Wednesday, December 30, 2009

Francisco Ribalta Essay

Essay on Francisco Ribalta

Francisco Ribalta was a well-known artist of the 17th century in Valencia. According to Jusepe Martinez wrote about Ribalta, "He gave his soul to God and was venerated that he was held almost as a saint; he sought no advantages in this life but as always honourable in his dealings. His works, effort, skills and paintings had a great impact on the history of Spanish paintings".

Ribalta was born in Solsana, Lerida on June 2, 1562. Between the years 1571 and 1573, the Ribalta family left their home in Solsona for Barcelona. Francisco Ribalta was influenced by the paintings of Isaac Hermes. After his parents' death in 1581, his family decided to move to Madrid in seek of apprenticeship. During those years of studying and working, he studied paintings of royal collection. He also developed his early style, which was strongly influenced by Italian Mannerism. Mannerist style is an artistic style that takes emotions and attitude through the paintings/drawings. Ribalta's earliest works include the Crucifixion- The Nailing To The Cross (1582/1566; St. Petersburg, Hermitage), which shows his interest in Venetian coloring and the use of light.

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Francisco Ribalta developed a family of his own later in his years with Ines Pelagyo and soon had two daughters and a son, Juan in the year 1597. His family life didn't interfere his career and his passion he had for paintings. Once came to Valencia in 1598, throughout the years 1599 to 1620, he made many accomplishments which were a step closer to his career in art. Which was also the place he began the effect of shades of darkness. He painted Fray Domingo Adadon on his Death bed (1603) and Bishop Miguel de Espinosa in the same year. There were also portraits of Margarita Augllу in 1600 and Hermano Francisco del Nino JesuЬ. In 1603, Ribalta received his first major commission to paint the alterpiece for S Jaime Apostol, Algemesi. In the same year, he was also commissioned to paint Christ Appearing to St. Vicente Ferrer (1604-1605). By 1607, he was den assigned by the Gremio de Plateros to paint the altarpiece, dedicated to St. Eligius. The idea of Colegio de Pintores revived later in his years; Ribalta made a decision on taking a role in the management and signed the petition to Philip III in 1616 and 1617. A year before 1616, Ribalta developed a Baroque style using tints of light and shade (one painting was St Bernard Embracing Christ in 1620-28).

After the 1620s, Ribalta shows his understanding and his passion of naturalism through his artworks. As a matter of fact, the works that were done during those years were of the highest quality.

The Ribalta is a Spanish family of painters. Francisco Ribalta's son, Juan (1596/7-1628) also became a painter in Carayaggesque, unfortunately he died at a young age. During Francisco Ribalta's generation, he was a successful painter and was well appreciated. Not only many people approved his artworks, but also his artistic skills and his spirit. He dedicated more than half of his life and throughout his career on his works, which were mostly paintings of religious subjects and spiritual beliefs. His death took place in Valencia on January 13, 1628. "he was deeply mourned by the whole city and its inhabitants, who gave him an honourable burial." Jusepe Martinez said.


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Drama Essay

Essay on Drama

Ancient Greek drama was mainly for the honoring of gods and to portray a tragedy or a theme. The Greek theater is much like a modern day sports stadium. The seats were built so you could look down at the performance. Behind the platform were the actors, where they would change their clothes and relax. This was called SKENE.Painted backdrops were also used for decoration. PERSONA to portray who their character would be.

Roman and Greek dramatists influenced the Elizabethan theater by classical traditions. Many plays were testament stories such as David & Goliath, Noah’s Ark, and Christ Crucifixation. The performances were presented on church steps, or PAGEANTS which is a movable stage or wagon. William Shakespeare was very popular during the Elizabethan era. The theater was made for the audience to have an imagination. There were no intermissions during Shakespeare’s plays unless it was a musical interlude.

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Modern Theater was performed under roofs with candles so the play could be seen at night. The plays were performed on a PICTURE-FRAME STAGE. The stage was close to the audience so that the actors could use more jesters and facial expressions for the performances. Eventually technology progressed and electric lighting and microphones became an important factor in modern theater. REALISM was a new revolution during the nineteenth century. This new idea of staging was to be accurate and to show the smallest details within a performance.

The setting in the play Triffles reveals its theme because of where the play takes place. It takes place on an isolated farm during the winter. The setting gives us the theme by showing us how the setting was the right place for this immoral crime to happen.

Babe was the youngest of the three sisters. She had internal problems she needed to resolve within herself. Babe shot her husband because of an affair she was having with a fitfteen year old black boy. The expectation Granddaddy had for her was to get married to someone rich. She soon got over granddaddy’s expectation when she realized she was not alone she had her sisters.

Meg was the middle sister who thought of herself most of the time. Meg was a single woman who was afraid to love anybody because of her past relationships. Meg thought of her grand father as a pest. His expectation for her was to become a singer. It was when Meg hung out with her past lover; she realized she could love someone other than herself.

Lenny was the oldest of all sisters. She was a very hyper and energetic woman. She was also shy. Her grandfather’s expectation for her was to take care of him for the rest of his life. Lenny had shrunken ovaries so she thought nobody would be interested in her. Lenny gets over her grand daddy’s expectation by calling the man she loved.


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Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Issey Miyake Essay

Essay on Issey Miyake

I observe that Issey Miyake the Japanese fashion designer desires not so much to transgress boundaries in his clothing design as to maintain them as transparent walls.

An Issey Miyake design is neither wholly Eastern nor Western; his garments seem to simultaneously inhabit different temporal and geographic spaces. A piece (for Miyake’s clothing begs one to refer to them as art pieces) may look futuristic, but it is also rooted in the ancient feudal tradition of Japan’s samurai warriors.

Born in Hiroshima in 1938, Miyake was seven years old in August 1945, when his mother, suffered serious burns during U.S atomic bombing, lived another four years after the attack. The American occupation of Japan gave Miyake a first-hand view of what the west had to offer – Marilyn Monroe, Mickey Mouse, TV, Frozen Diners – and is surely a source of Miyake’s East-meets-West aesthetic.

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In 1959 Miyake enrolled as a graphic arts student at Tokyo’s prestigious Tama Art University. His true desire, however was to study fashion design, and in 1965 he went to Paris, where he studied at Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne, and learned the ropes under French couturiers Guy Laroche and Hubert de Givenchy.

At the Miyake design studio, a kind of laboratory the designer opened in Tokyo in 1970, he researched fabrics and design techniques, producing innovations like moulded plastic bustiers and clothes made out of oilcloth. Using a 5th century Japanese peasant technique to distress hemp like material, Miyake was able to create full bodied flowing forms that still described the body’s natural contours.

Miyake also pioneered a polyester jersey fabric, which, cut in squares and other geometric forms, enveloped the body in what he like to call a “ second skin”.

Issey Miyake continued his radical design philosophy into the 80s but his clothes became more practical. He opened the “Plantation” store in Paris in 1981, selling affordable clothes in natural fibres designed for “real living”. The pleating that has become his signature look first surfaced in the 90s. During this period Issey Miyake designed the official pleated jackets worn by the Lithuanian Olympic team at 1992 Barcelona Olympics and produced the “Pleats Please” spring and summer collection in 1994.

In Issey Miyake’s three decades in design, he has worked at the intersection of art and fashion, nature and technology, innovation and tradition and notably, East and West.

It may have been one of the fashion world’s more bizarre recent happenings. On a cold evening in Paris, several hundred people gathered on the lawn of the Cartier foundation art gallery, where they watched Chinese artist Cai Guo_Qiang sprinkle gunpowder over an assortment of dresses, trousers and t-shirts created by Issey Miyake. Cai then lit a fuse, and it all exploded like a string of firecrackers. The clothes riddled with holes and burn stains, were then put on display in the Cartier gallery along with other examples of Miyake’s collaborative efforts with artists.

In Issey Miyake’s own words “I had chosen one idea “express energy”. Cai proposed to burn a design of a dragon on my pleats please, with gunpowder. In China, the dragon is a symbol of energy, and gunpowder is energy.

I made the clothes according to how Cai was going to use them. He laid 65 items on the floor, in the shape of a dragon. Then he put gunpowder on them, covered the gunpowder with cardboard stencils also in the shape of a dragon. He lit the fuse at the end of a trail of 65 garments. In 2 or 3 seconds you could see the result, each piece of clothing has a mark of a dragon.

“ I have always considered my job as a new way of making things. Creating new fabrics or coming up with a new technique or process, going forward, looking for new possibilities.”

Issey Miyake does not tend to go back in time or history to him the weight of the fabric on the body makes the shaped. He has never used crinoline or corsets or padding to force shapes.

Issey Miyake tends to have a different expression and process, and tends to have a different way of looking at and understanding clothes. He also does not seem to be constricted by the traditional rules of French couture. He also seems not to concern himself with current trends.

He seem to be more detached from the normal concept of clothes, which allows him not to be confined by current trends and colours which so often dictate a designers collection, also allowing him to fully exploit the fabric and the design possibilities.

When asked is fashion and art? Issey Miyake replied “No I’m disturbed when people call me an artist. When I make something it’s only half finished. When people use it for years and years then its finished. The pleasure comes when people use my clothes. I may work with artists, but what I do is make things to be used, not looked at, like a picture or sculpture. You can not use art.”

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Henri Matisse Essay

Essay on Henri Matisse

His studio was a world within the world: a place of equilibrium that, for sixty continuous years, produced images of ease, refuge, and satisfaction. Nowhere in Matisse's work does one feel a trace of the alienation and conflict which modernism has so often reflected. During Matisse’s period there were many things happening around the world that inspired artists, most were ones that were deep with meaning or exploitation such as war and depression. However Henri Matisse never painted paintings of anger, repression and dejection he painted what was important to him, comfort, happiness a kind of sanctuary from current issues. Matisse literally lived through two different worlds, he was born in 1869 and died in 1954, and he saw the most horrible wars, the biggest slaughters and the most demented rivalry of ideology in recorded history, all without being tempted to depict them on a canvas.

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In 1907 Matisse's partiality for the Fauvist freedom faded and his interest in the work of Cezanne was rekindled, he begun experimenting with various figure/background relationships, also perhaps relating to some of Van Gogh’s portraits. The Girl with Green Eyes is one of those compositions. The figure and background compete for dominance, yet they are formally linked. The curves all over the painting link together, the embroidery on her robe, the sculpture in the background and the soft curves of her face.

The brush strokes are free and expressive as the figure almost blends into the background, there are arabesque patterns all over the canvas but because of the brushwork they are made somewhat blurred and suggested. It is the happy, bold color of this portrait, which makes the initial impact. Matisse has taken his Fauvist palette and made it richer, the open areas of bare canvas are gone, which cheered up and de-formalized his landscapes and figures in his work of 1905-6. In The Girl with Green Eyes, complementary colors are adjoined and loud, and closely hued areas are contrasting.

There is a correlation in this painting, it relates to many of Van Gogh’s portraits, there is the use of outlines, a very common trait in Van Gogh’s art, the background and composition, although probably inspired by Cezanne, shows traits from Van Gogh’s portrait of his art dealer.

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Monday, December 28, 2009

How to Build a Computer Essay

Essay on How to Build a Computer

First you buy a case. Stick in your mother board and power supply. Plug in the processor, put a fan on top of it. Plug in your RAM and IDE cables. Install a hard drive and cd-rom drive. Plug in their cables. Set your motherboard jumpers. Turn on the computer. Install an operating system. Whallaa!

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Now you can play games on your computer, such as Warcraft III and Unreal 2003. To do this, first you need to go to a store and buy a copy of one of these games. Then, you need to drive back home. Once you get there, put the CD in your CD-ROM drive. To do this, press the eject/open button usually located right below the cd tray. The tray will extend, allowing you to place the cd inside. Once in position, push the button again to close. Hopefuly you have autorrun, which will bring up a setup screen for your game. Follow the instructions, typing in your cd-key and choosing the install path. Wait a while for the game to install. Afterward, you might need to install DirectX and restart your computer.

After it's restarted, find your game in the start menu and click on it. This should start the game. Move the mouse around the menu to navigate through your options. change the controls to suite your preference, then start the game either multiplayer or single player. Kill your opponents and try not to die. If you keep your kill/die raitio high, you should do fine.


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HDTV Essay

Essay on HDTV

The television industry would have you believe it’s the second coming. Retailers preach the scriptures of higher resolution and digital video and audio quality, while consumers are shepherded by consumer magazines looking out for their best interests, providing previews and coming attraction for the self-made home “theatre-phile.” What is the excitement about? High Definition Television or HDTV for short.

High definition television broadcasting is sending ripples throughout the television industry’s pond. Since 1988, the industry has been developing a system of high definition televisions in order to receive digital quality broadcasts, the next revolutionary step in home entertainment.

After a decade of research and development, the television networks thought that the world was ready for HDTV broadcasts--perhaps a bit premature; as yet there are still several bugs to be worked out. On November 8, 1998, America’s first HDTV broadcasts aired. CBS (through New York City affiliate WCBS-TV) broadcast a Buffalo Bills vs. New York Jets football game in the HDTV format, even though the number of digital televisions in the market could be counted on one hand. (The History of Color)

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Even though the viewing experience was well, less the revolutionary, an indelible impression was made. The idea behind HDTV is to increase the quality of the video picture by increasing the lines of revolution projected. The national standard for video display, the NTSC (National Television System Committee), uses 525 of interlaced video running at thirty frames per second. (Cripps 23)

Interlaced video:
Each frame of a video image is divided into two fields consisting of odd and even numbered lines. To display the frame, an electron beam scans each line of the first field across the face of the cathode ray tube (TV screen), then goes back and scans the line of the second field in between the lines of the first field. The new, digital format allows for 1080 lines of interlaced resolution or 720 lines of progressive resolution at 24, 30, or 60 frames per second.

Progressive video:
Each frame of video is scanned sequentially, through one pass of scanning. This option is unavailable in the standard NTSC format. Bottom line, this means that the picture quality of digital television is far beyond any comparison to any video medium now in use (film not included as a video medium). (HDTV Introduction)

These enhancements are only available through high definition video feeds. In order to produce a high definition video feed, the program must first be filmed in high definition, and then broadcast via the UHF band (that’s right, grab your rabbit ears). Standard NTSC video can also be broadcast over high definition airwaves, but without the same enhancement of video seen in high definition broadcasts. The way this is done is by “up-converting” the NTSC format for analog broadcast. This conversion is done at the broadcast tower and is translated at home by an up-converting receiver that must be purchased separately from the digital TV (usually costing at least $3000).

Also analog broadcasting allows several different signals to be broadcast simultaneously from the same tower. As CBS prepared for the upcoming game on November 8, they broadcast soaps and daytime programming through different channels, creating several different digital viewing options from CBS to be viewed at the same time. In the long run, this means that individual networks will have several different channels to place programming, thus giving the public that much more to watch. But now, in the early stages of this new technology, this benefit cannot be fully appreciated.

Also now in the early stages of HDTV, there are some severe weak points that need to be addressed soon in order to make HDTV a possibility. The main issue that needs addressing is the broadcast itself. Because the signal is broadcast through the UHF band, it is subject to atmospheric interference. For instance, the WCBS-TV tower in New York is stationed atop the Empire State Building. The broadcast from the tower bounces off the other buildings around it in the city, causing an effect called “multipath.” In digital television, multipath creates multiple “ghost images” on the screen, disrupting the viewing experience. Another problem dealing with the UHF broadcast is that the broadcast signal is a directional signal. Strong signals coming from proxy stations could disrupt one another, and since all stations will be looking to place their towers atop the highest masses (for clearer broadcasts), there will be considerable interference until antennae are created that will be able to discern the different signals and translate them into desirable pictures. However, these problems are small compared to the one glaring problem networks are facing.

The main problem to contend with is a lack of programming from the networks spearheading the conversion to HDTV. This lack of programming has been caused by the haste of the industry to put the product out before working out the bugs; leaping before looking so to speak. Unfortunately, this has caused major annoyances for those fortunate enough to have been exposed to HDTV related programming. Some of these annoyances could be construed into skepticism, which will be either erased or indulged over time. It may seem that there is nothing good to come out of this desired conversion to digital programming, but there are some extremely positive points that may outweigh all of the early disappointment that has been experienced with HDTV. Obviously, the picture quality is so enhanced that television viewing will become an entirely new experience. One viewer said that HDTV would force make-up artistry change in order to keep up with the detail that the new sets present. Another said that it made watching television like “viewing through a screen door.” But there is more to it than that.

Now networks will have an explosion of time that needs to be programmed for because of the expansion of channels that a tower can broadcast. Whether the amount produced proves to be a godsend, or the pike that television impales itself upon remains to be seen. Hopefully, the viewer will be exposed to a variety of programming never experienced before instead of being subjected to copycat programs and infomercials. Only time will tell.

Apparently, there will be a second coming; an evolution in entertainment, which is far more complex and grossly more expensive than anything the industry has faced to date. But like the transfer from black and white to color, the industry hopes to bring to the audience a picture so captivating that it will be hard to move from our seat once we sit down and start watching. And that’s the goal of television. These new HDTV, once standardized, will make it even easier to tune in and tune out.


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Sunday, December 27, 2009

ERP Essay

Essay on ERP

What is an ERP?
ERP stands for Enterprise Resource Planning. ERP is a system of business management that integrates all resources of a business, including planning, manufacturing, sales, and marketing.

How do such systems differ from older, traditional business information systems?
Older, more traditional information systems assess each resource individually and on separate basis. For example, marketing would be investigated separately and not combined with any other resource such as sales. Looking at marketing and sales together would help a company to see what methods increase and decrease sales. Rather, the older systems might judge each individually and not realize that they may be related. The traditional methods would not show how one resource affects another, or how to combine resources for maximum profit. The newer ERP systems help to combine all of the company’s assets into one by seeing how they are related and can work towards one goal. The newer systems also help to come up with the best way(s) for the company to grow and make decisions.

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Who are the suppliers of ERP software?
ERP software suppliers would be those companies that are in software development. They would help to create a system that would best fit the needs of the business and help to organize its operating system, as well as support its business processes.

Why are the companies investing millions of dollars implementing ERP software?
Companies are investing money in implementing ERP software to integrate their businesses. Many companies want to be nationally known, if not internationally recognized. ERP software also helps to organize the company or business so that it has necessary information on hand through networking for whoever may need it at any time with easier access. Networking helps to stay organized and up-to-date on what is happening throughout the company so that one department is aware of another departments need or progress, and vice versa. This is critical for the growing companies, or companies that intend to broaden their products and/or services.

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Saturday, December 26, 2009

Hydrogen Essay

Essay on Hydrogen

Hydrogen was discovered as a separate element by Henry Cavandish in 1766. The physical properties of hydrogen are as follows. Hydrogen is categorized as an alkali metal. In Hydrogen’s physical state (at 20°C & 1atm) it is a gas. Its crystal structure is hexagonal in shape. Hydrogen has an atomic mass of 1.00794 atomic mass units, making it the lightest known element. Hydrogen has a boiling point of 20.268 K, 252.732°C, and 422.918°F. It has a melting point of 14.025K or 434°F. Also it has Heat of Vaporization of 0.44936kJ/mol.

Hydrogen will also become a liquid at -240°C and a pressure of 13atm. Hydrogen is slightly soluble in water. This element also has a density of 0.0899g/L @ 273K & 1atm. The electron configuration of hydrogen is 1s1. Hydrogen is tasteless, colorless, odorless, highly explosive and extremely flammable.

Three ways of obtaining hydrogen are electrolysis of water, displacing it from the water molecular by the use of a metal, and the production of hydrogen by bacteria.

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In the electrolysis of water, an electrical current is passed through water to cause it to decompose, is one of the most common methods of obtaining hydrogen, it is also the most dangerous. Another method of obtaining water is to displace it from the water molecule by using a metal such as zinc or iron. Bacteria and certain types of algae can also be used to produce hydrogen. An enzyme of certain algae absorbs the sun's solar energy, these acts as a catalyst in splitting water molecules. The bacteria that produce hydrogen produce hydrogen in the same way algae do, but they differ in that bacteria need a substrate to grow on.

Hydrogen has many useful and interesting applications. Hydrogen can be used in the food industry to convert liquid fats to into solid shortenings (hydrogenation). The majority of hydrogen is converted into ammonia (by the Haber process). About a third is used to reduce copper and other metals from their ores (hydrometallurgical extraction). Hydrogen is also being experimented with as a new means of fuel for transportation. Also hydrogen’s isotopes were used in the creation of the hydrogen bomb and are one of the main ingredients in the “take off” propulsion system for NASA’s space craft.

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Dystonia Essay

Essay on Dystonia

For the past 5 years, my child John has been experiencing twitching in his neck and his shoulders. When he was younger me and my wife thought nothing of it, we just thought it was a bad habit that he had to break out of. He was a normal young boy with that small problem. He had many friends on our block that he would play stickball and ride bikes with that saw nothing wrong with John just like us. He is now 16 years old and is in a regular High School.

When John was 11, he started to have sudden spasms where he would twist his neck and a rapid movement in his shoulders. We were concerned about it at this time and consulted a pediatrician but he said that he never saw anything like it before, but just to be safe we could give him trihexyphenidyl. The doctor said that he could go on this medication but I was a little eerie about it so we decided against it.

Through his entire life, John was a good child and a bright kid. He good grades and was just like any normal young boy. He was very popular all through elementary school but once these problems starting getting worse in High school other children thought of him as somewhat of an outcast. When I was brought up to his school to have a talk to one of his teachers, I was shocked to hear what she was to say to me.

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John was very disruptive in class, he would me moving his neck in all disoriented types of ways and his peers would make fun of him disrupting the entire class. When I was told about this, I brought John to another doctor for another opinion with the same results. It was not until I went to a total of 4 different doctors until I found out the problem with John. He was suffering from a mild case of Spasmodic Torticollis. Spasmodic Torticollis or ST “is a condition that causes the neck to involuntarily twist to one side. The mechanisms of the condition are not completely understood but the affliction is neurological in nature. (BRYANT, MC)” This disorder is also known as Focal disorder and fits into the category of Dystonia.

The doctor said he could give John one of two things for his disability, he can either dampen the neural activity with either tranquilizers or brain surgery (brain surgery was not an option that we would choose). Since it was not a very severe case and John was not suffering any pain from this, we decided that it would be best for him to be given Botox injections as recommended by the doctor. Also he would have to go through physical therapy to help fight the disorder.

After the first few months of being on Botox, John started to show signs of the disorder weakening which made us very happy for him. He was able to go to a normal class again with no disruptions. The only time that John does start to get problems is when he is faced in a stressful situation when he would start to twitch his neck but not as much as he normally would. We spoke to the doctor about it and he said that sometimes when he is faced with a stressful situation, it can trigger the disability. The best things for John to do would be to stay active and avoid stressful situations.

Now our problem facing John is whether he should be put back into a regular school next year or if he should be put into a special education school for people with the same/similar disorders as him. This has been one of the toughest decisions me and my wife have faced since the original diagnosis for our child. We gave the decision to John but he said that what we think is best for him would be a good choice.

Since our Medicaid covers for John’s physical therapy, we decided to leave him in a regular classroom with all the other children as long as he is still in the same state and is not suffering. We both knew that we would have to go through a lot to have John put in a school for special education. Therefore, if he is doing well now in a regular classroom then it should be no problem for him.

If, for any reason, the medication does not work as well as it has, then me and my wife have decided to refer John to Pupil Evaluation Team (PET). We learned that special education services are educational services that are specially designed to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability. These services are provided at no cost to us as the parents. There are also supportive services for children with a disability. This might be better for John because supportive services are designed to assist a student with a disability to benefit from special education services. If John is succeeding in the regular education program and only needs supportive services, he may not be eligible for special education services.

After my wife and I learning more and more about Dystonia on the internet, we found out that more and more children with a physical disability are now attending mainstream schools. “The great majority of pupils who have physical problems or disabilities are now attending mainstream schools. If the pupils’ difficulties mean that they cannot attain their maximum potential in a mainstream setting, then placement is available at St Giles School, which has a full range of medical, nursing and therapy services as well as a full National Curriculum. There is also provision for deaf/blind pupils.” (Croydon Council, 2001)

Also, seeing that John has already completed 2 years in High School already it would be better if he stayed in the same school with people that he knew rather than put him in a new school where he would not know anyone. The teachers that he has classes with already know his disability and can accommodate it.

All in all, besides special education and services that can be provided, my wife and I feel that John should know that he is loved no matter what type of problem or condition he has. To us, it is more important knowing that he has a family that loves him very much and would do anything to help him overcome any problem that he may have.

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Dyslexia Essay

Essay on Dyslexia

Many teachers may overlook children with disabilities or think that they just might not be trying hard. They need to realize that they're are kids that have problems and eventually they are going to have to teach one. A man named David Raymond had this very same predicament. Throughout the first years of his life at school he cursed at himself and felt as if he wanted to die. He could not learn like the other kids and began to feel discouraged as everyone else around thought of him differently. David had a form of dyslexia, which is a learning disorder that effects the way a person learns to read. Even though he had this disease, he was still able to succeed in life and become a business owner. He gave a speech to many people called Being 17, Bright and Unable to Read, which explained a little about the disease known as dyslexia.

David Raymond had many thoughts on his life living with dyslexia. When he was a young child in the first years of school, he would come home from school screaming of how dumb, he was and of how he wanted to kill himself. When he was in second grade, he started to receive testing to see what exactly was wrong with him. He began to get tired of the testing. He just wanted people to stop upsetting about him. When he was 17 years old, he was only able to read at a fourth grade reading level. His parents started sending him to a special school for kids with learning disabilities. He would take a bus from his regular school to a different school across the town in which he lived. He did not like riding the bus because he rode with the kids that had anger issues and with retarded kids. He did not like being labeled like this so he despised the whole fact of needing help. He soon found other things in which he could do outside of school. He excelled at running for the track team and on the cross-country team, receiving letters in both. He also started working in pottery and was found to be a pretty good sculptor. His teachers soon understood and starting being easier on David. This pleased him since they did not make him feel like an idiot.

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David could not have made it through life on his own. He was given help by numerous people. His parents helped David with whatever they could. His mother would read novels to him along with his father helping with homework. The use of a tape recorder was needed. David would talk into a recorder then give it to his mom to write it down for him. His parents forced him to go to a summer camp for kids that cannot read one summer. David dreaded going to a place like this. Again, he did not want to be classified as a kid that could not read. He ended up having fun at the summer camp. He met many kids that had similar problems as him. He made some friends while also realizing that he is not the only one with this trouble. One of the counselors that David has at the camp told him that he had an IQ higher than 90% of the population. David did not really listen to this because he did not believe it to be true. David soon learned of famous scientists and artists that had problems in their lives. Albert Einstein did not speak a word until the 4th grade. He also flunked math, when he grew up though he became one of the most esteemed mathematicians throughout history. He too learned of a painter named Leonardo Divinci that was believed to have had dyslexia.

Throughout his life David Raymond was laughed at and helped with his problem of dyslexia. He soon realized that it was not so bad and excelled at whatever he could. He tried despite his reading problem and quickly became a successful business owner. Giving this speech must have altered the minds of many parents and teachers, which have kids with dyslexia. They may have changed their minds and gotten their kids help or learned of dyslexia by listening to David Raymond.

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Thursday, December 24, 2009

Simon Martini Essay

Essay on Simon Martini

Simone Martini was a Sienese painter during the thirteenth and fourteenth century. Martini was born in Siena, Italy in 1283. He attended the Sienese school in Italy. Martine died in 1344, in either his birth place of Siena or at Avignon, in France (Columbia, Seventh Edition).

Martini being a direct pupil of Duccio di Buoninsegns was one of the most original and influential artists of the Sienese school ( Lengmuir, 440). He introduced the fresco technique into the school. Building on techniques developed by Duccio for indicating three-dimensional space, Simone developed his own method, characterized by refined contour of line, grace of expression, and serenity of mood ( Encarta).

Martini’s earliest authentic works is his great fresco in Siena of the enthroned virgin and child, which was an altar piece panel, this one was painted originally in 1315, and restored by the master himself in 1321( Catholic, Vol. IX). In 1317, King Robert of Anjou invited him to Naples to paint, and created alter pieces for the Dominicans of Pisa and Orvieto (Columbia, Seventh Edition).

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Simone lived in Assisi for a time, where he produced one of his greatest frescoes, illustrating scenes from the life of St. Martin (Pioch, 1). In 1340, at the request of Pope Benedict XII, Simone traveled to Avignon, in the service of the papal court then resident in that place, and there he decorated various portions of the cathedral and several chapel rooms in the papal palace ( Catholic, Vol. IX). Among his works are Saint John the Baptist, and The Annunciation, considered one of the greatest achievements of the Sienese school (Lengmuir,441).

Simone’s Road to Calvary, which is a panel fresco and is 9 7/8 x 6 1/8, shows the figures not equal in size to their surroundings. The style of clothing appear to be fashioned after the styles of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. But the colors used in their clothes are bright and some or most are detailed in gold. One of the things that you will notice the most are the many different facial expressions.

Gowing, the author of Paintings in the Louvre writes this about this magnificent work of art: Scrambling down the precipitous road out of Jerusalem, as it is depicted in this to Calvary. It is the bitter intensity of the color from the figure of Mary Magdalen onward, miming as usual her own distraught crucifixion, that sets the ritual progress on its way. Sienese painters had a vivid sense of community, its momentum and style. Here each follower or vicious persecutor presses as urgently about Christ as the rest (Gowing,36). The author of History of Art, points out influences of other artists techniques that exist in Simone’s Road to Calvary, He writes: in its sparkling colors, and especially in the architectural background, it still echoes the are of Duccio. The vigorous modeling of the figures, on the other hand, as well as their dramatic gestures and expressions, betray the influence of Giotto. While Simone Martini is not much concerned with spatial clarity, he proves to be an extraordinarily acute observer; the sheer variety of costumes and physical types, the wealth of human incident, create a sense of down-to-earth reality very different from both the lyricism of Duccio and the grandeur of Giotto (Janson,350).

In 1330 Simone created an egg tempera on panel called Saint Luke the Evangelist. This painting is to me less detailed than his other works that I have seen. Martini still uses bright color and a dominant facial expression on his subject. In Simone’s egg-tempera portrait of the patron saint of painters, the form has been created by many parallel strokes of color (Carr, 67).

The Annunciation, created in 1333 which is a panel painting is of the Virgin Mary and the Archangel Gabriel. Simone positions them in very natural poses, because the Virgin Mary appears timid and almost worried by the words written in gold which face her, and her hands are held in a similar way to those of her visitor, who brings her a twig as a reminder of her mission (Pioch, 2). The eyes are also drawn to the vase of flowers in the center and to the dove of the Holy Ghost higher up( Pioch,2).

Simone’s Annunciation is a condensed cathedral faзade, Gothic this time, with a deep gold border (Hartt, 412). The angel’s message, Ave gratia plena dominus tecum ( “Hail, thou that art highly favored, the Lord is with thee”; Luke 1:28) is embossed on the gold background. Mary, “troubled at his saying,” recoils elegantly, her face clouded with apprehension. This is an extraordinary and unexpected style, but graceful in the extreme, with all the characteristic Sienese fluency of line translated from Byzantine Geek into Flamboyant French ( Hartt, 413).

Because of Simone’s separation from the Byzantine tradition in favor of the more fashionable courtly French Gothic style of the early fourteenth century he was able to bring back the latest French imports( Hartt,412). His art is admired for its Gothic spirituality combined with a vibrancy and a great elegance of line. He was also introduced the fresco technique to the Sienese school (Columbia, Seventh Edition). And in doing these things he was able to open the door to many more ideas and options for the artists to come after him.


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Self-Evaluation Essay

Essay on Self-Evaluation

I had taken Introduction to Acting last semester and I enjoyed it so much that I decided to take Advanced Acting this semester. The closeness the class develops after they have worked together is something you can hardly experience in another class at college.

I came into the class with some knowledge of acting and I expected to learn as much more as I possibly could. I had done some plays in junior high school, but they were all not the kind that I could say I did with experience. I wanted to know how to connect to my character. My main concern was knowing how to portray myself as the person I am playing. We definitely worked on that in class. I think all the questions that were asked to be answered painted a clear picture of who our characters are. For example, making a history for our character, why is he/she saying this?, who is he/she talking to?, what kind of setting?, etc... All these questions helped me to personalize my characters and to therefore do a better job at performing them.

I think from the time I first came into class till now, the end of the semester, I have definitely changed. We did our first performances without knowing much about what was expected, but as we went along it was explained that what was missing or what needed to change to make the scene work. By the time I was doing my final scenes I already knew what was to be expected. I am not saying I became a professional because I know that takes years (or just plain talent), but I did learn a lot and I am more knowledgeable that any one else at Baruch.

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Along with the professor I have to say that I had a lot of help from my various Self-Evaluation (Cont’d...)

partners. When two people think about the scene the result is much better than if I were doing it myself. Your partner can tell you where your lines might not be working the way your saying them, whereas for you alone it might be difficult to tell. You can also play off your partners emotions better than you can play off the reactions of some imaginary person on the wall. I also have to say that our partners were chosen almost very accurately for us. When the scene partners get along the scene becomes more enriching.

What pleased me about this class is that we had a lot more performing to do than the last class. I thing that is a challenge; to remember all those lines and emotions and not get confused. I like the fact that we did monologues. That was definitely something I have never done and it was a nice experience.

I don’t know if I want to pursue acting as a career, but it is something that I would like to consider part time. Not so much television or anything, I know I can’t do that, but theater is definitely an option I’d like to keep open. What I’ like best are the comedies. I would love to do more comedic plays. I feel I can do my best in those rather than serious plays.

I feel theater has an important role at Baruch because Baruch is a business school. What I mean is that students can get bored really easily of all these classes about accounting and financing, and to make their experience at Baruch more fulfilling, so they won’t turn out like zombies, I feel there should be theater classes at Baruch. Theater is like real life. People need to experience at least some type of theater, if not acting then watching a performance, so they can understand real life a little better.


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Wednesday, December 23, 2009

Anti-Abortion Essay

Essay on Anti-Abortion

After watching a live abortion on the Internet, my opinion of abortions has drastically changed. I used to think that it was ok in certain situations such as rape, or if there was something immensely wrong with the pregnancy or the child. But now, I have a different outlook. I don’t agree with abortion, whatsoever.

Right now in the United States, abortions are legal, and are happening all over the world. This act is killing innocent babies, and also harming, if not killing the women who are taking part in the act. If people understood more about the act of an abortion, there would be a drastic change in the number of women making the wrong decision.

According to abortionNO.com and abortionfacts.com, there are 33,545 abortions in the United States each year. Worldwide, there are 1.37 million abortions each year. 3,700 abortions every day, 155 abortions every hour. Every twenty-two seconds, another baby is aborted. Are there actually that many different reasons for this killing act? Some of the most common reasons women decide to have an abortion are: She feels unready for the responsibility, she can not afford a baby, her concern for how the baby would change her life, relationship problems, feels she is not mature enough, she already has all the children she wants, her own health, her baby’s health, rape or incest. Most of the reasons are made by a selfish decision when the mother is only thinking of herself instead of a helpless little baby inside her. Every year, more unborn children die than Americans died in the Revolutionary War, the Civil War, both World Wars, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Persian Gulf Wars combined. Yet, this is legal in the United States.

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There are many different types of abortions. They are divided into three different categories: invasion of the uterus using instruments, induced labor following administration of drugs, and invasion of the uterus by abdominal surgery. Most are painful to the mother, but all are painful to the baby. Each trimester has a different method for types of abortions.

The most common abortion performed on a child up to twelve weeks is a suction abortion. The earliest type of abortion, called Menstrual Extraction is usually performed before a pregnancy test is even taken. Evacuating the Menstrual blood from the uterus by using an airtight, hand-operated suction device performs this abortion. Menstrual Extraction can also be used in cases of very early low risk pregnancy, to perform abortions without anesthesia and with lower risk of infection and complications than the standard dilation-curettage method.

Another type of a suction abortion is the Suction Aspiration. This abortion usually takes place around the twelve-week period. During this abortion, the mother’s cervix is forcefully dilated. A suction curette that is attached to a vacuum machine is inserted into the womb. The vacuum machine is about twenty-nine times more powerful than a household vacuum cleaner. The suction tube then tears the placenta and the baby into tiny pieces. The contents are then emptied into the trash, and forgotten.

Similar to the Suction Aspiration, the Dilation and Curettage method is harsher. The curette cuts the baby into little pieces. The pieces are then scraped out through the cervix, and once again, forgotten.

Another type of an abortion using dilation is the Dilation and Evacuation method. Forceps are inserted into the womb. The forceps grab part of the baby, and twist and tear away the bones until the baby is completely broken. The spine is then snapped in half, and the skull crushed in order to remove it from the cervix.

Second trimester abortions are rarely used now due to so many complications the mothers had following the procedures. In the 1970s and the 19980s, the most common of them was the saline amniocentesis abortion. Usually after the sixteenth week this type of abortion is performed. In the Saline Poisoning process, a large needle is inserted through the abdominal wall of the mother, and into the baby’s amniotic sac. A concentrated salt solution is then injected into the amniotic fluid. The baby is poisoned from breathing and swallowing the salt solution. Struggling to stay alive, the baby starts convulsing. The baby goes into shock, hemorrhages, then dies due to hypernatremia, or acute salt poisoning. One to two hours later, the mother goes into labor, and delivers the lifeless baby. Once again, the remains are thrown away and forgotten.


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Monday, December 21, 2009

Globalization Essay

Essay on Globalization

Globalization can be defined as the ongoing global trend toward the free flow of goods and services and the creation of a world economy. Through global trade and cooperation, Globalization aims to benefit everyone who partakes in it. While it provides a great number of advantages to society, they are given at the expense of others. Since it's argued for the greater good, it has become one of the most heated topics in international business.

Benefits
One of the most practical benefits that have resulted from globalization is the tremendous increase in the speed of communication. The prime example would be the Internet. The Internet is a global medium that instantaneously provides swarms of material containing information uploaded from various parts of the world. Since this information shared worldwide, everyone with access to the Internet can take full advantage of it. Globalization also provides for cell phone companies to use such slogans as “anywhere, anytime” minutes. As a result of sharing technology across the globe, people can communicate with just about anyone.

Another useful attribute that a global economy brings is lowered transportation costs and reduced tariffs. Under the theory of globalization, all barriers to trade will be reduced, allowing foreign products to compete directly with domestic products. Consumers benefit when the cost to import a product is lowered since foreign goods are in turn more affordable. The producers of these products also take advantage of the larger consumer market.

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Globalization attracts firms to invest in lower developed countries where labor is cheaper. As they make these investments, a few benefits arise in that host country. First, the economy is lifted due to the sudden rise in the workforce. All the employees hired would be residents of that host country. Next, the government can collect taxes on everything produced and exported from the host country. For major apparel and car manufacturers, this figure can be rather substantial. Finally, the technological and managerial know-how used to run the corporation is brought to the host country, providing knowledge and insight for many other domestic businesses.

In addition to boosting the economy, globalization benefits the environment as well. Such global agreements as the North American Free Trade Act, and organizations including the European Union promote environmental regulations throughout their respective regions. In creating a world economy, global environmental standards can be established. Through cooperation and control, globalization could be the answer to cleaning up the environment.

Disadvantages
While it seems that globalization has many positive attributes, those who oppose it have a strong argument as well. Globalization widens the gap between the wealthy and the have-nots. While it does indeed create wealth, the people who reap that money are already wealthy. A United Nations Report by Joe Lauria states, “the richest 200 individuals in the world more than doubled their net worth in the four years to 1998 to $1 trillion, which is more than the gross national products respectively of Canada, Belgium, Spain, South Korea, Brazil or Russia.” When companies invest in foreign nations, the money that they earn is spent back into the firm’s home country. The only use of the foreign country is for cheap labor. Besides, despite the increased economic prosperity that the company creates, the foreign nation becomes dependent upon the company for employment, revenue, and technological improvements. Without the firm, the country can no longer be self-sufficient.

Since companies seem to seek out the cheapest labor on the globe, foreign governments have decreased their human rights standards to attract investment. Some of these reduced standards include no child labor restrictions, no minimum wage laws, and unsanitary working environments. Furthermore, foreign governments also recede any environmental standards to make themselves more marketable towards big business. As a result, companies do in fact have lower costs. However, they arise from the exploiting of both people and the environment.
In addition to the effect that globalization has in foreign countries, the effect that it has on the countries of origin is also substantial. When a firm decides to manufacture its products in a nation with cheaper labor costs, all of the people employed in the home country lose their jobs. It has a tremendous effect on the economy, especially when the firms employ tens of thousands of individuals.

Every nation ends up giving up freedom on globalization. For globalization to work, all participating countries must promote trade by reducing or eliminating any trade barriers. In turn, every nation’s sovereignty is put into jeopardy. When international organizations force countries to carry out an action, such as reducing tariffs, individual governments no longer have absolute control of their nation. Also, as consumer goods of various countries slowly permeate throughout the world, they will diminish the traditions and cultural identity of nations through universality.

Conclusion
Since the first time that two countries traded with each other, globalization was born. Now, it is on an ever-growing path towards a free world market and a global economy. Despite the practical and inescapable benefits that globalization has brought, it has also provided a way for the rich to get richer, at the expense of the poor. It would be unreasonable to think that globalization could be stopped. The world is far to integrated to try and turn back now. It is evident that the entire process needs to be reformed. Instead of trying to benefit everyone, globalization should work to benefit everyone more equally.

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Antarctica Essay

Essay on Antarctica

Antarctica is one of the world most pristine and delicate environments. Through this, tourism has become a major factor in recent years as Antarctica use to be inaccessible to tourists but now technology has made it possible to normal everyday people to visit the white continent. The effects that tourism can have on Antarctica are numerous and can lead to devastation. Threats are mainly pollution, oil spills, increasing tourism which all, in there own way, have, and will continue to have significant effects on the environment. Antarctica is also unique in the way that it has less pollution the anywhere else in the world obviously due to the lack of civilization and people, but as more and more tourists flock to Antarctica is has a gradual effect on the natural environment.

The reasons why it is so important to protect Antarctica is due to its unique features that are not found anywhere else in the world and if this us taken away, it will probably be gone for goof. It has a variety of unique and rich sources of flora and fauna, which has in the past lead to scientific medical discoveries ad is crucial for scientific research.

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As it was stated previously, tourism has played a big factor in the changing environment of Antarctica in the last few decades. The tourists flock to the area mainly due to the whole new sceneries never seen before which includes its unique wildlife and amazing scenery. Tourist numbers have increased over the last decade from 2000 to 14000 every year. Every single tourist that visits Antarctica counts as the environment is so delicate and human presence will usually result in some sort of negative impact, which accumulates to a big problem over time. Current ways in which Environmentalists are helping this is that they are informing the tourists and other people on how important and fragile the environment is and what they need to do to minimise the damage they are causing when visiting. It is expected that if something more drastically is not done within the next few years, tourism to the area will continue to grow significantly.


Some ways in which tourists disrupt the natural environment includes that they invade the animals protected areas, and in some cases litter is left behind and environmental souvenirs crucial to the environment are often taken. These problems, in recent years, have been dealt with accordingly as the problem continues to worsen. It is possible for governments to limit tourism from their countries but many are reluctant. In years to come the strictness of authorities will continue to rise as Antarctica becomes a more popular place to visit but at the moment there is no way for tourists to be prevented from visiting their countries territories in Antarctica. In recent years the negative effect that tourism has had on Antarctica has concerned certain Government and environmental organizations. Certain breeding grounds involving Antarctic species has shown a decrease in breeding habits ever since tourists have flocked to see them. Research was done into non-visited and visited areas and evidence showed that the visited breeding grounds have decreased I size and the amount of animals being bread.

Cruise ships are the ships used to make their way to Antarctica and as tourist numbers increase, so do the amount of boats being used and therefore increasing the likelihood of an oil leak which would be absolutely devastating the Antarctic flora and fauna. These ships also damage the continent itself breaking through the ice destroying icebergs in their way. The measures being taken to improve these ships includes new designs and operations being done on the cruise ships, which, include increased fuel efficiency resulting in less pollution as well as the crew must be extremely experience in their job and everything they do.

There are many concerns and factors today that are affecting the natural environment of Antarctica. Probably the biggest problem is tourism and this problem is on the rise and at the moment can only get bigger unless something drastic is done to stop the amount of tourists visiting and destroying the natural environment slowly and gradually. The past decade population numbers have tripled and the constant use of ships around the area breaking all the ice and the risk of oil spill put further pressure and havoc on the stability of the environment. Antarctica’s environment is extremely delicate and the slightest change can affect everything that’s why it is important for the government and environmentalists to do as much as possible to preserve the unique habitat. Global warming has also become a big problem and is occurring today as more and more pollution goes into the air we breathe. We must learn to understand how important this fragile environment is before we do anything about it because once it is gone it may be gone forever which could have devastating effects on the rest of the world.


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Sunday, December 20, 2009

Social Work Essay

Essay on Social Work

As far back as I can remember, I have always wanted to be a social worker. Even at a young age, I was always helping people in whatever way possible. I had to grow up and learn responsibility at a very young age. My mother who was a single parent, became extremely sick during my childhood, so becoming the support for her and my younger sister was inevitable. This allowed me to grow and learn in ways other children may have never imagined, and I believe that because of my childhood, it has contributed to a lot of my successes in life. Growing up learning about different cultures, different theories and basic human differences, makes it easier to relate to people from various backgrounds. Spending one month in the Dominican Republic also opened my eyes to many different social constructs and social realities.

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An important experience dealing with social work was when I began working for Stewart Homes. This is a home for disabled children. Each child I worked with had various physical and mental problems. The children represented countries from all over the world, which gave me a greater understanding of cultural diversity. This was not just an eye-opening experience, it was also a real personal challenge for me, as I was basically forced, with minimal training, to somehow establish common ground with people who were experiencing abuse, and distress. Some of my life’s most incredible experiences took place while I worked for Stewart Homes, and found it so uplifting to be able to know I might have made a tiny difference at just the right moment for a handful of people.

The most significant experience that I feel made the largest impact on my decision to study social work, was when I began volunteering for a Counselling Service. Of course I was not able to sit in session with these clients, so I decided to start a teen help group. I let each client know that I was a student interested in the field of social work and just someone who loved to help people in any way possible. I met many different people, each with their own problems and unique characteristics. Being around the same age, this opened a door of comfort and equality. A registered social worker sat in during these sessions, just to monitor and to give feedback when the sessions were over. These meetings occurred twice a week, and as the weeks grew so did my desire to become a social worker.

A social issue that is of importance to me is education. I find it extremely unfair that our society determines who is eligible for education based on access and financial stability. A person coming from a family where education was unknown and unheard of, the value of going to college and university would not be familiar. Also, what are we teaching our future generation? That the best judgement of character is the size of a person's wallet. These social issues and many more need to be dealt with in a positive way, or else we will loose what is important to human beings, our human dignity, social equality and finally social care.

I believe that I was meant to be at Ryerson University in the Social work program.

I am a leader, and strongly believe in working hard to obtain your goals and standing up for what you believe in. I am a committed student, a compassionate human being and very determined to achieve my goal of becoming a Social Worker. I will be none other but an asset to the Social Work program, and will make myself, and others, including the Ryerson very proud. Thank you for your time and consideration.


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Should Ecstasy Be Legalized?

Ecstasy Essay

Psychoactive drugs require different policies for individual substances based on their danger potential, the severity of danger, and the patterns of usage. Certain drugs create a potentially higher risk of loss of self control. The experiences and possible prolonged effects of ecstasy, even after discontinuation of use, are cause for strict regulation prohibiting the use, possession and distribution of ecstasy.

Some psychoactive drugs are legal such as alcohol and tobacco, despite the medical dangers associated with prolonged use. This is partially due to the fact that they are not only considered socially acceptable, but the risks are also significantly miniscule in comparison to other psychoactive substances. Recently there has also been attention diverted to the legalization of marijuana, whose risks are also considerably minor, and it also contains the capacity to greatly benefit the medicinal society for various reasons. Any activity that diminishes normal capacity for self control can create dangers for those who engage in it and for those around them. Drugs that threaten self control either through intoxication or addiction, are therefore matters of social as well as personal concern (www.fas.org). Taking into consideration this ideology, drugs should be classified as legal of illegal based on the extent to which lack of self control and the inherent dangers associated with the drug, be they physical or psychological, are present.

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MDMA, more commonly referred to as ecstasy, has potential risk of detrimental long and short term effects on frequent users. Users may sometimes experience confusion, disorientation, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, insomnia, depersonalization, derealization, perceptual disorders, and hallucinations, paranoia, and psychotic phenomena. It is possible that some of these affects may continue for a period after cessation of the drug (www.ecstasy.org). Many consumers of ecstasy are often unaware of the exact compound of what they are purchasing, and quite often the drug is not sold in a pure MDMA form. There have been countless reports in both North America, and more frequently Europe, of ecstasy related deaths. Extended use of the drug has also been linked to the development of Parkinson’s disease. Based on the vast amount of potential danger associated with the use of ecstasy, it is clear that this drug should not be legalized under any circumstances as it poses as a great risk to the safety of an individual.

Ecstasy is currently considered an illicit drug under Canadian legislation, as it should be. However, as with any other drug, prohibition does not entirely eliminate the use and distribution of ecstasy. Efforts need to be increased in providing awareness for users of the risks involved in ecstasy use. Pill testing is one way of ensuring that users are at least confident that what they are consuming is a safe MDMA compound, and not comprised of other substances that may result in fatality or an overdose. Such projects are underway in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Although only the Dutch embrace pill testing and other harm reduction measures for ecstasy as part of official drug policy (www.alternet.org).


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Wednesday, December 16, 2009

Marxism Essay

Essay on Marxism

The belief behind socialism is that certain inequalities that are evident in our society are unfair, and that the lesser part of the population should now own the majority of the wealth. However there are different ways socialists believe this should change. Some feel that this change should come through the government, through a gradual process, and some believe this change should come rapidly through a revolution. Socialist beliefs have been growing for many years. It first originated when Western Europe and North America fell victim to the process of industrialization. Before that period, most of these areas dealt and traded in agriculture. But through industrialization, they became trading nations, and later industrial nations. Major changes in the lifestyle of society came with this major economic change. Many went from being self-employed, as a farmer for example, to working in a huge plant. This was how the working class was formed. All of this industrialization in the major cities, caused many of the people in the rural areas to migrate to these areas in hopes of work. This resulted in the population becoming centralized. This centralization of population led to many problems caused by over-crowding such as crime, disease, and poverty. The ones working in factories weren't the only ones suffering of low wages caused by too much competition, and the desire to cut costs by the owners, but also independent shopkeepers suffered. The craftsmen who had their own shops were swallowed whole by these big factories who could make the same product at mass volumes for half the cost as the shopkeeper. These independent shopkeepers were put out of business.

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Without any intention at all, capitalism had developed and spread throughout Western Europe and North America. As it grew and expanded, the few owners became wealthier, and the working class became poorer. Still today in western countries exist socialist parties, who look to achieve total or partial socialism for their nation, so they do not have to worry about the problems associated with capitalism.Years later, Karl Marx and his philosophies infulenced later leaders which gave rise to Communism in the world, which then started a political war with Capitalism.

One of Marx's main theories was his critical assault on the capitalist system. The capitalist system being based on private ownership of the means of production, which gives the power to very few. Marx himself mounted a full scale attack on the the theories, institutions, and philosophies of industrial capitalism. His main argument was that capitalism was irrational. Marx did agree that the capitalist system was unparalleled at the method of production it used. However, under that same system, the problem existed of how to distribute the products its factories have made. The fact was that under a capitalist system, production was meant to make a profit, not to satisfy the needs of the society. Marx stated that as long as those products being produced, were making a profit, they will remain being produced, no matter whether the public demanded that product, or not. Also with the capitalist system, came competition. This drove the capitalists to cut the costs as much as possible. This is done through cutting the wages of the laborers. It is then evident that the public could no longer afford even the products they themselves produce. Also with competition, came the desire of the capitalist to increase volume, in the idea of grasping a larger portion of the market. This increased volume of product lead to a viscous circle, which includes overproduction, leading to lay-offs, periods of depression and recession. With this viscous circle, that is brought by capitalism, comes economic misery for all of society.

Karl Marx also had a theory which described the workers in the capitalist system. Marx used the term alienation of labour in describing what effects are felt by the labourers under a capitalist system. He believed that laborers needed productive, gratifying work in order to remain happy.

Marx stated that under a capitalist system laborers did not have a chance to develop their mental and physical capacities, something that Marx felt was essential while working. He also believed that man should not only labour as an individual, but for society as well. However under this capitalist system, man was working for his boss, who only seeked profit, and not the well-being of his workers, or the public. Under these conditions, workers became mentally and physically drained. Marx believed that every person had a need to work. However, the capitalist system does not satisfy that need. Marx said it best when he stated that this type of work, does not satisfy the need to work, but is only a means to satisfy other needs such as food and clothes. Marx used the term alienation of labour because this work left the laborer with a feeling of discomfort and homelessness.

Marx's solution to capitalism, was the socialist revolution by the workers against the capitalists. Marx figured that this revolution would attain several things. Firstly, it would overthrow the system of ownership of the means of production, and place the means of production in the hands of the people. Secondly, the goal of production would be to satisfy the needs of the society, and not to create a profit. Finally the socialist revolution would realize a rational way of distributing out the products it creates in accordance to need.

The resulting system; socialism, would bring a society which was based on collective ownership of the means of production, rational economic planning, equal distribution of goods and services, and lastly, production for the human need.


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Marriage Essay

Essay on Marriage

The ceremony was simple, yet beautiful. The church was beautifully decorated with garden flowers in pastel shades, and the atmosphere was filled with joy and laughter. As the traditional bridal march played, the bride walked down the aisle, accompanied by her father, to meet the groom. Then it was finally time for the couple to exchange their vows and wedding rings. Everyone cheered and applauded…

Anne still remembered the entire day’s event vividly in her mind. It was the moment she had always been dreaming of ever since she was a little girl. Marrying John Turner had seemed to be the best thing that could happen to her. John was charming, funny, and intelligent and had a promising career as a banker. Most importantly, he loved her, just as much as she loved him. He was everything that she had always wanted out of a man. Anne, herself was an attractive girl, much adored by men. Everyone thought that they were a perfect couple.

The newlyweds led a life filled with joy. But all that was shattered when a few months later John was met up with an unexpected car accident.

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It was a dark night and rain was pelting down heavily. John was on his way home to meet his beautiful young wife when he felt his car swerving uncontrollably. He lost control of the car and it only stopped after the car hit an electric pole. There was a loud crashing sound and the car was wrapped around the pole. John lay unconscious inside the car and there was blood everywhere. Someone got hold of an ambulance and he was soon taken to the hospital and treated in the intensive care unit.

Once Anne heard about the news, she rushed to the hospital to see how her husband was. She felt a knot developing in her stomach as she waited for the news on her husband’s condition from the doctor. She was scared. The doctor finally told her that John had survived the accident but was paralyzed from the neck down. The news shattered her and she broke down and cried.

The incident changed their lives drastically. John had to give up his high-paid job and Anne was forced to struggle between supporting the family and taking care of her husband. Their financial condition deteriorated badly. They had to move out of their lavish home and settle down in a much smaller apartment. Anne was miserable. She had to work hard everyday to make sure they will not go hungry and was left with no time for her. She could no longer meet up with her friends, could no longer do the things she likes to do. Moreover, life with John could no longer be the same again. There was no more of the cheerful conversation and laughter they used to have, and they could not do much together. Even though John undergoes physiotherapy everyday, they knew that the chance of him recovering was low. Both John and Anne had turned depressed and pessimistic.

Anne wondered if marrying John had been a mistake. She thought of how much happier she could be if she had not married him. She thought of how foolish she had been, to want to get married and be bound to another person. She thought of the vow she had made on their wedding day, to love and to cherish till death to them part. Was it worth it, she thought, to sacrifice her life and happiness just for this man? Yet she could not bear to abandon him. After all, she still felt something for him, and she knew that John still loved her.

Now, Anne looked old and tired. Her long, beautiful hair was turning ashy grey. Lines and wrinkles were forming in her once radiant and smooth skin. She looked at her husband, lying in bed, staring at the ceiling. Tears began to form in her eyes. She was extremely frustrated with the unfairness of life.

Then she saw something. Out of the corner of her eye she seemed to have just seen John manage to move his legs slightly. Was it real? Or were her eyes just playing tricks on her? But as John looked at her, with a smile on his face, she knew what she had seen was true. It was a miracle. She rushed to his bed and hugged him tight, kissing his face several times.

It had been worth it, Anne thought. There are ups and downs in a marriage but the love between them is the most important. She understood that now. All the sacrifices were worth it, for no amount of money can buy true love.


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