Tuesday, October 29, 2013

Essay: Gender Segregation in Schools

Essay on Gender Segregation in Schools

Gender segregation in schools is a practice in which students of both sexes are taught in separate training units or even in different schools or other educational institutions. Most often it is a this way is implemented with intention to improve the process of education.

Gender segregation in schools existed under the form of single-sex education in all European countries in the nineteenth - early twentieth century. This approach is explained very simply: according to the then popular theory of separate spheres, society meant different roles for men and women. The boys were getting ready for the public sphere: politics, business, management, the girls were destined for the sphere of private life, the role of the "mother and housekeeper." Naturally, the program of girls' schools and gymnasiums were significantly different from that of men, because it was believed that the role of wife and mother did not demand a large amount of knowledge. In addition, at the time there was serious prejudice to the level of development of women's intelligence, which was considered by far the weaker comparing to that of a male. The level of mental development the woman was believed to be that of adolescent males of 14-15 years of age. The consequence of this situation was the emergence of the movement for women's right to education, which has achieved the admission of women to the "male professions" and to the universities, and the change the girls’ training program at schools and gymnasiums.

However, the experience many schools and colleges shows that it is in the classroom, especially in those where teachers use innovative methods, boys and girls learn to work together to solve problems and make decisions, understand and respect the characteristics of the thinking and perception of the opposite sex. This approach proved to be effective later in life when yesterday students of both gender begin to work in a mixed team.

The practice of additional classes for the gender issues consideration is also regarded as very effective, as it helps to develop communication skills determining future working relationship and ability to be more flexible.

Those college and university students who write their essay on gender segregation in schools have to use free sample essays, from which they will learn that it is in school and in high school where take place the most active processes of gender socialization, and when the boys and girls try on the roles of grown-up men and women, which are offered them by social environment, the process is not always painless, since these roles are due to the role of obsolescent patriarchal stereotypes. So the issue of gender segregation in schools remains critically urgent and can be a great topic for your essay.
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Thursday, October 24, 2013

Health Behavior Essay

Bright, S. J. et al. (2008). Cigarette smoking among young adults: Integrated adolescent cognitive egocentrism with the trans-theoretical model. Australian Journal of Psychology, 60, (1), 18-25. Retrieved from EBSCO. http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.pasadena.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=2b06a747- dcec-4bf4-b3bc-60a8b4b8d17f%40sessionmgr113&vid=1&hid=112

According to this source, one of the mostly used behavioral models in assisting cigarette smokers, and especially the adolescents and young people to quit smoking is the trans-theoretical model. This model has five stages, which include pre-contemplation stage, contemplation stage, preparation stage, action stage and the maintenance stage. The most important groups among these five groups are the pre-contemplation stage and the contemplation stage. In the pre-contemplation stage, the smokers do not feel as if they are doing anything wrong. However, this changes as individuals enter the contemplations stage, where they start experiencing cognitive dissonance. According to this study, the use of trans-theoretical model may be inappropriate because, it exhibits inefficiencies when it is applied.

Girma, E. et al. (2010). Cigarette smokers’ intention to quit smoking in Dire Dawa town Ethiopia: an assessment using the trans-theoretical model. BMC Public Health, 10, (2010), 320-326. Retrieved from EBSCO. http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.pasadena.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cd21541d- f4b1-4958-a233-f3f33943c50b%40sessionmgr110&vid=1&hid=112

In this source, the trans-theoretical model is applied in assessing cigarette smokers’ intention to quit smoking. The study was conducted in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, and it involved 384 current cigarette smokers. Data was collected using a questionnaire, and was further analyzed using SPSS package. The results indicated that most of the smokers were actually intending to stop smoking. At the same time, the smokers who did not intend to stop smoking indicated a very high dependence on nicotine, as well as self-efficacy. Additionally, the results also showed that the advantages of smoking were decreasing as disadvantages increased in all stages. This implies that there is a need for medical personnel to use stage based interventions in assisting the patients to move from one stage to another in the trans-theoretical model.

Carnes, M. et al. (2005). Diversity in academic medicine: The stages of change model. Journal of women’s health, 14, (6), 471-475. Retrieved from EBSCO. http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.pasadena.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=55a21c1f- 1378-4710-94ff-37ca32e46a05%40sessionmgr112&vid=1&hid=112G

Cultural diversity and gender equality have not been taken seriously in the medical field for a number of years. These are critical issues, which must be addressed appropriately for the medical field to perform and operate efficiently. The best way to ensure this is through the application of trans-theoretical model. Even though nicotine is very addictive, a great number of people have been able to overcome their smoking habits through the application of the trans-theoretical model. Because of this reason, many public places including offices are now smoking free zones. Academic medicine played a very critical role towards this new trend. It should also play the same role in addressing these issues.

Prochaska, J. J. et al. (2007). Medical Students’ use of the stages of change model in tobacco cessation counseling. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22, (2), 223-227. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1824739/

The trans-theoretical model has been adopted in the majority of medical facilities and institutions for assisting in tobacco cessation. According to a research that was done on 147 medical students, in order to assess their preparation level for providing stage based interventions in treating cigarette smokers, it was evident that medical students are able to match their counseling strategies to a patient’s stage of change. However, they require more training in order to be able to assist their patients appropriately.

Balbach, E. D. (2008). How the health belief model helps the tobacco industry: individuals, choice and information. Tobacco Control, 15, (4), iv37-iv43. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2563587/

This source is a research, which aims to determine how tobacco industry executives use concepts of choice and information as well as make a consideration on how these concepts relate to health behavioral change theoretical models. The findings of this research indicated that the tobacco industry executives used these two terms inappropriately and in a cunning way, through which, they were able to shift the responsibility and the blame to the consumer. In doing so, they relied on individual rational choice theories, which lay emphasis on autonomous decision-making. However, the tobacco industry should stop using these theories and adopt models that require it to participate in assisting its customers to stop smoking in a genuine way.

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Thursday, October 10, 2013

Essay on Making Mistakes

It is normal for one to make a mistake. Throughout my life I have made several mistakes, some I regret more than others. Even though I have my regrets, I have learnt profound lessons from those mistakes I made. I have become a better person through overcoming the consequences of my mistakes. 

My biggest regret in life is running away from home when I was sixteen. For some reason, I was feeling angry at my parents and my adolescent thinking saw the only solution was to run away from home. I left school behind even though I was about to sit for a crucial exam that would be instrumental in my college application. I did odd jobs to find some food and did not have proper shelter during the period I was away from home. After a few weeks, I had enough and I returned home to my parents. 

Even though life slowly got back to normal, I had missed my exams, and I had to redo an entire grade. If I had not run away from home, I could have gotten into college with all my friends instead of being left in high school. I am now a well-mannered student and live by the rules.

Friday, October 4, 2013

Essay on Obesity in Adolescence in the United States

Obesity in Adolescence in the United States

Obesity in adolescence in the United States has increased tremendously in the last three decades. Adolescence is an important stage in the growth and development process because it forms the bridge between childhood and adulthood. About 30 percent of adolescents are obese despite the fact that obesity is an easily diagnosable condition.

There is a difference between overweight and obesity. Overweight refers to excess body mass index as defined by the ratio of the height to bone, fat, muscle, and water. Obesity refers specifically to excess body fat. Both, however, result from a caloric imbalance; the calories expended are too few for those consumed.

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Obesity in adolescence can be related to a genetic line of obesity, lack of physical exercise, behavioral factors such as overeating or poor eating habits, low self-esteem, medications, depression, or even medical illnesses. These factors are often compounded for each individual adolescent and should be treated or at least diagnosed to effectively treat the condition. Genetically, for example, the child of an obese parent is 50 percent likely to be obese or overweight (Guo and Chumlea, 147). This increases to 80 percent probability if both parents are obese or overweight.

Studies by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) indicate that deaths related to unhealthy weight gain amount to over 300, 000 annually (Daniels, Arnett, Eckel, 111). Its social costs are estimated at $100 billion in the United States alone. To further compound the problem, obese adolescents have a higher chance of becoming obese adults unless the condition is treated.

The onset of obesity in adolescence is likely to be in childhood. The excess body fat poses short-term and long-term effects. Short term effects include increased chances of getting cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol; prediabetes that is indicated by high blood glucose levels; sleep apnea; socialization and psychological problems; and joint and bone problems (Dietz, 856). Long-term effects include the likelihood that the individuals will be obese in their adulthood. This places them at an even higher risk of adult health problems. Obesity and overweight have also been associated with other disorders and conditions such as many types of cancer.

There are many ways to manage obesity depending on the identified factors for the individual teen.

The most generic ways to manage the condition include controlling calorie consumption, increasing physical activity, seeking psychological support such as from a support group, changing eating habits, and entering into a weight-management program (Daniels, Arnett, Eckel, 111). All these solutions are dependent on the willpower of the individual adolescent to maintain a healthy body.

Obesity is a complex problem whose solutions require a multifactor approach. It can only be effectively handled by approaching the issue from different social unit levels, beginning with individuals, families, and policymakers. As a national health issue, obesity among adolescents affects more than just the individuals it inflicts. It lowers the effectiveness of the national health system and increases the economic and sociological burden of the medical system on society. For most adolescents, obesity is a lifelong sentence. Most of them try different ways of losing the extra body fat but fall back into their old eating and exercising habits. The only permanent solution is thus a high discipline in calorie consumption by limiting oneself to healthy foods and exercising as regularly as possible.
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