Tuesday, November 26, 2013

Essay on NAEYC Code of Ethics

The NAEYC code of ethics was created with intention to improve the well-being of all young children, with emphasis on the quality of education and the development of services for children from birth to 8 years. NAYEC wants to become a high-performance and comprehensive organization working in this direction.

Organized in 1926, NAYEC is the largest organization in the world, representing young children.

Almost 90 000 members, more than 300 local, regional and state affiliates, as well as a cooperating with a large number of like-minded organizations. The association is a leading publisher of educational resources, including books, videos, and posters for those who are interested in knowledge about early childhood education. Its studies on the formation of young children are published quarterly to help the NAYEC members and professionals working in the field of recent research to be aware of the ideas that they can use in their daily work. "Supporting teachers by strengthening families" is a program of the NAYEC Charitable Foundation, designed to prevent child abuse, child neglect, promoting healthy social and emotional development.

The program helps teachers of young children to better communicate with their families on these important issues. "The training program for school reading" is a program designed to mobilize resources and intellectual abilities that determine children's readiness for school, as a priority. The NAYEC conferences are widely recognized as important venues of all who are concerned with early childhood education and young children. The annual conference brings together 25,000 participants and provides a valuable opportunity for professional growth. National Institute for Early Childhood participates in the conference. The programs for teachers training, higher education and advanced education professionals working with young children, must be accredited by the National Association. 

For this NAYEC working together with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). Every spring NAYEC is sponsoring the baby week.

By this activity, NAYEC is trying to focus public attention on the importance of education for children at a younger age.

The education and development of young children is one of the most important tasks of our society. People, who chose to become teachers, have to take all responsibility and follow the NAEYC code of ethics to be worthy representatives of their profession.

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Tuesday, November 19, 2013

Essay on Dachau Concentration Camp

Dachau was the first concentration camp in Nazi Germany. It was established in March 1933 on the outskirts of Dachau (17 km from Munich). During the entire period of the camp existence, there were imprisoned 250 thousand people from 24 countries, about 70 thousand were brutally tortured or killed, 140 thousand transferred to other concentration camps, 30 thousand survived until liberation. It is known that in Dachau the prisoners were subjected to illegal "medical experiments." During the 2nd World War 1939-45 camp had about 125 branches and so-called external commands for military enterprises in Southern Germany and Austria. It Dachau, there was an underground organization of prisoners led by international committee, which started an uprising 28 April 1945, the day before the arrival of the Americans, disrupting the Nazi plan to destroy the surviving prisoners. In 1960, a memorial to the victims of Dachau was erected.

Dachau concentration camp was the only one that existed during the twelve-year period of National Socialist dictatorship. During this time, the quantity and composition of the camp inmates varied as thoroughly as the conditions of their life and chances of their survival.

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In the period of time between the opening of the camp March 22, 1933 and the anschluss of Austria in February 1938 Dachau held only German citizens. Primarily they were political opponents of the National Socialists, but as well camp contained Jehovah's Witnesses who refused military service, Jews, "lazy" (who refuse to work), and offenders sentenced to punishment in penal or exemplary prison, Gypsies, like Jews who were considered racially inferior, homosexuals and others who for various reasons did not fit to the Social racist national Socialist concept of "national society."

In early 1938, along with the Austrian prisoners, the first no German prisoners came to Dachau. Among them, along with Jews, there were many prominent politicians of different political persuasions. After the pogrom of November 9, 1938, titled Crystal Night, more than 11,000 Jews from Germany and Austria were sent to Dachau. Most of them were released in a few weeks with the order to leave Germany and their property was looted. By 1938, the number of prisoners per year had ranged between 2000 and 2500. In 1938, after the Anschluss of Austria, their number was increased to 6000 and the arrival of the Jews after the Crystal Night December 1, 1938 - to 14,232. Before the Second World War in Dachau were killed about 500 prisoners.

From late September 1939 to February 1940 for training front-line SS Division "Totenkopf," the camp was cleared of prisoners who were moved to the camps Mauthausen, Buchenwald, and Flospsenburh. This ends prewar history of the camp as an instrument of state terror that was originaly used solely against the German political foes, and then against all "non-compliant."

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Monday, November 11, 2013

Essay on Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was an Indian writer, poet, composer, artist, and social activist. His works greatly influenced the literature and music of Bengal. He became the first non-European who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature (1913). Translations of his poetry were regarded as spiritual literature and together with his charisma, created an image of the prophet Tagore in the West.

Rabindranath Tagore was born on May 6, 1861 in Kolkata in a wealthy family. Tagore’s parents had fourteen children, of which he was the youngest.

He began to write poetry at the age of eight. He received a good education: he studied at Eastern Seminary in Calcutta, in the normal school and the Bengal Academy.

In 1873, together with his father, Tagore traveled to the north of India, which gave him the idea of ​​the wealth of centuries-old Indian culture. In 1878, Tagore published his first poem titled "History of the poet." In the same year, Tagore went to London to study law at University College.

In 1890, he became manager of the family estate in East Bengal. The main theme of poems written by Tagore in the period from 1890 to 1891 years was the landscapes and traditions of rural life.

In 1891, Tagore moved to the family estate near Calcutta, where, along with five like-minded persons, he opened a school. To raise money for the school, he was forced to sell the copyright to his works.

The first decade of the 20th century for Tagore was overshadowed by personal loss - the death of his wife in 1902, one of the daughters in 1903 and the youngest son in 1907.

In 1912, in London Tagore’s works were published in author translations into English, after which it came to prominence in the UK and the U.S.

In 1913, Rabindranath Tagore won the Nobel Prize for Literature. He gave the prize money to his school, which later became the first university with free training in India.

In the following years, he made ​​numerous trips to the USA, South America, Europe, and the Middle East. Tagore received honorary degrees from four Indian universities and an honorary doctorate from Oxford University. Rabindranath Tagore is the author of anthems of India and Bangladesh.

In 1915, Tagore was bestowed the title of knight, which he refused in 1919 after the shooting of civilians in Amritsar. In 1921, together with the British agronomist and economist Leonard Elmhirst, Rabindranath founded in Surule Institute for the reconstruction of agriculture, later renamed in Shriniketan (Resident Welfare).

The last four years of his life were darken by chronic pain and two long periods of illness. After a long illness, Rabindranath Tagore died on August 7, 1941 at the estate Jorasanko.

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Monday, November 4, 2013

College Students Smoking Behavior and Stress Management

The relationship between college students smoking behavior and stress management, as well as interpersonal support management are one of the major aspects that concerns most students in many colleges and universities. There is a perception among many university students in regard to the relation between stress and smoking habits. Studies suggest that, most of the students will in a way learn to deal with the stress factors that are related to college life, or will use smoking as an escape or stress reliever. There are also other perceptions of other individuals that give a better understanding of the issue of smoking in college campuses. 

Despite the widespread recognition of the subsequently serious public health, consequences of the use of tobacco, the research on smoking cigarettes among college students appears to be sparse, and, therefore, determinant of the trend of smoking among college students are largely unknown. Roles of theoretically derived psychosocial, as well as behavioral protective factors and risk factors, regard involvement among college students. Consequently, years that students spent in institutions provide a chief opportunity in assessing the protective, as well as risk factors associated with the likelihood of smoking among students.

Development in the recent years, in social and development psychological, and also behavioral epidemiology, has subsequently contributed to the ever growing interests in the protective and risks factors role of influencing the involvement of young people in such risky behaviors like smoking, problem drinking, and use of illicit drugs. In this case, a theory based protection, and approach has significantly proved quite useful in accounting for the involvement of adolescents in problem behavior, as well as health behaviors in sample students, in post high schools across United States.

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Apparently, it has been found that coping with stress in most cases, will include engaging in various negative behaviors like smoking, alcohol consumption, use of drugs, poor nutrition, physical inactivity, increased caffeine intake and sleep deprivation among others. It is stated that most of these behaviors are majorly associated with depression, in addition to possible suicidal thoughts. It is alleged that most people who are found to be depressed often sleep less, have poorer diets, have less exercises, use alcohol and most alarming and smoke more. People will use other drugs as one of the most common aspects in universities and colleges across the United States, with smoking being highly rated among students.  Although the use of cigarettes is a quite common trend among student in colleges, as well as universities in the U.S, their effects in regard to their studies, and relation to negative behavior on depression, are not quite certain.

However, some will definitely choose to cope with stressors, majorly through positive behaviors like exercise and physical activity, addressing of proper nutrition, practicing positive thinking, spiritual methods, acquiring of adequate amounts of sleep and mediation among others. This is a trend that is not very much common among college students, and thus, in most cases; it will be quite difficult to engage in such healthy activities. 

Getting involved in practices that involve the use of drugs such as cigarettes and alcohol will be an easier option. It is due to this reason that most students in Schools across the United States have a higher probability of engaging themselves into smoking than doing health activities. In addition, cigarettes are less demanding in terms of their costs and availability, plus ease of usage as compared to other drugs, which may be used for the perceived purposes of reducing stress.  
It is essential to understand that there are different forms of stressors that are evidently present in most college students across the United States. These forms of stressors are subsequently at different stages of lives of students in colleges and are quite inconsistent and nerve-racking. Most of them are high level stresses that definitely account for students undergoing what is referred to as university transition. This is usually common among freshmen, who after graduating from high school move away from their homes into a relatively different zone that may be as comfortable at the first stages. Trying to incorporate a new way of life in a totally new environment, may be tough for many students, therefore, contributing to stress among some students. Studies reveal that stress develop during the transition as some of the student try to adjust and incorporate into the new situations, as well as adapting to the new college environment. 

Ostensibly, another aspect that brings the relation between smoking and stress among university students is the high expectations that parents have on their sons and daughters, upon their entry into college education.

Most students who do not perform in accordance to their parents’ expectations, they usually develop stress, prompting to the use of drugs such as cigarettes and alcohol among others. The university faculty, as well is stated to contribute to these stress related behaviors as students are expected to relatively perform well with no chance of failures in their systems. The kind of pressure that is put to these students in the university education attribute to the common behavior of smoking among university students across the United States. On top of that, there is pressure for some students to get a job to meet their financial purposes.

Social pressure is another aspect that contributes to stress among students as some of them they try to fit in everything in college. Most students may not have adequate finances to meet demands of particular campus lifestyles, and, therefore, element that attributes to stress among these students. As a remedy to the stress, most of these students turn into smoking, attributing to the ever increasing cases of smoking among college students. The kind of friends people make while in college, somewhat determine the kind of alternatives one uses to reduce stress, and thus, in this case, it has been a common believe that smoking aids in stress reduction. This is majorly the main reason why many students have embraced the smoking trend as a way of relieving stress while in college.

In conclusion, most of the students in universities across the United States afterward get involved in smoking behaviors, as a way of relieving their stress without considering the impact of smoking on their health. It is quite alarming that most of these students, have embraced the common perception that smoking relieves stress, which is not always the truth. Health an expert indeed, asserts that smoking does not help in reducing stress, but on the contrary, it is in a way increases someone’s stress.