Thursday, April 26, 2012

Essay on Corporations

Essay on Corporations

This paper will discuss the characteristics of a corporation and the advantages and disadvantages to the corporate form of doing business.

Starting with a definition, a corporation is ‘an organization formed with state governmental approval to act as an artificial person to carry on business (or other activities), which can sue or be sued, and (unless it is non-profit) can issue shares of stock to raise funds with which to start a business or increase its capital’ (TheFreeDictionary, 2008).

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Corporations for You!

Corporations are often referred to as ‘legal persons.’ Indeed, the analogy with a person is helpful in understanding the functioning of a corporation, since it ‘can enter into contracts, sue and be sued, pay taxes separately from its owners, and do the other things necessary to conduct business’ (Harroch, 2006b, para. 1).

The main advantage of a corporation (which naturally stems from its legal identity being separated from that of an incorporator or shareholder) is that its liability for damages or debts is limited to its assets, thus shareholders and employees are shielded from personal claims, unless their behavior related to the governance of the corporation is illegal.

With regard to functioning of such a legal entity, shareholders of a corporation elect a board of directors. The board can pass bylaws and appoint executive officers and upper management. Registering a corporation in a certain country (referred to as ‘incorporating’) requires submitting Articles of Incorporation to the Secretary of State and informing the latter of the incorporator’s identity, the corporation’s purpose, and the amount of stock it will be authorized to issue. Shareholders and the board are mandated to hold annual meetings (TheFreeDictionary, 2008).

While limited liability is the main advantage of the corporate form of doing business, there are other benefits, such as corporate tax treatment, attractiveness for investors, a possibility of share ownership by employees (which increases their commitment and allows recruiting talented workers), corporate benefit plans, deductibility of health insurance for employees, and transferability of shares.

However, there are certain disadvantages of this form of doing business. Forming a corporation entail paying fees, such as a fee for filing Articles of Incorporation and a first-year franchise tax prepayment. Also, a corporation has to comply with a number of formalities to prevent its status from being revoked. Dissolving a corporation is the responsibility of its board, and this process might entail ‘gathering corporate assets, paying creditors and outstanding claims, and distributing the remaining assets to shareholders’ (Harroch, 2006b, ‘Dissolution’). Dissolution can be both voluntary and involuntary.

The main disadvantage of a corporation in the traditional sense is double taxation: ‘besides paying corporate income taxes, any dividends to shareholders are taxed again at the applicable tax rate’ (Harroch, 2006a, ‘Disadvantages of a C Corporation’).

Yet this can be avoided by forming an S corporation. There are two main forms of corporations: a C corporation and S corporation. S corporations have a status similar to Limited Liability Companies; ‘[t]his status allows the taxation of the company to be similar to a partnership or sole proprietor as opposed to paying taxes based on a corporate tax structure’ (Zahorsky, 2008, ‘What is an S Corporation?’). In addition, first years losses can be offset against personal income of the owner.

Therefore, corporations have their own advantages and disadvantages. In addition, two types of corporation also differ significantly in their attractiveness for businesspersons.
Get Custom Essay on Corporations
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Corporations now!

Wednesday, April 25, 2012

Essay on Strategy

Strategy is the Key to Success

This paper, by referring to the concrete organizational case illustrated in the article, “All Terrain Vehicle” by Denise C. Guzzetta (1997), argues that strategy is the key driver of success and achievement within the modern organization. Guzzetta analyzes two Management Services Organizations (MSO) models of the Good Idea Company and the Comprehensive Physician Services Company as they relate to professional physician-hospital integration along with strategies for effective integration.

The Good Idea Company’s strategy (depicted in “All Terrain Vehicle”) is unique in that it offers individual approach to those professionals (physicians in this case) who need assistance both on the regular and one-time basis. While most hospitals (and virtually all other providers) lack the resources to develop their own guidelines from scratch, there is no shortage of independently developed medical health care programs provided by MOS. It has to be noted that the Good Idea Company provides treatment guidelines and disease management programs, which serve as blueprints for the provision of medical care.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Strategy for You!

Strategies, clearly, have a number of advantages. In home building, for instance, they assure that all the building parts are exactly the right size and fit together perfectly, that nothing is left out, and that nothing is done to excess. The same is true in medicine, where the treatment guidelines and disease management strategies of organization’s development assure the proper timing of all required services while avoiding duplication and waste.

In theory, guidelines within the hospital can cut down on the ordering of tests, demands on nursing time, and misuse of medications. Guidelines and programs offered by the Good Idea Company can facilitate scheduling of the operating room, intensive care, and discharge planning, all on the individual basis provided only upon request. In practice, disease management can help providers identify medical problems in their earliest stages and prescribe the most cost-effective therapies.

Yet, the Comprehensive Physician Services Company is sometimes perceived as the better and more effective option as compared to the Good Idea Company. Guidelines and disease management developed by the Comprehensive Physician Services Company are potentially far more effective in eliminating inappropriate variations in medical practice than the ones offered by the Good Idea Company, which is largely limited to simple decisions about the need for surgery or a single medical service and the appropriate length of inpatient stay.

Of course, strategies designed by the Comprehensive Physician Services Company and its practices have their disadvantages. Services offered to a large-scale medical center do not meet the needs of every unit, and many physicians insist on customization.

Some physicians distrust organizational strategies and disease management programs developed by outsiders to the medical community, especially pharmaceutical companies, which are often perceived as pushing their products rather than selling treatments. At the same time, physicians recognize that strategies set the clear path of development and create the settings for the organization’s functioning.
Get Custom Essay on Strategy
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Strategy now!

Monday, April 16, 2012

Essay on Willy Loman in “Death of a Salesman”

Essay on Willy Loman in “Death of a Salesman”

Arthur Miller in the play “Death of the Salesman” depicted the main character Willy Loman not as the tragic hero, but as the victim of false striving to “American Dream”.

Willy Loman was not an outstanding person; however, his character is deep in the obsession the obtrusive idea.

To define whether Willy Loman was round or flat character, it is essential to differentiate between those two notions. Round characters are those who are very realistic and complex in their nature, they are usually deep personalities and can equally have good and bad traits of character. Round characters are usually main characters and their mental emotional experiences are developed through the story. Flat characters are those who lack realistic personality. Such characters are stereotypical ones and their personalities are not developed through the story and remain the same. So, it becomes clear that Willy Lowman was the round character.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman for You!

Willy Lowman was the person of the middle class, who appeared to be the victim of the society, which played against him. This is how he is described by the person who knew him the best, and probably knew his real nature: “Willy Loman never made a lot of money. His name was never in the paper. He’s not the finest character that ever lived”. Being a victim, he was constantly suppressing himself and his family in false pride and lies. Willy never noticed his personal ignorance, he was insecure and self-deluded person. He believed with all his heart and soul in the idea of the American Dream, in the fact that he could easily gain a lot of money and achieve success, although he never achieved it. He was distinguishing between his dreams and the reality that was around, and when the reality started pushing on him, it hurt severely his mental health. The main conflict of the play is centered on the tremendous tensions of the Willy’s disparity and his social obligations. Willy to some extent is also the tragic hero, as he didn’t achieve self-knowledge and self-realization, even though he achieved the professional understanding of himself and comprehended the sales profession fundamentals. The problem is that he didn’t realize his failure as the person and how he betrayed his own soul and family trying to achieve illusive heights. He was not able to understand himself and he was not listening to the voice of his heart. He appeared to fail the opportunity to perceive the real spiritual, personal and emotional understanding of his personality. He was blinded by his artificially created dream and his mind was too blurred to recognize that. The peak of his “blindness” is his inability to understand that his family loved him very much, and it is the real tragedy of life.

Even though Willy failed in fulfilling of the American Dream, he made the extreme sacrifice in deciding to leave his inheritance to provide the opportunity to his son Biff to end the business of his life. Willy and Biff appear to be two central characters of the play; they are the most developed by the author in their experiences. They had conflicting relationships, which define the family and economic struggle though their dialogues.

Willy’s suicide turns to be the peak of his moral struggle primarily with himself. I think that it was the revelation for him, as he finally received the relief and was set free from the chains of the American Dream. Willy’s death was also opened Biff’s eyes upon the dream of his entire father’s life and he finally comprehends the real Willy: “He had the wrong dreams. All, all, wrong…He never knew who he was.” And in these words there is a deep grief with the acceptance of the destiny. Biff finally understood that material values are not worth to be pursued, and the main objective in each person’s life should be the attempt to understand who he is and what his real predestination at the Earth is.

Willy Loman believed strongly in the idea of the American dream. He was sure that without significant efforts it was possible to get everything he would desire- success and wealth. The fact is that he ever got anything and lived in illusions. Willy’s obsession with “easy” money subsequently led to his psychological and inability to understand what is dream and what is the reality. His disparity was gathering like a snowball and finally led to his suicide.
Get Custom Essay on Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Willy Loman in Death of a Salesman now!

Essay on "The Fast and the Furious"

Essay on "The Fast and the Furious"

The Image of California in the Movie
"The Fast and the Furious"
The movie “The Fast and the Furious” discloses the particular image of California of 2001 year pattern, which is difficult to believe, but very exciting to follow.

The plot of the movie goes around cars and racings. The main characters seem to be Brian O’Connor and Dominic Toretto. The first mentioned is the policeman, who works under coverage to lay open the group of people on four Honda Civics, who are hijacking big trucks with electronics, and have already earned in such a way about 6 million dollars. Dominic Toretto with his team of five people is the main suspect, but the police have no evidences and therefore it sends Brian to find out how are things done in the world of Dom and street racers.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on The Fast and the Furious for You!

Dominic Toretto has the house and the workshop where he is taking care of the cars. He has the girl-friend Letty, sister- Mia, and three friends, who are equally his family- Jesse, Leon and Vince. They are the team, who are literary eager to kill for one another. Obviously it is very difficult to get into such a team and get trusted, but still Brian succeeded, by helping Dom escape from the police.

The only things they care about are cars and their ties to each other. They trust and care about each other in the greatest extent. They participate in the street racings and earn easy money for that. Among other participants can be saw Japanese people, Afro-Americans and Latinos. Race relationships in the California of 2001 pattern are depicted very harsh and constrained. As they all communicate to each other, but stay away. It is a kind of clan system, in which each clan is protecting its own dignity and territory.

Japanese people have their own district in the city, in which Dom and his people are not kindly welcomed. They have a kind of silent agreement that each team should stay away from the hostile districts. The matter is that the payment for violating the agreement can be even life. Japanese people care very much about their families (episode when police bursts into Johnny Tran’s house where he has lunch with his family members) and about their attitudes.

All people are well-equipped with the weapon and not afraid to use it nor in the night neither in the daylight. California is then depicted as the place where the police are sleeping all the time and police foghorn is heard when the “party” is already over. There are no road traffic police watching the speed of the cars and it is possible to show everything your car is capable of without expecting any punishment. The relationship of the city and the justice system are rather interesting, as the police is doing nothing but waiting what Brian will tell them new on regard of the racers. The headquarters of the police stationed in the confiscated house with an amazing view and the pool and they are just hanging out all the days waiting for the results.

Girls are depicted in movie like being good accessories for racers with the exception of Dom’s sister Mia and his girl-friend Letty. Letty is equal to all men, as she races with the others, does her job with the cars in the workshop. She protects her relationships with Dom from other girls, and it is obvious that they are afraid of her. She is not showing off, very self-assured and seems to know what she wants form life. Mia has the cafĂ© and serves food, she is more in the shadow of her brother and she takes care about all supplementary stuff her brother and team may need. She orders the supplies, takes care about food, dishes and house. She equally races, but her image in the movie being in the shadow waiting for the prince to notice her. All the other girls’ image is having short skits, big breast and caring for the money and the victory. In their majority they are portrayed as being inferior to men, and seem to be created only for their entertainment.

The attitudes to religion are portrayed very brightly. The most interesting episode to this extent is when Dom and his team are about to start their lunch and Jesse takes the chicken first, Dom assigns him to tell the prayer. Brian looks very astonished at first moment, as he didn’t expect Dom to be religious, but then he hears Jesse speaking: “Dear Heavenly...Uh…Spirit. Thank you. Thank you for direct-port nitrous injection, four-core intercoolers, ball-bearing turbos, and titanium valve springs. Amen”. Letty says that they were praying the car gods. They all seem to be ironic right there, but there is still the impression that the thing was that didn’t want to show off with the religious things, but everyone said the real grace silently. So, even though that it seems that for racers, who are having guns and attacking trucks, there is no saint, well appears there is. In the episode when Brian and Dom found themselves in the Japanese district, there were also many statues of Buddha, aiming to show that religious aspects are very important to that kind of people.

There are a lot of stereotyping in the movie- the pattern of the relationships between rivalry gangs, following leadership patterns (when the Brian earns trust of the Dominic, all his team, except Vince, start to equally trust him), Brian’s falling in love Mia, whose brother in the long run he is supposed to arrest, etc.

And finally we get the image of Los Angeles, where there are a lot of hot girls, palm trees, lovely sunsets, fast and expensively equipped cars, cops with faithful and kind hearts, courageous criminals, deep family ties, praying to the car gods, closing the streets at night and following the police transfer to have the street racings, and finally cops who let the main suspect to take the car and escape.
Get Custom Essay on The Fast and the Furious
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on The Fast and the Furious now!

Sunday, April 15, 2012

Essay on Weapons

Essay on Weapons

With the evolution of mankind human desire to conquer others lands and to enslave other peoples grew, which led to the search for more sophisticated and improved weapons of war. Scientific and technological revolution contributed much to the development of new weapons of all kinds. Undoubtedly rapid progress in military technology had a great impact on the course of hostilities. We can observe the progress in military technology by the example of a series of wars, which America waged. If we analyze the course of Civil War, World War I, World War II and the Cold war we will see that from 1862 to 1991 the world has made an enormous progress in military equipment, which certainly influenced tactics and strategy of all these wars.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Weapons for You!

The main tendency in the development of military weapon was the endeavor to make weapon as powerful as possible in order to annihilate more enemies. The more solid the weapon was, the more people it could destroy, the faster the aim of war was achieved by one or another party. The American Civil War started in 1861 and lasted for four years. At that time the most powerful and effective weapon was a cannon. The Civil War was marked by extensive use of heavy rifled cannons, which were made out of high quality cast iron.

In comparison with the Civil War, World War I was characterized by far more powerful military equipment, which certainly resulted in the number of people killed. It lasted from 1914 until 1918 and had grave consequences that influenced greatly the history of the twentieth century. During the period from the Civil War till WWI scientists paved the way for a massive destruction of people and buildings. In 1867 Alfred Nobel invented dynamite, which decided the outcome of numerous battles and the destiny of many cities. In sea warfare submarines began to be largely used in order to carry out sneak attacks.

However, in spite of signing peace treaties, World War I provoked further aggression. The Germans’ desire to take revenge, to restore and to enlarge the empire and to prove the world their might led to World War II. The preparation to the war resulted in the introduction of rocket artillery, anti-tank rockets and flying bombs. In 1943 air-launched anti-ship missiles were used for the first time. Undoubtedly, the breakthrough in the technology of warfare was the development of an atomic bomb which became the most destructive and appalling weapon ever known in the history.

The decision to use atomic bomb against Japan caused heated disputes, which do not calm down till now. Harry Truman, who wanted America to be the unconditional winner in WWII, gave an order to drop the bomb as soon as possible without any warning. From a perspective of humanism this decision cannot be justified as the aftermath of this unconventional attack became catastrophic. Personally, I believe it is impossible to put political image of the country over lives of millions of people. Even a war should have its rules and measures.

Historians name several factors that induced Truman to make such a decision. One of the most significant of them is the policy of America directed at the status of absolute leader in the world, especially in the context of its confrontation with the USSR. This confrontation lasted long after the end of the Second World War and became famous as the Cold War. It lasted from 1947 until 1991 and consisted in military buildup and political rivalry for the supremacy in the world. Though there was no military engagement between two world powers, the struggle was tense and exhausting. The main purpose of both countries was to consolidate their armies. In this time reconnaissance satellites and sensors were developed by the Americans while Soviet people tested a hydrogen bomb.

To make a conclusion we see that during two centuries America participated in four wars and from one war to another its military equipment developed and improved, which allowed the country to gain many victories and to sustain fewer losses than other countries. However, in chase of victories America sometimes forgot about humanistic principles and displayed savagery to other countries. Thus, Truman’s decision to use an atomic bomb against Japan cannot be justified anyway.
Get Custom Essay on Weapons
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Weapons now!

Monday, April 9, 2012

Essay on Health Care

Essay on Health Care as a Career

Explain long-term goals and why you chose healthcare as a career
I have always known that the opportunity to help people will be the most important feature of my future occupation. Being a sociable and helpful person, I never miss an opportunity to help someone in need because the joy of seeing a smile on the face of the person who was worried only a few minutes and to know that you had a role in helping this person is to me the greatest pleasure in the world. Choosing a field, I was positive of one thing – I wanted an occupation that would give a chance for proper application of my intellectual potential and my willingness to help others. Receiving the nursing degree is a chance to join my spiritual and intellectual pursuits in an attempt to make the most of my abilities in a meaningful and challenging job.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Health Care as a Career for You!

My interest in medicine began many years ago. I helped my mother who was a nurse and took care for my dying grandfather. This made a big impression on me. Since early childhood I felt deep compassion for the sufferings of sick people. To see someone in my family go down with a severe illness was a real tragedy for me, and unfortunately I had to see a few such instances. This made me sensitive to sufferings in all people and inspired me to strive for knowledge that will help relieve these pains.

My first year of studying has been quite challenging and more difficult then I expected. But I am sure I have improved myself, I am learning to be more organized and to handle stress better than I ever have. I became even more confident in my desire to study nursing. I really care about the patients and their stories. I am learning to be more attentive to people and their problems.

This clinical experience I had this year was very important and helpful for me. It confirmed that I was not mistaken, choosing the area to specialize in. All the activities I participated in helped me to get a better insight into the field. This working experience helped me to become more motivated, reliable, more effective and sensitive in communication with other people.

After graduation I plan to work at Graham hospital, in my hometown where I grew up. I am sure that my town hospital needs more well-education and passionate about their work nurses. I can really help my town through serving people, taking care of their health.

I am very interested in medical-surgical nursing and very much enjoy geriatrics. These are the areas in which I would like to pursue my career.

Looking back on my academic background, I believe that I am ready to take up the challenge of mastering the required courses. Most importantly, I count on my enthusiasm for the subject that will help in overcoming whatever obstacles may arise on my path. I am positive that I will use this chance wisely cope with a challenging program and make the most of my potential.
Get Custom Essay on Health Care as a Career
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Health Care as a Career now!

Essay on Abortions

Essay on Abortions Should Not Be Legal

Abortion has been and still is one of the nation’s most controversial issues. It is discussed on various levels and from numerous points of view. Being a social phenomenon, abortion has many opponents as well as supporters but only small part is radical enough and ready to deny the opposite point of view, the majority accepts the right to abortion.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Abortions for You!

In its 1973 landmark decision in Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court ruled that a woman has a constitutional right to an abortion. The Court based its ruling on two findings. First, the justices found that a woman’s right to privacy allows her to end a pregnancy. Although the word “privacy” does not appear in the Constitution, the Supreme Court had ruled in earlier cases that a right to privacy does exist. Second, the Court said that a fetus is not a person and thus is not protected under the Fourteenth Amendment’s guarantee that “no person” can be deprived of life without a fair trial.

Opponents of legalized abortion believe that human life begins at conception and that aborting a pregnancy is a murder. Those who believe that abortion should remain legal say that in a free society the government should not take away a woman’s right to terminate a pregnancy. Abortion is a personal choice and a woman must have control over her own body. In addition, abortion rights activists argue that medical experts do not agree on when human life begins; therefore, abortion cannot be considered murder.

Some proponents say that the procedure is harmful to the women and cite studies that show higher rates of hemorrhage, infection, and complications in subsequent pregnancies for women who have had the abortions. Pro-choice advocates contend that legalized abortion protects women by allowing them to have qualified physicians perform the procedure, thus preventing them from using dangerous, often life-threatening methods to terminate unwanted pregnancies.

A logical conclusion that may be done is the legalization of abortion that seems to be inevitable, particularly in well-developed countries.

Opponents of legalized abortion believe that easy access to abortion has led to sexual promiscuity in American society – especially among teenagers, some of whom may view abortion as an accepted means of birth control. Proponents of abortion dispute the idea that large number of women view abortion as a means of birth control and instead describe it as a last resort for women in desperate situations.

Some people say that since no one has proved that life begins at conception, abortion cannot be considered murder. A woman should have the right to terminate her pregnancy as a matter of private choice and to do so without government interference. Legalized abortion protects women’s health by allowing competent doctors to perform the procedure safely. Abortion has to be legalized but at the same time it should be strictly regulated.

Nowadays, the problem of abortion, and, consequently, the problem of antiabortion become vitally important particularly for well-developed, post-industrial societies. It is evident that it is not a problem of an individual anymore but a really social problem because it concerns not only the health of a woman but it also produces a serious impact on a demographic situation in the whole country and on a psychological atmosphere in the society at large and within the family in particular. Traditionally, antiabortion beliefs are very strong even in the most democratic societies but on certain conditions even conservatives agree that abortion may be necessary or even inevitable.

I am against abortion. It deprives an unborn human being of opportunities for valuable future. It might pose serious threat to women’s life and in some cases women are not able to have children anymore. Religion is also against abortion because according to the religious believes the pregnancy is never accidental and it is God’s gift that should not be rejected. Church also emphasizes that bearing children is women’s most important function and rejecting it, is just the rejecting of self and the idea of person’s divine nature. That means that woman does not love herself, and loving yourself is the most important thing in the world, from which everything starts. It seems like a great restriction, but in each one there is a sense to listen to.
Get Custom Essay on Abortions
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Abortions now!

Essay on Markets

Essay on Markets

1. Perfectly competitive market is obviously the hypothetical market condition, when producers and consumers are not able to influence the market price. So, companies are able to sell everything they want, but they cannot increase or decrease price levels. The analysis of the perfectly competitive market laid the foundation for the theory of demand and supply. Such market is in equilibrium, where all resources are used and allocated efficiently. When the new firm enters the market, the prices go down, but in the long run, the companies receive usual normal profit. Firms that operate at the perfectly competitive market are said to be price takers, or in another words, it is the market that chooses the price and the firms just have to accept it. In such market all products are identical and all supplier and consumers have the total complete information about the set prices. The resources are perfectly mobile and available in the perfectly competitive market, as well as production technologies. Market participants, I mean seller, are not able to receive the abnormal profit in the long run. The only situation when it is possible to receive the abnormal profit is in the short run. Allocative and productive efficiencies characterize the perfectly competitive market. Allocative efficiency refers to the situation when the price equals the marginal cost, and in this situation the consumer is able to purchase the product at the lowest possible price. Productive efficiency refers to the situation when the company produces its products at the lowest point of the average cost curve, meaning that the firm cannot decrease the price any more.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Markets for You!

2. It is important to understand the managerial decisions in the long run and in the short run, and how they are shaped by different market structures.

As I have already mentioned, it is impossible for the firm, which operates at the perfectly competitive market, to get the abnormal profit in the long run, meaning that the company earns as much as it is needed to cover its economic costs. When the company earns profit in the short run, it enables other companies to enter the market. Speaking about managerial decision when the company is making the loss, the thing that should be decided is whether to continue the operation or not. The decision will be connected and dependant on two issues- total costs levels and whether the company is operating in the long or short run. So, if the company is operating in the short run and it is making a loss, this means that costs exceeds revenue and total revenue equals total variable cost, the managers should decide to continue production. If the conditions regarding total costs and revenues are not met, then managers better make the decision to shutdown and just to pay fixed costs. Fixed costs are to be paid in any case, so it is better to continue production and try to decrease total costs and increase profits. Managers can do that by introducing of the computerization and automation to the production process, which would cut costs, as well as try to use new methods of production. In the long run situation when the managers should make the decision to continue production is the following: the price must be higher then ATC. There is no difference whether to shutdown or continue production when the price equals ATC. This case differs from that of with short run, as there are no fixed costs involved and everything is variable.

An oligopoly refers to the market structure where the small quantity of sellers takes more than 40% of the market. Managerial decisions of firms are very much influenced by the decisions of the other firms. In the oligopoly, companies have to produce and sell their goods in the situation of imperfect competition, the entry barriers are very high and it is difficult to enter such market. When the manger makes the decision to increase the price, the other firms at the market do the same and vice versa. Though managers in oligopoly do not risk increasing prices, as even a small upward price shift will lead to the substantial customer loss. The same situation occurs when the managers make the decision to decrease the price, as the company will be able to gain several more customers, but competing companies will begin the price war.

The only right managerial decision in the oligopoly would be the use of the non-price competition to get more profits and to gain larger market share.

Oligopoly market is also generally characterized by the economies of scale. The economies of scale presume that when the level of production increases, the cost per unit of the good decreases. So, according to this assumption more advantage has the large producer in the oligopoly market.

In general, there is no optimal theoretical framework that would provide the answers how the managers should behave and what pricing and output decision would fit the bet for this market structure. The analysis should be made for the special set of the circumstances.

Monopoly can be defined from two perspectives- from economical and political. In the economics monopoly is the market situation when the enterprise or an individual exercises sufficient control over the market. There is no economic competition in monopoly and lack of substitute products. Monopolistic companies and their managers seem to be lucky, as there is an impression that they are able to set the prices that they want and earn as much as they can, because customers will just have no choice, and they will be paying the set price. But on practice, monopolistic companies (which are very rare) are strictly followed and regulated by correspondent government authorities (for example, antimonopoly committees).

In the political understanding, monopoly is generally referred to the firms with the larger market share and the lack of the fair competition at the market.

There can be also government-granted or legal monopoly that is sanctioned by the state, which is usually used to enrich the domestic constituency.

The company at the monopolistic market experiences no price pressures from the other companies, as there no such companies, but managers still should be very careful, as they may face the pricing pressure from the potential competitor. When the managers take the decision to make the price too high, that can be the sign for the other companies to enter the market if they are able to propose the same product, but at lower price level.

In monopoly, the company faces the entire market demand curve. On practice, companies do not choose to produce more goods to maximize their revenues, they just set higher price. In monopoly the price elasticity of demand for customer is below one (in absolute value), and therefore it is very tempting to the firm to rise the price, and in the long run it gets more money for less amount of goods. When the price rises, the price elasticity also increases, and the best variant above it will be more than one.

The greatest problem of the monopolistic market is that the form that operates on it becomes less efficient and innovative, because it just not needed to attract the customers and take more of market share.

So, the best managerial decision in monopolistic market will be setting the right price and keep up with changes for the mutual benefit of the customers and the firm.
Get Custom Essay on Markets
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Markets now!

Saturday, April 7, 2012

Essay on Derek Parfit

Derek Parfit’s Bundle Theory

Derek Parfit’s “Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons” raise a lot of important questions and provides the views upon the personal identity by means of two theories- Ego and Bundle theory. Parfit himself supports Bundle theory, which claims that there is no continual existence of the definite ego, but only there is a series of particular mental event and states that are united with different kinds of casual relations. In the essay Parfit presented two different cases and probable explanations according to Ego theory and Bundle theory, emphasizing that Bundle theory has more structured and argumentative approach to the matter.

Parfit starts building up his arguments pro Bundle theory with the description of the “split brain” experiments which were performed on patients with severed two brain hemispheres. They were shown the screen, one half of which was red and the other was blue. When they were asked how many colors do they observe, they answered with both hands that they see just one, and when they were asked what was that color, they answered red and blue correspondently with each hand. So, it can be assumed that there are two persons in one body, or one person with dominant and sub-dominant brain hemispheres, but Parfit is sure that there is none.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Derek Parfit for You!

What is involved in the person’s continued existence? As I have already mentioned there are two rival theories. According to the Bundle theory claims that in relation to the person it is impossible to explain the unity of consciousness in time, but series of mental states and events (thoughts, sensations, etc.) should be evaluated to find the right answer. So, life appears to be the series of experiences and memories. And in such a manner the existence of the person is thus denied. It seems to be nonsense of course, but still Bundle theory that the person is just called in that way and what we call “the person” is the consequence of the language and the grammar. So, people and subjects around are people and subjects only because some day they were called in such a way, and not because they are. The argument that opposes such claims is that there are separately existing things which are distinct from people’s bodies, and a lot of mental states and events.

Parfit supports his arguments to relating to documentary confirmations and authoritative evidence- Buddha, as the first Bundle Theorist, who taught No Self View. The idea of the teaching was that all people have “nominal existence”, meaning that each person is juts the combination of other elements. The idea of “actual existence” was also discussed in reference to everything that can exist by itself. It could refer to basic elements- water, earth, fire and air. All other things were included in the circle of “eating” each other to exist or to the circulation of the elements on the Earth. According to Buddhist monks names that were given to us, or were are called by mean nothing, and there are no us and there is nothing to call. In such way, everything that we believe about ourselves, characteristics, behaviors are not true. They can only be true according to the Ego theory, which is not right, according to Parfit.

The other example to support the Bundle theory is about teleportation. There arises the question upon whether the person after teleportation dies or not. And one more example with the re-opening of the club- whether the club will be similar or the same. Logically there are two answers for both questions- yes or no, and no other alternatives. In such a case we found ourselves in the two-dimensional world, which is not true, as it has three dimensions. Parfit states that there is no sense in those questions, they are absolutely meaningless. People should not have any questions or worries; they should simply know what the right one is. There is no sense in asking questions about the future unless there is a separately existing Ego, which is distinct from the brain and the body. And if Parfit claims that there is no Ego, then there should not have been any questions about the future at all. Parfit admits the fact that Bundle theory is very hard to accept as it influences our emotions and people’s concerns about the future. When taking the case with teleportation, Parfit says that when the Replica of the person is transported to Mars it appears to be the fully psychological continuous person, but it will never be the same with the person at the definite time period. As bundle theory views life as a series of experiences and events, then the Replica on the Mars will ever be the same, as it will already be another moment and another event. And if the person wants to be just the same, to be that future person that will never happen. Ego theory argues that the person will be the same, as it is one person who experiences all that transportation and therefore s/he is united in the continuum with the fact of the same one personality. Parfit rejects any idea that reality can be united in one stream by means of one particular personality.

Let’s return to the case with splitting brains. Different results were explained by Ego theory with the fact that there two streams of consciousness that are unifies with the fact that they are experienced with by one subject. And when the results show that there are two subjects of experiences, then there should have been two Egos. And if there are two egos, then they can be easily divided, and according to Ego theory, two new people should function well and be the same. But it is impossible! The two resulting people will never be that person. That person will just stop his/her existence.

I absolutely agree with the ideas introduced by Parfit and Bundle theory. When people are anxious about their future, asking questions and not simply know what will happen and are able to accept it, it doesn’t change the reality in any extent. Let me take the global case with the existent of humanity on it. People are born and people die and nothing changes. And here I would like to develop Parfit’s idea on how it could be practically applied in everyday life. If each person should not have any questions about the future, as they are meaningless, and should just know and make the decision each single moment in his/her life, as not the next single moment is the same, then s/he should have his own opinion regarding of what is happening around. Then it just supports the idea that each person was created unique and has some definite predestination. Then what is the earth? Why do people suffer? Why do they have different diseases? The idea is that the earth is a great stage, where along with four basic elements, co-exist things that just have names. People are viewing their lives not as a series of moments, but as the continuous process which is united by their Egos. They are copying other people’s behavior by decreasing their choice to just “yes” or “no”, and that is the greatest problem of the humanity. People forget that they do not live in the two-dimensional world, but in the three-dimensional one. And in the end I would like to say that in whatever manner things are called, doesn’t have any sense, and whatever people think they are important and their Egos are, the only thing that matters is what they do and what they think the every single new moment of their lives, shaping the surrounding reality, which is also just the way to call it.
Get Custom Essay on Derek Parfit
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Derek Parfit now!

Essay on the Budgets and Taxes

Essay on the US State Budgets and Taxes

The US budget and taxation systems are very complicated. At the same time, they are traditionally oriented on the maximization of the effectiveness of the use of the national wealth and funds that are accumulated in the budgets. Basically, the US budgetary and taxation systems serve to the effective redistribution and use of the national wealth to maintain the high standards of life all over the country. At the same time, it is worth mentioning the fact that each state may have a different budget and taxation. The difference on the level of states may be very significant. Nevertheless, there are some common trends in state budgets that make all the state budgetary and taxation systems similar. Traditionally states tend to balance their budget through keeping taxes low and still pay for increasing costs. Obviously, in such a situation it is obvious that in order to keep state budgets balanced states need the government support for managing their costs and develop effective taxation and budgetary system in order to prevent possible negative effects of economic problems provoked by misbalanced budgets.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on the Budgets and Taxes for You!

On the level of the state, state budgets play a crucial role because they are used for the redistribution of the wealth in terms of the state. Basically, the state budgets are focused on the vitally important problems of each particular state. As a rule, the major areas where the funds of a state budget are directed are public areas, where the support of the state is essential. In this respect, it should be said that state budgets are mainly concentrated on the financing of the state public schools and education system at large. Another important area where the funds of a state budget are directed is the state healthcare system. Also, a state budget maintains the public facilities, infrastructure, communications, including roads, public buildings, etc.

In such a way, it is obvious that state budgets are focused on the major areas which are needed for the local population of each state. States budget are flexible and mobile since the funds may be used more effectively compared to the use of the Federal budget. What is meant here is the fact that each state defines its own budget itself, independently from any other external sources. In other words, the Federal government can hardly influence the formation of a state budget and the use of its funds, unless it violates the existing federal laws and legal norms (Piketty and Saez, 2007). Consequently, the state can define independently the most problematic areas which need the financial support and where the state budget funds may be directed. For instance, the state budget funds may support a reform in a state healthcare system to make it more available to people and more effective.

However, in such a situation the problem of the balance between taxes and expenses of state budgets rises. Obviously, a state budget needs a reliable source of revenues which could provide the state with the possibility to finance projects in terms of the state, but many states tend to avoid increasing taxes since it can potentially decrease the number of taxpayers who are more likely to flee from the state here taxes are exorbitant. At the same time, states attempt to maintain increasing funding of social sphere and increase their expenses on education, healthcare system and other socially important areas. The reasons for such an attention of states to healthcare issues, or education as well as other socially significant problems is quite logical since the financial support of healthcare system, education and other socially significant areas contributes to the stabilization of the social situation in the state and the growth of the genera level of life of the local population. Consequently, the standards of life in the state grows higher and states budget can count for a larger number of taxpayers that flee from unstable states in search of stable states where they will not face any threat to their property neither from the part of criminals nor from the part of the state that collects high property taxes, for instance.

On the other hand, such strife of states to decrease taxes and increase expenses can potentially misbalance the budget, because costs grow rapidly, while taxes remain low. As a result the gap between state budget revenues and expenses grows wider and states need the support of the federal government and federal budget to close the gap. In this respect, it should be said that the reliance of states on the federal government support is justified since a part of taxes collected in each states is used on the federal level. Naturally, the states can count for the assistance of the federal government which should help states improve social situation, including increasing financing of healthcare, education, etc., in terms of national programs which could be realized in all states with the help of the federal government.

At the same time, the federal government cannot fully protect states from economic crises, since the federal government support cannot always cover the gap on the level of states budget. As a result, states need to improve their tax systems in order to increase their effectiveness and, therefore, increase revenues of state budgets. However, the increase of taxes comes into clashes with the desire of states to keep taxes low. In such a situation, it is possible to recommend enlarging the basis of taxation. In other words, it is possible to keep taxes low but increase the number of taxes that will increase revenues of state budgets but, simultaneously, will not be too harmful for income of people.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that state budgets in the US play very important role since, along with the Federal budget, they target at the funding of socially significant programs and projects and support of people who need the state support because of their low level of income, disability, and other factors. At the same time, state budgetary systems function effectively only due to the existing state taxation systems which are the major tool of collecting funds for state budgets.
Get Custom Essay on the Budgets and Taxes
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on the Budgets and Taxes now!

Friday, April 6, 2012

The Constitution Essay

The Constitution Essay

The Constitution is not an instrument for the government to restrain the people, it is an instrument for the people to restrain the government…” – this quote of Patrick Henry, the outstanding American lawyer and orator, is probably the most demonstrative expression about constitution. Indeed, the constitution presents a supreme law of any country that describes and organizes functions of government. One of the first laws that preceded the appearance of modern constitution and shaped its base to great extent was Magna Carta. Being released in 1215 in England, this historical document presented the first attempt in the world to limit the power of King. Oftentimes called Magna Carta Liberatum (Great Charter of Freedoms) this paper contained first laws concerning freedoms of country inhabitants. The Great Charter had a sound impact to the development of constitutional law in general, influencing and shaping the content of many contemporary constitutions.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Constitution for You!

Several clauses of Magna Carta (especially the revised version of 1297) that still have force in England have much in common with modern Constitution of the United States of America. For example, the Clause I of the Great Charter of 1297 proclaims the freedom of English Church – it “…guarantees the inviolable Rights and Liberties…” to sanctify the church from the country. This clause was a predecessor of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the USA that opens the Bill of Rights. The article declares, among other essential freedoms (freedoms of press, speech, etc.), the freedom of religion, prohibiting the official establishment of any religion. From this amendment the principle of separation of church and state evolved, proclaiming the freedom of church, just like Clause I of Magna Carta did.

Another example of correlation between the Great Charter and modern U.S. Constitution refers to the freedom of citizens and the right to legal process. The Clause XXIX of Magna Carta states that “NO Freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties…” but by the Law. There are many articles in the Constitution of USA that correspond to this clause, for example the Fourth Amendment that prohibits arrests and seizures of property unless the probable cause of committed crime is present. The Thirteenth Amendment also correlates with Clause XXIX, prohibiting slavery and obligating the Congress to enforce slavery elimination.

Great Charter had a significant effect on development of modern Constitution of USA, which only proves that fundamental law does not change. “I prefer a man who will burn the flag and then wrap himself in the Constitution to a man who will burn the Constitution and then wrap himself in the flag,” - these words of Craig Washington illustrate this idea perfectly.
Get Custom Essay on Constitution
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Constitution now!

Monday, April 2, 2012

Managing Essay

Managing a Crisis Using PR Essay

In this paper I will express my opinion regarding behavior of the PR manager in crisis situation, explain when proactive crisis management plan is necessary and when reactive, as well as role of PR in crisis situation. I will investigate in possible feedback mechanisms that could be effective in the crisis situation and provide some examples what PR manager should definitely not do in managing crisis in the company.

I have completed the simulation “Managing a Crisis Using PR”. Speaking about proactive crisis management plan, I must say that there should be such plan for emergency cases in all companies that care about their public relations and reputation. Such plan should include Communications plan, where all possible situations will be described with correspondent budget, so that in case of crisis, when each minute is very important, all forces be concentrated upon accomplishing necessary tasks and not for planning.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Managing a Crisis Using PR for You!

Depending on the profile of the company, PR manager can choose from different options. Proper choice of PR tools is also very important for successful plan implementation. In case with Greenergy, the most important task was developing Crisis Management and Communication Plan and find optimal tools, so that in case of crisis it was possible to solve problems quickly with minimal damage for company’s financial resources and reputation, such as Environmental Conservation Activities, Fact-Finding Team and Crisis Communication Process. Research team is also very important for the company that wants to be aware of changing attitudes of people in regard to it and its production, as without this kind of information it becomes impossible to find out weak sides of PR activities and effectively eliminate them. Media Relations Plan is vital for establishing relations with media for any cases that would be interesting and useful for public to know (new products, etc.)

Reactive crisis management is obviously utilized when the situation that can lead to crises had already happened. PR plays dominant role in reactive crisis management, as of how fast and adequately would the company present their situation, depends not only its reputation, but also in some cases financial state. In case with Greenergy, the company should be partly honest when communicating the message, as from one side it will show the public that the company controls the problem and will maintain its credibility for admitting the accident, and from the other side immediate, but partly honest response will provide the opportunity to collect more information and to get ready for further communication. Senior management should be first to know about the crisis situation happened, as it predominantly decide what strategy to implement. Then, informing of the legal department will ensure the communication process within legal framework. Communicating employees will maintain their morale. Conference with employees will be the most effective tool to use, as it will demonstrate them that management is anxious and caring about then, as well as direct contact will add them confidence in the future. Speaking about who should be informed from external environment, media must be for sure the first to know, as in crisis situation should think about earning credibility and showing that there is nothing to hide and that it is open with public. Informing relevant government and regulatory agencies is not even necessary, but mandatory, and will also increase company’s credibility and show proactive management nature. As the tools can be chosen the conference and establishing toll-free number, as it can be set up very quickly, raises credibility an increases company’s management intention to respond quickly and release information to those who are interested.

The best feed back mechanism that can be developed in the crisis situation is setting a hotline and developing systems for polls and surveys, as the company should be aware of what the stakeholders think of the situation and shape the crisis management strategy to achieve better results. There could also be organized a press-conference with open hotline so that anyone could ask any question or express personal opinion regarding the situation, but received information can appear not to be relevant enough for further usage.

The things that PR professional should not do during managing crisis situation first include the fact that the company should not leave the situation occurred without comments or try to suppress the accident, as it significantly decreases credibility and spoils company’s reputation. Then PR manager should not use any tools that require a lot of time to implement, such as setting a hotline with employees or making a conference with all of them. E-mail in emergency case will be mostly appropriate. Organizing press conferences with media can not appear to be the best choice for emergency crisis situations, as their organizations takes a lot of time.

In case when the crisis situation occurs inside the company, CEO should not neglect the opportunity to speak directly to the employees otherwise they can think that management feels uncomfortable and unsure about the situation and that can develop employees mistrust. In the crisis situation inside an organization management should not just issue some memos about facts and opinions about the accident, as this will be not motivating for employees and present the image of the company, as quite indifferent. And of course absence of any reaction of company’s management is absolutely intolerable, as providing no information to stakeholders can provoke media releases that can hurt significantly the image of the company.

In the conclusion I would like to summarize key points of my paper. First, good PR manager is proactive PR manager that doesn’t wait for the crisis to do crisis management planning and choosing proper tools for its implementation. PR professional tries to find best alternatives that would be most effective and correspond to the provided budget. When the crisis happens, and it was not possible to foresee it, PR professional chooses less time-consuming strategies and tools and reacts quickly to all possible situations for the maximum benefit of the company to show the public that crisis situation are under control and the company is open to share information about it.
Get Custom Essay on Managing a Crisis Using PR
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Managing a Crisis Using PR now!

The Beverage Industry Essay

The Beverage Industry Essay

The beverage industry is one of the most extensive global market sectors. Drinks present an ultimate product to be ingested regularly and in significant scopes due to the constant demand. Therefore, beverage industry is developing speedily, offering a wide variety of products every year. The situation in the global industry of beverages can be described through analysis of beverage industry of the United States of America, which is one of the leading producers of drinks.

Although beverage industry technically existed for centuries (soda water appeared three hundred years ago), it received its modern appearance only about fifty years ago, when first plastic and aluminum cans were introduced. The second half of twentieth century became a starting point for growing variety of beverages, thus, the industry is in rather mature phase recently.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on The Beverage Industry for You!

Nowadays, every American citizen consumes 192 gallons of diverse drinks every year (according to Beverage Marketing Association), which means that U.S. ingests almost 220 million tones of liquid yearly. The assortment of beverages is very wide. Still modern trends in the industry focus on production of new categories of wellness drinks, healthy and natural, as well as energy drinks and premium-quality beverages. Besides, the consumer preferences alter periodically; for instance the demand for tea has risen in the “coffee” regions, hence manufacturers tend to offer bigger choice of tea drinks.

The customer profile of beverage industry is very extensive, as drinks are consumed by all consumer categories (Americans spend around $ 100 billion yearly on drinks). Every citizen ingests liquid; hence the average beverage customer profile may be presented by average American citizen profile – 38 years old person graduated from high school or college, with $45,000 - $70,000 annual income. The most popular drinks for American customers consume are soft carbonated drinks (almost 30% of all drinks consumed). Other beverage categories include beer, water, milk, juice, coffee and tea, sports drinks, and wine.

The major problems and obstacles that the beverage industry faces recently are connected mostly with health concern. The importance of balanced diet products (especially for children) in order to reduce usage of full-calorie drinks is one of the most relevant issues within the industry. Another important aspect is focusing on healthier wellness ingredients in drinks. Besides, the industry addresses the problem of minimizing harmful impact on environment. These issues are addressed seriously; and implementing new technologies, studies, and scientific research in this area bring more opportunities for the beverage industry.

Being an important segment of the United States’ economy, beverage industry market in the country totals over 14 billion cases annually. The great number of beverage companies provide numerous jobs and pay over 30 billion taxes yearly. Innovative strategies and new products of the industry’s major producers provide this area with the highest positions on the market. Still the researches promise a consistent growth in this sector, due to multiple reasons - increasing competition both from manufacturers and soft and hot drinks categories, rising need of hydration, diverse consumers’ demand. Besides, consumers’ constantly changing preferences enforce the market to evolve, offering more and more soft drinks every year. Therefore, beverage industry is a highly dynamic branch that takes a significant position onto the global market.
Get Custom Essay on The Beverage Industry
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on The Beverage Industry now!

Sunday, April 1, 2012

Essay on “Hobbit”

Essay on “Hobbit”

It is known, that the formation of Tolkien’s artistic style was influenced by ancient cultures. We may say that this author is somewhat isolated from other representatives of contemporary literature. We cannot definitely say that he belongs to either a realistic literary trend, or fantasy. In this regard his works are unique and idiosyncratical. The main source of his idiosyncrasy is an unusual genesis of his fantastic imagery.

According to its literary style, “The Hobbit” is considered a fairy tale for children, although it is still read and reread by people of all ages, because its unique style attracts not only children, but adults as well. Of course, much depends on the talent of a writer. “The Hobbit” bristles with wordplay, which gives abundant scope for the author’s imagination.

Our Service Can Write a Custom Essay on Hobbit for You!

A brilliant example of wordplay is Bilbo’s answer to Smaug:
I come from under the hill, and under the hills and over the hills my paths led. And through the air. I am he that walks unseen.

And later the dragon said to him:
“You are a burgleer, go burgal something!!”

Tolkien’s style attracts readers from the very beginning. His long sentences, enriched with metaphors, hyperboles, epithets and other expressive means absorb readers’ attention and make them read the book till the end. In the first chapter “An Unexpected Party” Gandalf says:

Do you wish me a good morning, or mean that it is a good morning whether I want it or not; or that you feel good this morning; or that it is a morning to be good on?

As for the genre, it should be mentioned that most researches relate it to a fairy-story, but according to Tolkien himself, such works are not intended for children in particular. The basic idea of the story lies in the adventures of a small inexperienced person, who becomes involved in complicated events, and eventually grows out of just a fairy-tale. In the course of time, adventures together with the main hero become more and more serious and complicated. In this story we hear a faint echo of ancient myths. We may find numerous folk sayings and made-up verses in it, let alone tricky riddles. Here are several examples. The first one is a famous song of Bilbo, which accompanied him throughout his adventures:

“Roads go ever ever on,
Over rock and under tree,
By caves where never sun has shone,
By streams that never find the sea…”
And here is an example of a riddle:
“A box without hinges, key or lid.
Yet golden treasure inside is hid!”

In such a way “The Hobbit” represents a completely different style of narration: improvisatory, easy and comprehensible. Its plot is built on magic stories about dragons and treasures, which embody English folklore tradition (Ryan J., 1981). The novelty of this story lies in a range of motives and unusual characters. Here we can see a simplified image of the second world. One of the most important artistic discoveries of the author is the image of the main hero – hobbit. These fantastic humanlike creatures have no literary counterparts, neither in folklore, nor in fairy-tales. However, they have distant likeness with small creatures from Scandinavian mythology: dwarfs (Ryan J., 1981). At the same time hobbits possess traits, peculiar to any typical English dweller. Tolkien describes them as following:

“They are a little people, about half our height, and smaller than the bearded Dwarfs…”

At the end of the story Gandalf underestimates the abilities of small hobbits, saying:
“You are a very fine person, Mr. Baggins, and I am very fond of you; but you are only quite a little fellow in a wide world after all!”

In conclusion, it is important to say, that Tolkien’s style of writing is unique, and it cannot be called either realistic, or fantastic, as it combines peculiarities of several styles. And the abundance of various expressive means helps identify the idiosyncrasy of the author. The storyteller’s voice, different kinds of power (magic and non-magic) and captivating adventures are the most prominent features of the plot, which brought about the success of the book.
Get Custom Essay on Hobbit
ATTENTION!!! provides free sample essays and essay examples on any topics and subjects. essay writing service produces 100% custom essays, term papers & research papers, written by quality essay writers only. The prices start from $10 per page. You can order a custom essay on Hobbit now!