utterly wrong. But equally (and sometimes even more) severe were the accumulating evidence that the financial sector’s seemingly strict codes of conduct – which allow them to be as powerful as they are – have been breached too often and for too long.

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The backbone of the whole financial sector is trust. Individuals, institutions and countries allow the financial sector to hold, manage and invest their liquid equity because they neither a plausible alternative to the current structure of the banking system, nor they have a reason to doubt financial firm’s commitment to its clients. This commitment, known as fiduciary duty, is the subject matter of this paper, which calls for a rigorous rethinking about the concept in light of the recent financial crisis.

A discussion about fiduciary duty usually revolves around two kinds of duties, namely duty of loyalty and duty of care. The specific characteristics of each duty (in terms of the behaviors they prescribes) may vary among contexts (e.g. corporate vs. financial affairs) and/or fiduciaries (e.g. directors vs. investment bankers), but the general meanings of these two duties define fiduciaries’ responsibilities to principals in terms of:
  • Duty of loyalty: an obligation on behalf of the fiduciaries to put the principles’ interests ahead of their own and to avoid conflict of interests
  • Duty of care: the fiduciaries’ to serve principles’ best interests and to avoid acts and/or omissions that may lead to inferior results.  

Taking the case of Enron as an example, the company’s executives and clearly violated their duty of loyalty to their shareholders. In contrast, Enron’s auditors Arthur Andersen seem to have failed to meet their requirements under duty of care, as they could discover Enron executives’ fraudulent deeds but did not do so. However, the assumption regarding Arthur Andersen’s failures in the field of duty of care indicates a serious flaw in the definition of this duty.

The problem with duty of care is that except extreme cases in which fiduciaries act in an utterly irrational fashion, there is no legal way to link the disastrous effects of their actions to a breach of duty of care (Black, 2001). This is because of the fact that, simply put, “there is no general principal that will determine the existence and scope of a duty of care in all cases” (Brooks & Dunn, 2010, p. 458). By the same token, it seems that the current definition of fiduciary duties is too weak to prevent the aggressive and irresponsible behavior, which led to the 2008 collapse of Lehman Brothers (“Oh, brother”, 2010).

But even if the duty of care is relatively weaker than the duty of loyalty (Black, 2001), one should not be too confident about the latter duty’s premise to secure invertors’ interests. Even when firms maintain strict policies to prevent conflict of interests there is always a considerable risk of insider trading in the financial firm’s own stock and/or in assets it controls. All it takes to get there is one employee with a big mouth and a poor sense of ethics. This is especially true for workers of struggling firm, and even considering by hardcore capitalists as a natural mechanism to ensure and predict fair market prices (Bandow, 2010). In fact, the digital era allows any employee to post information with devastating implications on an anonymous blog, thereby violating his or her duties without ever being caught (Lee, 2006).

Needless to say that even a stricter set of enforcement for issues of fiduciary duty and corresponding obligations would not able to prevent opportunists from using their clean and decent image to deceive investors. The perfect example for this case is Bernard Madoff, who could not carry out his mega ponsi scheme without his (apparent) high fiduciary duty standards, as demonstrated in his career in Wall Street (Creswell & Thomas, 2009).

The evidences discussed in this paper and others leave a very little room to doubt that fiduciary duty is based too much gentlemen’s codes to be considered as strong grounds for investors. However, it is not so certain that strengthening the legal holdings of fiduciary duties can contribute to solving current weaknesses in financial markets; instead, there are good grounds to the argument that increasing the scope of fiduciary duty will result in greater complexity of management and control without reaching material improvement in stakeholders’ rights (Harman, 2010). Possible remedies should therefore stem from other components of the legal framework that surrounds our bulky financial system.  
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Tuesday, September 11, 2012

Criminology Essay

Criminology Essay

In summary the situations looks like the following: the only survived victim of a series of robberies and murders was able to positively identify a perpetrator from an array of photographs; later the victim being in sound mind was able to clearly identify the defendant at the preliminary hearing and respond to cross-examination. After these events the victim died. Police did not find the weapon or fingerprints, ballistic fingerprints could not identify the weapons.

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Generally, police can use several methods so as to identify a suspect as a perpetrator: lineup – identification from the group of people with similar patterns, showup – “one-on-one identification procedure” and photo identification – it “consist of witnesses looking at photos of suspects… most persons whose photos are displayed in photo identifications have prior criminal records” (Bergman & Bergman-Barret, 2003, section 4/19). Positive identification resulted by any of the above methods can be a reason to file criminal charges against suspect. Positive identification is also admissible as evidence at the trial, but the attorney can argue and further the court to exclude such evidences. The reasons for excluding identification as evidence may vary and the one that can be used in this particular case is that the witness was frightened.

The purpose of preliminary hearing is to determine whether the defendant should be tried and the prosecutor has any evidences that can prove the guilt of the defendant. This procedure does not imply prosecutor has to provide all the evidences available “but only enough evidence to convince the judge that there is probable cause to hold the defendant for trial” (Bergman & Bergman-Barret, 2003, section 16/3). All testimonies given at the preliminary hearing may be used at trial but in specific way – if somebody changes given before testimonies and the court needs to select which testimonies are more reliable. In addition, all testimonies given at preliminary hearing are subject to be repeated at trial under oath. Our victim has died before the trial and his testimonies could not be proved under oath. Of course they will be used in the court but the defendant’s attorney, probably, will be able to exclude them or dissolve their value for prosecution because there are no evidences available. The fact that victim responded to cross-examination works for prosecution because defense lawyer was not able to further the court to exclude them. Hence the testimony of the deceased victim could not be used as direct evidence at trial but as indirect only in the form of written transcript. This testimony is not proved under oath so far and the lawyer can insist that the victim may refuse to confirm this testimony at trial. “At trial, the prosecution has the burden of proving each element of the charged offense(s) beyond a reasonable doubt” (Bergman & Bergman-Barret, 2003, section 16/4) and in our case prosecution will not be able to do this without the victim despite victim’s testimony looks to be very likely.

The fact that series of robberies and murders stopped with the arrest of the defendant is not evidence. Under the presumption of innocence prosecution is to prove the guilt of the defendant, not the defendant prove his innocence. In addition, the defendant can “get” alibi if somebody is able to verify the defendant’s location at the time of felony. Defense lawyer can draw many reasons for the series of robberies and murders being stopped without arresting the defendant.

Ballistic fingerprints are the sort of scientific evidence. The concept of ballistic fingerprints implies all weapons to be identified before going on sale and stored in the database so as to have a possibility of identifying the weapon in future. In our case the weapon was not identified. This means the police is not able to find the owner of the weapon. The only practical value of ballistic fingerprints in this case is connecting the series of robberies and murders into the single case. If the police could find the weapon with fingerprints of the defendant it would be incontrovertible evidence of the defendant’s guilt.
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Monday, September 10, 2012

Starbucks Global Expansion Strategy essay

Starbucks Global Expansion Strategy essay

Starbucks is one of the most successful companies of the US, which is well-known nationwide. Throughout its history, the company has reached outstanding results, becoming one of the leaders in the national market. At the same time, the time is changing and the process of globalization contributes to the growing competition, while the company’s administration perfectly realizes that Starbucks needs continue to progress. Otherwise the degradations is inevitable. In such a situation, it is extremely important to choose the correct strategy of the further development of the company. It is worthy of mention that, in the current situation, the company has chosen probably the most effective strategy that provided Starbucks with ample opportunities to continue growing and this strategy is international markets expansion. It should be pointed out that the main feature of its strategy is high aggressiveness of the company and its main goal is the expansion and entering new markets. The expansion of Starbucks has already overcome national borders and has acquired an international character. At the same time, the company still remains highly popular among its American customers.

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In such a situation it is obvious that the company could hardly achieve such results without its aggressive policy of market expansion. It should be pointed out that the company steadily implemented the strategy of the market expansion in the course of its development. At the beginning, Starbucks basically focused on the regional level but, as the company continued growing the necessity to expand its presence on the national level became obvious. Nowadays the company continues its traditional strategy of the market expansion but, unlike in the past, it is not focused on the national market solely. Instead, Starbucks tend to enter new markets abroad and become one of the most recognizable brands worldwide. This policy perfectly meets the current situation in the international markets which is characterized by the growing role of the process of globalization. This means that the company needs to overcome national borders and operate worldwide to remain competitive. Moreover, it is the only logical strategy because fiscal barriers between countries gradually disappear that meant that entering barriers in local markets of different countries disappear too, making the penetration of the company in these markets easier and faster.

Another important factor of the success of the company is its attitude to customers. One of the major goals of the company is the development of the positive perception of the company by its customers. To put it more precisely, the company targets at the development of the positive customer experience. This is why the company attempts to meet the current demands and interests of customers. Its major goals is the customer satisfaction that means that the customer should enjoy the ambiance of Starbucks stores and the attitude of the personnel.

One of the constituent elements of such a strategy of the development of the positive customer experience and customer satisfaction is the quality of products and services the company supplies to its customer. To put it more precisely, Starbucks increases the quality of its service through the additional training of the personnel during which employee learn how they should behave while communicating with customers and, in general, quality is the backbone of the current success and the strategic point in the development of the company. The quality refers not only to company-customer relationships but it also refers to the functioning of the company at large, including relationships between employees as well as between the administration of the company and employees. In such a way, the quality constitutes an essential part of the organizational culture of the company and one of its major characteristics customers like probably the most.

In the result of the high quality of services and products customers can buy in the Starbucks, they naturally acquire a positive experience and, therefore, they grow more and more confident in the company, its products and services. As a result, the confidence of customers in the Starbuck naturally leads to the growing popularity of the brand nationwide because the company uses the same standards in all parts of the US. At the same time, the wide spread of the company and the popularity of its brand are determinant for the commercial success of the company. It is not a secret that in modern world, the brand of a company constitutes a significant part of its market value. Consequently, the growing customer satisfaction leads to the growing popularity of the brand of the company, while the latter results in the improvement of the market position of the Starbucks through the increase of the market value of the company.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that Starbucks is a leader of the national market but, in recent years, the company has started to implement new strategy of the international market expansion targeting at international, global market. It should be said that the strategy the company uses at the moment seems to be quite effective. However, it is necessary to point out that such a strategy may be accompanied by certain risks. For instance, the company may face serious problems in the result of its aggressive policy of expansion, such as the opposition of the local rivals as well as local population that can reject the new company, its product and services. In other words, the company needs to develop the positive customer experience in new markets in order to minimize apprehensions of customers in relation to the new player in the market. In this respect, the cooperation of Starbucks with local partners seems to be an effective strategy to overcome possible problems. However, the major and determinant factor of the success of the company still remains the national market and local customers. Obviously, at the present moment the US market still remains the larger market of the company. Consequently, it is vitally important to the company that the constituent elements of its commercial success in the US keep working in the future.
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The River Queen Movie Essay

The River Queen Movie Essay

The River Queen is Vincent Ward’s film set during the Maori wars. Vincent Ward is a famous New Zealand director, nominated for two Golden Palms. The River Queen won New Zealand Screen Award for the best achievement in Cinematography, and Golden Goblet Award for best music. His new work The River Queen is a historical drama, which described the events of 1860s. The River Queen was produced in 2005 and was released in January 26 in New Zealand. The film is set in the late 19th century in New Zeeland. Sarah O’Briend (Smantha Morton) is trapped between two different worlds.

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Originally Irish, she was brought up in a frontier garrison on the Great River. She grew up during the war between Maori tribes and British army. Sarah falls in love with Maori boy and gives birth to a child, who becomes the representative of two cultures. When her child is kidnapped, Sarah starts long and exhausting search for her son. When she finally manages to see him several years later she realizes that he has become a Maori warrior during the time they have been separated. Both, Sarah and her son are tired apart between two different worlds. The director Vincent Ward did a perfect job describing feelings and emotions of a mother, who is in search for her son. The play of young actor, Rawiri Pene, who plays Sarah’s son is brilliant.

Scenery makes the film not only historical and psychological drama, but also a very bright and picturesque picture, which fascinates the audience. The landscapes and play of colour and saturation create very beautiful pictures. The music is also a good director’s find. It helps to recreate at atmosphere of the film.

The film gives a feedback to 1890s, when Europeans made attempts to colonize New Zealand. The depiction of historical data is accurate and those, who are interested in the history of the colonization of New Zealand, can enjoy this movie.

Warm managed to reproduce the beauty of New Zealand and important historical period of the Maori wars. The conflict of the main characters is developed on the background of beautiful landscapes and beautiful nature. The movie has some parallels with Mann’s The Last of the Mohicans. The conflict of the main characters illustrates the results of colonisation and ways it affected the lives of ordinary people. I believe that the theme chosen by the author is very interesting because on the example of Sarah, the protagonist of the movie, the director shows that wars and conflicts became devastating and harmful not only for Maori people, but also for the British civil people, who became involved in this wars. The theme of colonization and resistance is an important part of New Zealand history, which can not be forgotten.

The part of the history, depicted together with the individual story, creates an emotional appeal to the audience and helps the director to pass his message to the spectators. Wonderful play of Samantha Norton helps to pass the feelings of a mother who looses her child. Beautiful scenery and well-chosen music create necessary atmosphere and create a beautiful background to the tragic story. The audience gets a perfect opportunity to get an insight into the life and culture of New Zealand tribes and see beautiful nature of this country.

I like the movie a lot I believe that it can be interesting for different kind of audience. People who like history can find interesting facts about the colonization of New Zealand in this movie. Those, who like melodramatic film will, most probably, also enjoy The River Queen. Those, who appreciate the beauty, will appreciate perfect Ward’s directing.
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Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Common Mistakes in Essay Writing

Common Mistakes in Essay Writing

Very often students who have completed and handed in their essays are dissatisfied with their marks. Sometimes they do not understand why their essay was graded poorly and what the teacher expected to see. Students make a lot of different mistakes which can spoil the general view of the essay greatly but we will focus on the most popular, the strictest ones. If you avoid these common mistakes in essay writing, the quality of your work will rise cardinally. Try to pay attention to every type of the mistake in order to avoid it in your future essays.

1. Many students miss such an important point of the essay, as a thesis. This short statement often presents the key point of the essay, its problem, plot, purpose of writing. If you miss this statement, your essay will seem senseless, because the reader will not understand what position you are going to support and what you are going to prove.

2. Another common mistake is the omission of the conclusion. It is quite a strict mistake, because if you do not conclude your thoughts, the essay will seem unfinished, the reader will think that there is a free ending and you key idea will be lost. That is why, concentrate on a good conclusion to summarize the whole essay and to keep the presented evidence in a logical order according to their importance.

3. The absence of evidence is another mistake which spoils the whole essay and it needs rewriting. If you do not present reliable evidence, like the results of the research, quotations of the famous scholars, writers, your essay will lose its sense and the whole aim of writing. It will be a simple narration without purpose to convince the reader in your point of view, that is why devote some time to find trustworthy data on the topic, which supports your thought.

4. The worst problem of essay writing is the lack of proper structure. Always remember that an essay is not a free stream of thoughts, but a logical paper with strict composition. If you present your thoughts chaotically, you will surely fail, because the reader will lose your thought at once. So, try to be logical and develop your essay step by step, gradually presenting new and new ideas and evidence.

5. A typical mistake of every student is plagiarism. Students often use quotations, thoughts, the results of the research of other scholars and forget to cite them. It is a very strict mistake and students have to realize it from the early years of studying. Even if you paraphrase the idea of the famous scholar, always cite it to avoid problems with your teacher.

6. Finally, there spelling and punctuation mistakes which can be corrected with the help of the dictionary and grammar books.

Monday, September 3, 2012

Arab History Essay

Arab History Essay

The history of the Arab world in the twentieth century is primarily affected by the idea of Arab nationalism. The entry of the Ottoman Empire into the war created a whole new situation, for the Arab nationalists had to consider their options seriously. For some the preservation and independence of the empire as a Muslim state was essential. Although they were opposed to the policies of the central government, they feared that its collapse would pave the way for European rule. Others felt that the war provided an opportunity to obtain independence for the Arabs with the help of the enemies of the empire. 16 The debate was settled in June 1916 when the Arabs decided to revolt against Ottoman rule and enter the war on the side of Britain and France. (Furgani, 1997)

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The Arab revolt was declared and led by the Hashimite leader Sharif Hussain of Mecca, who had been promised by the British that they would guarantee the liberation of the Arabs and the throne of an Arab kingdom consisting of the Arab parts of Asia. (Tibi, 2001) These promises strengthened the hands of the sharif and his sons in persuading reluctant nationalists to join the revolt. They succeeded also in persuading a large number of Arab army officers who had been part of the Ottoman officer corps to leave the Ottoman army and join the Arab revolt and its army. (Tibi, 2001) Although the Arab nationalists were able to form a government in Syria in 1920 and declare Faisal, son of Sharif Hussain, as king, the government lasted only four months. French forces overthrew it in July.

Britain had already agreed with France to carve up the Arab East between them with France assuming control over Syria and Lebanon and Britain assuming control over Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine. The League of Nations sanctioned this colonial control by calling it a mandate system under which Britain and France were expected to prepare the mandated areas for political independence. By 1921 Britain had succeeded in installing Faisal as king of Iraq, and his brother Abdullah was given the crown of Transjordan, again under British mandate. (Furgani, 1997) Syria and Lebanon were ruled directly by France, as was Palestine by Britain.

Another important historical event that had serious impact on the Arab nationalist movement was the British government’s declaration in November 1917 of support for the creation of a Jewish National Home in Palestine. These commitments on Britain’s part were obviously irreconcilable with those made to the Arabs. “If it came to the point, Britain would always prefer her need for good relations with France to her desire to establish an Arab State in Syria; and the Zionists could bring greater pressure to bear in London than could the Arabs.” (Leeman, 1992)

The first generation of Arab nationalists who led the Arab revolt and fought for the independence of the Arab region from Ottoman rule ended up in power but with the approval and under the patronage of a new colonial regime that was imposed on their countries by France and Britain. This was made easier by the very nature of the mandate system, which tended to rule indirectly through indigenous elites. For the elites it was an act of replacing one dominant foreign power by another. Once their economic interests were preserved, they found no reason to challenge the ruling foreign power.

The failure of the Arab revolt to achieve political and economic independence meant that the next phase in the evolution of Arab society had to entail the elimination of European domination and its agents -- the Arab governments that France and Britain had installed. Although Britain and France granted Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, but not Palestine, formal independence through treaty arrangements, the independence was so constricted as to be meaningless. (Furgani, 1997) While the history of the interwar period was shaped by European colonialism and its local elites who succeeded in consolidating their positions of economic and political power, other forces that eventually undermined these positions were at work.

As the structure of the economy changed, another class of petty bourgeoisie -- bankers, shippers, exporters and importers, insurance agents, and so on -- tied to the international economic system also emerged. As World War II came to an end, the configuration of social classes and their interests had undergone a major change since the establishment of governments in the Arab region. While economic and political power was concentrated in the hands of traditional elites -- landed aristocracies, large industrialists, and Ottoman-trained military officers turned politicians -- other newer classes with different aspirations and needs began to come to the fore.

While the traditional elites had by the end of World War II associated their political and economic fortunes with imperialism, the new classes were challenging the status quo in search of new social and economic order. (Leeman, 1992) The opportunity to replace the old order forced itself upon the Arab region when the state of Israel was created in 1948 in Palestine. The creation of Israel turned out to be the most serious challenge to face the old order since it demonstrated its unwillingness and inability to preserve an Arab Palestine. This failure exposed the bankruptcy and destroyed the political legitimacy of the first generation of Arab nationalist regimes.

It goes without saying that the failure of the Arabs and Pan-Arabism in 1948 was one of historic proportion from which Arab nationalism has never recovered. Explanations and rationalizations abound, ranging from collusion between imperial powers, Arab regime bankruptcy, superior enemy technology, and others. (Furgani, 1997) The old nationalist order that came to power in the aftermath of the Arab Revolt and the imposition of the mandate system was displaced by a new, younger generation of nationalists in a succession of military takeovers in the core Arab countries of Syria ( 1949), Egypt ( 1952), and Iraq ( 1958). (Leeman, 1992)

One of the most important developments in the twentieth-century Arab world has been the rise of the importance of oil as a source of income, wealth, and political power. In turn, as was noted earlier, this led to a shift in the leadership of the Arab world from the core countries of Egypt, Syria, and Iraq to the family regimes of the oil states. This shift, which became evident in the aftermath of the 1967 Arab defeat, was accelerated and dramatized after the 1973 October war, which was supposed to end the occupation of the Arab territories of the Sinai, East Jerusalem, the Golan Heights, the West Bank, and Gaza, which Israel had captured in the 1967 war. (Tibi, 2001)

History will show that the decision by the Arab oil states to reduce their output and place selective embargo measures on their oil exports for a few months in the name of the Palestinian cause was a brilliant, profitable act that increased dramatically their income, wealth, and political power within the Arab world. History will also show that Arab nationalism has never given nor will it ever likely give so much power and wealth to so few in such a short period of time. Let us remember that the combined population of Saudi Arabia and the other family regimes in the Gulf is less than 10 million or less than 5 percent of the combined Arab population. (Leeman, 1992)

It is important to point out that the dramatic increase in oil wealth and income destroyed whatever prospects there might have been for some meaningful economic achievements at the Pan-Arab level. The decisions of the 1980 Arab Summit Conference provide a good illustration. At that conference it was agreed among other things to adopt and fund a Joint Arab Development Decade. Yet this joint program was funded to the tune of only $5 billion, or $500 million per year. (Furgani, 1997) One need not point out how inadequate this amount of funding is relative to the massive needs of the Arab countries and their combined population of 200 million. Yet it should be pointed out that the combined military spending of the Arab states in 1984 amounted to more than $61 billion with the GCC states alone spending $28 billion. (Tibi, 2001)

It would be no exaggeration to say that petromoney brought into being classes whose economic and political prosperity had become dependent on this distorted pattern of wasteful spending. These classes include military and civilian bureaucracies, beneficiaries from contracts, commissions, agencies, transactions, recruiting, land speculation, construction of infrastructure, industrialists, importers and exporters, among others, all of whom have become increasingly dependent on the international capitalist system. Given this system of relations and given the vast amount of resources at the disposal of the state, the state itself had become a formidable force in each and every Arab society while the role of intellectuals and nationalist thinkers was eroded and marginalized.

It is obvious from the changes that were brought about by the oil wealth that the concomitant rise of the influence of family regimes requires that the whole concept of Arab nationalism be revisited for rigorous analysis to see whether it can be salvaged and restored to the unifying role it was once thought it could play. (Furgani, 1997) It is very difficult to envisage any serious change in the present thrust of Arab society, which at the current phase of Arab political history is anchored on the premise that the sovereignty of the state takes precedence over Pan-Arab issues and on the central importance of petromoney in Arab economies.
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Sunday, September 2, 2012

Rebellion vs Revolution Essay

Rebellion vs Revolution Essay

Edmund S.Morgan in his famous book American slavery American freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia, which was published in 1975 for the first time, analyzes the notion of slavery in the American history and the roots of the Bacon’s rebellion and its possible consequences. Bacon’s Rebellion is also known as the Virginia Rebellion. It was led by Nathaniel Bacon and started in 1676. The active participants of this rebellion were frontiersmen and it was the first rebellion in the American colonies of such kind. The causes of the rebellion were the following: natural disasters, such as floods, drought, hurricanes and others, that resulted in a poor condition of common people; numerous economic problems including decrease of prices on tobacco, increase of prices on manufactured products, restriction of English marker and others. All these reasons encouraged Bacon and his followers to rebel against unjust attitude towards poor slaves and servants.

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Some researches consider it to a revolution but it has all the features of the rebellion. A revolution is usually organized by the leading class who wants to change the political regime and social structure. It breaks out as a response to the aggressive and oppressive actions of the government; it involves great masses of people who have one common idea and a leader or leaders who proclaim this idea. The result of any revolution is usually complete or partial victory because this word itself presumes a change in the regime. A rebellion is more chaotic, the masses are not organized. People, as well as during revolution, usually rebel against infringement of their interests but their forces are not always aimed to change the political or social structure. The result of any rebellion is usually defeat.

Morgan in his book states that American principles of freedom and equality always come together with notions of slavery. Bacon raised his rebellion against slavery, in fact. Bacon united poor servants and slaves around him and made a number of attempts to massacre Indian population. His actions were rather chaotic and disorganized but they created threat to the peace in Virginia. Bacon’s rebellion could have transformed into real revolution: he had burned the capital and controlled almost all the colony for three months. The result of the rebellion could have been unpredictable but suddenly died Bacon and it became the logical end of the rebellion. Governor Berkley crushed the rebellion but it was a lesson for him and his followers, he understood that “First, that too many disappointed freemen and desperate blacks with a common enemy could prove a dangerous force. Second, resentment on racial grounds may be more powerful than resentment on the grounds of class” (Morgan, 2003, p. 270). This rebellion helped the government to change its policy and choose another tactics.

To sum up, Bacon’s rebellion can not be considered as revolution because, all in all, it was broke out by the colonial government. The masses united by Bacon did not choose one strategic direction in their actions and so after Bacon’s death were not able to unite and continue the fight for their rights. Nevertheless, it had had a great impact on the policy of the colonial government.
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