Tuesday, September 11, 2012

Criminology Essay

Criminology Essay

In summary the situations looks like the following: the only survived victim of a series of robberies and murders was able to positively identify a perpetrator from an array of photographs; later the victim being in sound mind was able to clearly identify the defendant at the preliminary hearing and respond to cross-examination. After these events the victim died. Police did not find the weapon or fingerprints, ballistic fingerprints could not identify the weapons.

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Generally, police can use several methods so as to identify a suspect as a perpetrator: lineup – identification from the group of people with similar patterns, showup – “one-on-one identification procedure” and photo identification – it “consist of witnesses looking at photos of suspects… most persons whose photos are displayed in photo identifications have prior criminal records” (Bergman & Bergman-Barret, 2003, section 4/19). Positive identification resulted by any of the above methods can be a reason to file criminal charges against suspect. Positive identification is also admissible as evidence at the trial, but the attorney can argue and further the court to exclude such evidences. The reasons for excluding identification as evidence may vary and the one that can be used in this particular case is that the witness was frightened.

The purpose of preliminary hearing is to determine whether the defendant should be tried and the prosecutor has any evidences that can prove the guilt of the defendant. This procedure does not imply prosecutor has to provide all the evidences available “but only enough evidence to convince the judge that there is probable cause to hold the defendant for trial” (Bergman & Bergman-Barret, 2003, section 16/3). All testimonies given at the preliminary hearing may be used at trial but in specific way – if somebody changes given before testimonies and the court needs to select which testimonies are more reliable. In addition, all testimonies given at preliminary hearing are subject to be repeated at trial under oath. Our victim has died before the trial and his testimonies could not be proved under oath. Of course they will be used in the court but the defendant’s attorney, probably, will be able to exclude them or dissolve their value for prosecution because there are no evidences available. The fact that victim responded to cross-examination works for prosecution because defense lawyer was not able to further the court to exclude them. Hence the testimony of the deceased victim could not be used as direct evidence at trial but as indirect only in the form of written transcript. This testimony is not proved under oath so far and the lawyer can insist that the victim may refuse to confirm this testimony at trial. “At trial, the prosecution has the burden of proving each element of the charged offense(s) beyond a reasonable doubt” (Bergman & Bergman-Barret, 2003, section 16/4) and in our case prosecution will not be able to do this without the victim despite victim’s testimony looks to be very likely.

The fact that series of robberies and murders stopped with the arrest of the defendant is not evidence. Under the presumption of innocence prosecution is to prove the guilt of the defendant, not the defendant prove his innocence. In addition, the defendant can “get” alibi if somebody is able to verify the defendant’s location at the time of felony. Defense lawyer can draw many reasons for the series of robberies and murders being stopped without arresting the defendant.

Ballistic fingerprints are the sort of scientific evidence. The concept of ballistic fingerprints implies all weapons to be identified before going on sale and stored in the database so as to have a possibility of identifying the weapon in future. In our case the weapon was not identified. This means the police is not able to find the owner of the weapon. The only practical value of ballistic fingerprints in this case is connecting the series of robberies and murders into the single case. If the police could find the weapon with fingerprints of the defendant it would be incontrovertible evidence of the defendant’s guilt.
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Monday, September 10, 2012

Starbucks Global Expansion Strategy essay

Starbucks Global Expansion Strategy essay

Starbucks is one of the most successful companies of the US, which is well-known nationwide. Throughout its history, the company has reached outstanding results, becoming one of the leaders in the national market. At the same time, the time is changing and the process of globalization contributes to the growing competition, while the company’s administration perfectly realizes that Starbucks needs continue to progress. Otherwise the degradations is inevitable. In such a situation, it is extremely important to choose the correct strategy of the further development of the company. It is worthy of mention that, in the current situation, the company has chosen probably the most effective strategy that provided Starbucks with ample opportunities to continue growing and this strategy is international markets expansion. It should be pointed out that the main feature of its strategy is high aggressiveness of the company and its main goal is the expansion and entering new markets. The expansion of Starbucks has already overcome national borders and has acquired an international character. At the same time, the company still remains highly popular among its American customers.

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In such a situation it is obvious that the company could hardly achieve such results without its aggressive policy of market expansion. It should be pointed out that the company steadily implemented the strategy of the market expansion in the course of its development. At the beginning, Starbucks basically focused on the regional level but, as the company continued growing the necessity to expand its presence on the national level became obvious. Nowadays the company continues its traditional strategy of the market expansion but, unlike in the past, it is not focused on the national market solely. Instead, Starbucks tend to enter new markets abroad and become one of the most recognizable brands worldwide. This policy perfectly meets the current situation in the international markets which is characterized by the growing role of the process of globalization. This means that the company needs to overcome national borders and operate worldwide to remain competitive. Moreover, it is the only logical strategy because fiscal barriers between countries gradually disappear that meant that entering barriers in local markets of different countries disappear too, making the penetration of the company in these markets easier and faster.

Another important factor of the success of the company is its attitude to customers. One of the major goals of the company is the development of the positive perception of the company by its customers. To put it more precisely, the company targets at the development of the positive customer experience. This is why the company attempts to meet the current demands and interests of customers. Its major goals is the customer satisfaction that means that the customer should enjoy the ambiance of Starbucks stores and the attitude of the personnel.

One of the constituent elements of such a strategy of the development of the positive customer experience and customer satisfaction is the quality of products and services the company supplies to its customer. To put it more precisely, Starbucks increases the quality of its service through the additional training of the personnel during which employee learn how they should behave while communicating with customers and, in general, quality is the backbone of the current success and the strategic point in the development of the company. The quality refers not only to company-customer relationships but it also refers to the functioning of the company at large, including relationships between employees as well as between the administration of the company and employees. In such a way, the quality constitutes an essential part of the organizational culture of the company and one of its major characteristics customers like probably the most.

In the result of the high quality of services and products customers can buy in the Starbucks, they naturally acquire a positive experience and, therefore, they grow more and more confident in the company, its products and services. As a result, the confidence of customers in the Starbuck naturally leads to the growing popularity of the brand nationwide because the company uses the same standards in all parts of the US. At the same time, the wide spread of the company and the popularity of its brand are determinant for the commercial success of the company. It is not a secret that in modern world, the brand of a company constitutes a significant part of its market value. Consequently, the growing customer satisfaction leads to the growing popularity of the brand of the company, while the latter results in the improvement of the market position of the Starbucks through the increase of the market value of the company.

Thus, taking into account all above mentioned, it is possible to conclude that Starbucks is a leader of the national market but, in recent years, the company has started to implement new strategy of the international market expansion targeting at international, global market. It should be said that the strategy the company uses at the moment seems to be quite effective. However, it is necessary to point out that such a strategy may be accompanied by certain risks. For instance, the company may face serious problems in the result of its aggressive policy of expansion, such as the opposition of the local rivals as well as local population that can reject the new company, its product and services. In other words, the company needs to develop the positive customer experience in new markets in order to minimize apprehensions of customers in relation to the new player in the market. In this respect, the cooperation of Starbucks with local partners seems to be an effective strategy to overcome possible problems. However, the major and determinant factor of the success of the company still remains the national market and local customers. Obviously, at the present moment the US market still remains the larger market of the company. Consequently, it is vitally important to the company that the constituent elements of its commercial success in the US keep working in the future.
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The River Queen Movie Essay

The River Queen Movie Essay

The River Queen is Vincent Ward’s film set during the Maori wars. Vincent Ward is a famous New Zealand director, nominated for two Golden Palms. The River Queen won New Zealand Screen Award for the best achievement in Cinematography, and Golden Goblet Award for best music. His new work The River Queen is a historical drama, which described the events of 1860s. The River Queen was produced in 2005 and was released in January 26 in New Zealand. The film is set in the late 19th century in New Zeeland. Sarah O’Briend (Smantha Morton) is trapped between two different worlds.

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Originally Irish, she was brought up in a frontier garrison on the Great River. She grew up during the war between Maori tribes and British army. Sarah falls in love with Maori boy and gives birth to a child, who becomes the representative of two cultures. When her child is kidnapped, Sarah starts long and exhausting search for her son. When she finally manages to see him several years later she realizes that he has become a Maori warrior during the time they have been separated. Both, Sarah and her son are tired apart between two different worlds. The director Vincent Ward did a perfect job describing feelings and emotions of a mother, who is in search for her son. The play of young actor, Rawiri Pene, who plays Sarah’s son is brilliant.

Scenery makes the film not only historical and psychological drama, but also a very bright and picturesque picture, which fascinates the audience. The landscapes and play of colour and saturation create very beautiful pictures. The music is also a good director’s find. It helps to recreate at atmosphere of the film.

The film gives a feedback to 1890s, when Europeans made attempts to colonize New Zealand. The depiction of historical data is accurate and those, who are interested in the history of the colonization of New Zealand, can enjoy this movie.

Warm managed to reproduce the beauty of New Zealand and important historical period of the Maori wars. The conflict of the main characters is developed on the background of beautiful landscapes and beautiful nature. The movie has some parallels with Mann’s The Last of the Mohicans. The conflict of the main characters illustrates the results of colonisation and ways it affected the lives of ordinary people. I believe that the theme chosen by the author is very interesting because on the example of Sarah, the protagonist of the movie, the director shows that wars and conflicts became devastating and harmful not only for Maori people, but also for the British civil people, who became involved in this wars. The theme of colonization and resistance is an important part of New Zealand history, which can not be forgotten.

The part of the history, depicted together with the individual story, creates an emotional appeal to the audience and helps the director to pass his message to the spectators. Wonderful play of Samantha Norton helps to pass the feelings of a mother who looses her child. Beautiful scenery and well-chosen music create necessary atmosphere and create a beautiful background to the tragic story. The audience gets a perfect opportunity to get an insight into the life and culture of New Zealand tribes and see beautiful nature of this country.

I like the movie a lot I believe that it can be interesting for different kind of audience. People who like history can find interesting facts about the colonization of New Zealand in this movie. Those, who like melodramatic film will, most probably, also enjoy The River Queen. Those, who appreciate the beauty, will appreciate perfect Ward’s directing.
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Wednesday, September 5, 2012

Common Mistakes in Essay Writing

Common Mistakes in Essay Writing

Very often students who have completed and handed in their essays are dissatisfied with their marks. Sometimes they do not understand why their essay was graded poorly and what the teacher expected to see. Students make a lot of different mistakes which can spoil the general view of the essay greatly but we will focus on the most popular, the strictest ones. If you avoid these common mistakes in essay writing, the quality of your work will rise cardinally. Try to pay attention to every type of the mistake in order to avoid it in your future essays.

1. Many students miss such an important point of the essay, as a thesis. This short statement often presents the key point of the essay, its problem, plot, purpose of writing. If you miss this statement, your essay will seem senseless, because the reader will not understand what position you are going to support and what you are going to prove.

2. Another common mistake is the omission of the conclusion. It is quite a strict mistake, because if you do not conclude your thoughts, the essay will seem unfinished, the reader will think that there is a free ending and you key idea will be lost. That is why, concentrate on a good conclusion to summarize the whole essay and to keep the presented evidence in a logical order according to their importance.

3. The absence of evidence is another mistake which spoils the whole essay and it needs rewriting. If you do not present reliable evidence, like the results of the research, quotations of the famous scholars, writers, your essay will lose its sense and the whole aim of writing. It will be a simple narration without purpose to convince the reader in your point of view, that is why devote some time to find trustworthy data on the topic, which supports your thought.

4. The worst problem of essay writing is the lack of proper structure. Always remember that an essay is not a free stream of thoughts, but a logical paper with strict composition. If you present your thoughts chaotically, you will surely fail, because the reader will lose your thought at once. So, try to be logical and develop your essay step by step, gradually presenting new and new ideas and evidence.

5. A typical mistake of every student is plagiarism. Students often use quotations, thoughts, the results of the research of other scholars and forget to cite them. It is a very strict mistake and students have to realize it from the early years of studying. Even if you paraphrase the idea of the famous scholar, always cite it to avoid problems with your teacher.

6. Finally, there spelling and punctuation mistakes which can be corrected with the help of the dictionary and grammar books.

Monday, September 3, 2012

Arab History Essay

Arab History Essay

The history of the Arab world in the twentieth century is primarily affected by the idea of Arab nationalism. The entry of the Ottoman Empire into the war created a whole new situation, for the Arab nationalists had to consider their options seriously. For some the preservation and independence of the empire as a Muslim state was essential. Although they were opposed to the policies of the central government, they feared that its collapse would pave the way for European rule. Others felt that the war provided an opportunity to obtain independence for the Arabs with the help of the enemies of the empire. 16 The debate was settled in June 1916 when the Arabs decided to revolt against Ottoman rule and enter the war on the side of Britain and France. (Furgani, 1997)

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The Arab revolt was declared and led by the Hashimite leader Sharif Hussain of Mecca, who had been promised by the British that they would guarantee the liberation of the Arabs and the throne of an Arab kingdom consisting of the Arab parts of Asia. (Tibi, 2001) These promises strengthened the hands of the sharif and his sons in persuading reluctant nationalists to join the revolt. They succeeded also in persuading a large number of Arab army officers who had been part of the Ottoman officer corps to leave the Ottoman army and join the Arab revolt and its army. (Tibi, 2001) Although the Arab nationalists were able to form a government in Syria in 1920 and declare Faisal, son of Sharif Hussain, as king, the government lasted only four months. French forces overthrew it in July.

Britain had already agreed with France to carve up the Arab East between them with France assuming control over Syria and Lebanon and Britain assuming control over Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine. The League of Nations sanctioned this colonial control by calling it a mandate system under which Britain and France were expected to prepare the mandated areas for political independence. By 1921 Britain had succeeded in installing Faisal as king of Iraq, and his brother Abdullah was given the crown of Transjordan, again under British mandate. (Furgani, 1997) Syria and Lebanon were ruled directly by France, as was Palestine by Britain.

Another important historical event that had serious impact on the Arab nationalist movement was the British government’s declaration in November 1917 of support for the creation of a Jewish National Home in Palestine. These commitments on Britain’s part were obviously irreconcilable with those made to the Arabs. “If it came to the point, Britain would always prefer her need for good relations with France to her desire to establish an Arab State in Syria; and the Zionists could bring greater pressure to bear in London than could the Arabs.” (Leeman, 1992)

The first generation of Arab nationalists who led the Arab revolt and fought for the independence of the Arab region from Ottoman rule ended up in power but with the approval and under the patronage of a new colonial regime that was imposed on their countries by France and Britain. This was made easier by the very nature of the mandate system, which tended to rule indirectly through indigenous elites. For the elites it was an act of replacing one dominant foreign power by another. Once their economic interests were preserved, they found no reason to challenge the ruling foreign power.

The failure of the Arab revolt to achieve political and economic independence meant that the next phase in the evolution of Arab society had to entail the elimination of European domination and its agents -- the Arab governments that France and Britain had installed. Although Britain and France granted Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon, but not Palestine, formal independence through treaty arrangements, the independence was so constricted as to be meaningless. (Furgani, 1997) While the history of the interwar period was shaped by European colonialism and its local elites who succeeded in consolidating their positions of economic and political power, other forces that eventually undermined these positions were at work.

As the structure of the economy changed, another class of petty bourgeoisie -- bankers, shippers, exporters and importers, insurance agents, and so on -- tied to the international economic system also emerged. As World War II came to an end, the configuration of social classes and their interests had undergone a major change since the establishment of governments in the Arab region. While economic and political power was concentrated in the hands of traditional elites -- landed aristocracies, large industrialists, and Ottoman-trained military officers turned politicians -- other newer classes with different aspirations and needs began to come to the fore.

While the traditional elites had by the end of World War II associated their political and economic fortunes with imperialism, the new classes were challenging the status quo in search of new social and economic order. (Leeman, 1992) The opportunity to replace the old order forced itself upon the Arab region when the state of Israel was created in 1948 in Palestine. The creation of Israel turned out to be the most serious challenge to face the old order since it demonstrated its unwillingness and inability to preserve an Arab Palestine. This failure exposed the bankruptcy and destroyed the political legitimacy of the first generation of Arab nationalist regimes.

It goes without saying that the failure of the Arabs and Pan-Arabism in 1948 was one of historic proportion from which Arab nationalism has never recovered. Explanations and rationalizations abound, ranging from collusion between imperial powers, Arab regime bankruptcy, superior enemy technology, and others. (Furgani, 1997) The old nationalist order that came to power in the aftermath of the Arab Revolt and the imposition of the mandate system was displaced by a new, younger generation of nationalists in a succession of military takeovers in the core Arab countries of Syria ( 1949), Egypt ( 1952), and Iraq ( 1958). (Leeman, 1992)

One of the most important developments in the twentieth-century Arab world has been the rise of the importance of oil as a source of income, wealth, and political power. In turn, as was noted earlier, this led to a shift in the leadership of the Arab world from the core countries of Egypt, Syria, and Iraq to the family regimes of the oil states. This shift, which became evident in the aftermath of the 1967 Arab defeat, was accelerated and dramatized after the 1973 October war, which was supposed to end the occupation of the Arab territories of the Sinai, East Jerusalem, the Golan Heights, the West Bank, and Gaza, which Israel had captured in the 1967 war. (Tibi, 2001)

History will show that the decision by the Arab oil states to reduce their output and place selective embargo measures on their oil exports for a few months in the name of the Palestinian cause was a brilliant, profitable act that increased dramatically their income, wealth, and political power within the Arab world. History will also show that Arab nationalism has never given nor will it ever likely give so much power and wealth to so few in such a short period of time. Let us remember that the combined population of Saudi Arabia and the other family regimes in the Gulf is less than 10 million or less than 5 percent of the combined Arab population. (Leeman, 1992)

It is important to point out that the dramatic increase in oil wealth and income destroyed whatever prospects there might have been for some meaningful economic achievements at the Pan-Arab level. The decisions of the 1980 Arab Summit Conference provide a good illustration. At that conference it was agreed among other things to adopt and fund a Joint Arab Development Decade. Yet this joint program was funded to the tune of only $5 billion, or $500 million per year. (Furgani, 1997) One need not point out how inadequate this amount of funding is relative to the massive needs of the Arab countries and their combined population of 200 million. Yet it should be pointed out that the combined military spending of the Arab states in 1984 amounted to more than $61 billion with the GCC states alone spending $28 billion. (Tibi, 2001)

It would be no exaggeration to say that petromoney brought into being classes whose economic and political prosperity had become dependent on this distorted pattern of wasteful spending. These classes include military and civilian bureaucracies, beneficiaries from contracts, commissions, agencies, transactions, recruiting, land speculation, construction of infrastructure, industrialists, importers and exporters, among others, all of whom have become increasingly dependent on the international capitalist system. Given this system of relations and given the vast amount of resources at the disposal of the state, the state itself had become a formidable force in each and every Arab society while the role of intellectuals and nationalist thinkers was eroded and marginalized.

It is obvious from the changes that were brought about by the oil wealth that the concomitant rise of the influence of family regimes requires that the whole concept of Arab nationalism be revisited for rigorous analysis to see whether it can be salvaged and restored to the unifying role it was once thought it could play. (Furgani, 1997) It is very difficult to envisage any serious change in the present thrust of Arab society, which at the current phase of Arab political history is anchored on the premise that the sovereignty of the state takes precedence over Pan-Arab issues and on the central importance of petromoney in Arab economies.
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Sunday, September 2, 2012

Rebellion vs Revolution Essay

Rebellion vs Revolution Essay

Edmund S.Morgan in his famous book American slavery American freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia, which was published in 1975 for the first time, analyzes the notion of slavery in the American history and the roots of the Bacon’s rebellion and its possible consequences. Bacon’s Rebellion is also known as the Virginia Rebellion. It was led by Nathaniel Bacon and started in 1676. The active participants of this rebellion were frontiersmen and it was the first rebellion in the American colonies of such kind. The causes of the rebellion were the following: natural disasters, such as floods, drought, hurricanes and others, that resulted in a poor condition of common people; numerous economic problems including decrease of prices on tobacco, increase of prices on manufactured products, restriction of English marker and others. All these reasons encouraged Bacon and his followers to rebel against unjust attitude towards poor slaves and servants.

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Some researches consider it to a revolution but it has all the features of the rebellion. A revolution is usually organized by the leading class who wants to change the political regime and social structure. It breaks out as a response to the aggressive and oppressive actions of the government; it involves great masses of people who have one common idea and a leader or leaders who proclaim this idea. The result of any revolution is usually complete or partial victory because this word itself presumes a change in the regime. A rebellion is more chaotic, the masses are not organized. People, as well as during revolution, usually rebel against infringement of their interests but their forces are not always aimed to change the political or social structure. The result of any rebellion is usually defeat.

Morgan in his book states that American principles of freedom and equality always come together with notions of slavery. Bacon raised his rebellion against slavery, in fact. Bacon united poor servants and slaves around him and made a number of attempts to massacre Indian population. His actions were rather chaotic and disorganized but they created threat to the peace in Virginia. Bacon’s rebellion could have transformed into real revolution: he had burned the capital and controlled almost all the colony for three months. The result of the rebellion could have been unpredictable but suddenly died Bacon and it became the logical end of the rebellion. Governor Berkley crushed the rebellion but it was a lesson for him and his followers, he understood that “First, that too many disappointed freemen and desperate blacks with a common enemy could prove a dangerous force. Second, resentment on racial grounds may be more powerful than resentment on the grounds of class” (Morgan, 2003, p. 270). This rebellion helped the government to change its policy and choose another tactics.

To sum up, Bacon’s rebellion can not be considered as revolution because, all in all, it was broke out by the colonial government. The masses united by Bacon did not choose one strategic direction in their actions and so after Bacon’s death were not able to unite and continue the fight for their rights. Nevertheless, it had had a great impact on the policy of the colonial government.
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