Monday, December 26, 2011

School Voucher Problem Essay

School Voucher Problem Essay

The Problem. Millions of parents are having to send their children each year to schools not of their own choice. Parents are only aloud to send their children to the schools within their district. One example of how this is a bad situation is that if a child lives in a poverty stricken area, they must attend the school located in that same area. Many parents want to send their children to the best schools, so they can get the finest education, but are unable to, because the government doesn't allow it. There are only two ways for a child to get to go to a school out of their district in the present time one is by having a petition signed. The other way is if a child starts a school and then moves to another district they are aloud to finish school in the same school in which they started, in most instances. There are grants available to children wanting to attend either private schools or a public school out of their district, but these grants are limited and very hard to receive; these children must meet certain standards. These standards include: if the school has a high failing rate, if the student him or her self is failing, or if the environment is not safe.

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Why wait until your child is failing, or why send your child to a failing and unsafe school! According to the Education Board seventy-five percent of parents believe that families should have the right to select among various public schools. There are currently about sixty point three million children enrolled in elementary or secondary schools, fifty-three point seven million enrolled in public schools, six point six million children enrolled in private schools, and one point one million children are being taught at home in the United States. 

Only about twenty-five percent of public school parents give their child's school an "A" rating. Parents would also like to send their children to private schools for either a religious reason or a better learning program. To send poor families' children to private schools is almost impossible. Private schools are not funded by the government or the state itself. If parents choose to not let their child attend the school in their district and to let their child attend a private school they will have to pay for it entirely themselves. In the Open Enrollment Program, which is already a voucher program that is in use in Wisconsin the parent satisfaction and involvement rates increased to sixty-two percent. There are also, similar programs in Florida and Ohio which are helping students that are stuck in failing schools. There is also, a law in Colorado that establishes a pilot program to allow eligible children to attend participating non-public schools under a parent-school contract. 

However this law is only for failing students! Section II. Solution. The solution to the educational problem is to create a national law that sends a certain amount of money to each state depending on the enrollment of each school in that state, like usual. The only difference will be that the money also will go to any child attending a private school, just as if they were attending a public school. Once the state receives the money from the government the state will pass it down to each school like normal, only this time private schools will get money too, but only if they request it as a type of grant. This will include only schools using the School Voucher Program. Wherever a child goes to school is where the money should be! This solution will be at least satisfactory, because seventy-eight percent of private schools surveyed "very satisfied". Also, when using the Open Enrollment Plan sixty-two percent of the "chosen" public schools were surveyed as "excellent in parental satisfaction and school's academic standards. The only complaint stated was that private schools were not included in the Open Enrollment Program; which the School Voucher Program will fix. Section III. 

Funding. Using the Open Enrollment Program that sixty-five percent support is already set up in Wisconsin. The state spends one hundred seventy million eight hundred thousand and three hundred dollars each year. If you take this amount and multiply it by the fifty states you get eight billion five hundred and forty million fifteen thousand dollars, but then you have to subtract the money that the state is already receiving from the national government per year; which in Wisconsin it is forty-five million for the year of 2002. So the final estimated cost to run the School Voucher Program would be six billion two hundred and ninety million fifteen thousand dollars. Funding the School Voucher Program should be relatively easy though. Wherever a child decides to go to school the money that the child is suppose to get to go to the school in his or her district should follow him or her, even to a private school. However, if the private school is going to exceed the price of the public school then the extra money should be paid from the money given to the state through the School Voucher Program. The excess money that the state needs to pay for the private schools that parents usually have to pay for will come from a two-cent tax put on every package of cigarettes. The School Voucher Program will also go around to major corporations in the United States asking for donations to their program. Corporations would be inclined to donate knowing that their future workers would be more educated. Section IV. Responsibility. The responsibility of this program will rest in the hands on the School Voucher Program. If the cost of this operation is not being met then the cigarette tax will keep increasing until it is met. If in the future people stop smoking cigarettes then there will be a tax activated on alcohol. Section V. Future Benefits. There are many future benefits of the School Voucher Program. One good representation of how the program would help parents is that they would be more satisfied, because they get to pick their child schools and if the one they pick is failing in some way, then they could pick another, and they can not complain this way. The low-class schools or the ones that the children withdraw from the most would be inclined to try to make their schools a better learning institution, therefore being more competitive to become better and to get back their students. This example would help improve schools everywhere, because no school would want to be left behind. Also, the parents would receive value for the education dollars spent by their communities. No racial, religious, geographic, or intelligence excuses would be of relevance. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Essay on Henry Moore

Essay on Henry Moore

Many art works that are written about are subject that are not immediately understood. Abstract are should not be easily or immediately understood by the viewer once it is seen. The viewer should spend some time, thought and conversation should erupt from the work. Since the work is from sensitivity it has a creative process.

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Moore prefers his models to be small in size because he likes to be able to hold it in his hands. This gives him the ability to twist and turn the piece that he is working on. Also, this gives him different views for alterations, since it is an evolving project. It was noted that size of the project is not the idea; it should be the scale that is expressed. Many different types of carvings can be produced through stone, wood, clay and plastilina. Stone takes more physical effort compared to wood or clay/plastilina, which I realized in our class sessions with both materials.

The video took us to West Berlin to visit bronze sculptor(s) who assisted Moore on a project. This sculptor(s) explain how a high finish is created with files, which we will be doing with our stone. Large bronze casts are molds of separate pieces, which will later be welded together. This large piece will mimic a smaller version created by the artist.

Sculptures always look different from many angles. These works are seen " in the round", which gives them various looks in the light, rain and shades. This will be present in our stonework as it is looked from many different angles. In conclusion, Moore discusses many things that we observe in class such as balance, form, shape, texture, scale, space and mass.

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Tuesday, December 20, 2011

Essay on Journey

Essay on Journey

It was a ominous and unpredictable night. A lone traveler was walking down a forgotten road in a lost town that didnt want to be found. The traveler was there looking for something, but exactly what he was looking for was unknown even to him. The only thing guiding the traveler was an undeniable feeling of remorse that wracked his body with such pain that not even the devil himself could endure. The only sanity he had left was instilled by flashbacks of a loved one whose face he could not picture.

After a tiresome walk he finally reached the outskirts of a grim town where he began to slowly realize that he was trapped inside of an enigma he couldn't grasp with any level of logical thought. Just before reaching the paved roads of the confuzing town he looked to see if he was in a presentable manner, snickering under his breath while seeing that he was wearing his favorite shirt,which had an unfamiliar dampness which didnt seem to dry no matter how much sun he had walked under.

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Embarrassed by the dampness and fearing a stain, he walked in to the towns seemstress's shop where the clerk was in a dispute with a customer. Not wanting to interject himself into the verbal altercation , the traveler, waited quietly for his first chance to inquire about the shirt. Surmising the arguements end, The traveler abruptly asked for a new, white, lay-down collar shirt in silk, but is ignored. The traveler asks again but still the clerk shows no intrest in him. Bitter from the way he is being treated, the traveler, in a louder and firmer tone, asks one more time. Again he is completly ignored, not even looked at.

The furious traveler hastely removes himself from the rude establishment. Making rapid strides to exit this unrespectable town, the traveler notices all exits are blocked. . .except one final path . . one last path. The traveler , angry and yearning for answers, walks in disbelief to the worn-in beginning of the perilous trail, where a solitary boy is standing.

Walking weariously up to the turned around boy, the traveler stops . . . . no more . . . .no less . . .than one foot away. The boy at this moment feels the presence of death and turns to face the traveler. Now,with eyes still damp from heart filled tears, the boy stares at the man in front of him and mutters a single word "Father".

The traveler, stunned from what the boy has said, quickly contemplates that the boy is indeed true to his words. The travelers flash backs now have a face. Understanding that the boy truly is his son, the traveler reaches in his pocket for a tissue to wipe his son's tears away. The traveler gasps in shock as his pocket is damp and his hand is covered in blood. At that moment the boy reaches for his fathers hand and says "I'm ok daddy. . . it only hurt a little." The traveler screams "Whats going on, Where are we?" The final words from the boys mouth are "It's ok daddy, we are home now . . . . . In Hell."

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Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Essay on Originality

Essay on Originality

The site demands that I submit an article/essay of my own in order to be able to access data already available on it. This is the primary reason for me to come up with this piece.

I had no intentions of creating an essay but did so since I wnated to research some topics for my MBA assignments and those were available on this site, but with the catch.

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An aditional reason is, since I am not allowed to masquerade some one else's work as my own, I decided to create an essay on the spot in order to fulfill the requirement on this site and get the data I required!

The topic I was looking for and found on this site is about the greening of management. There was a document with version 1.0 available on this site and I wanted to have a look at the complete paper. What I was given to understand is I shall not be able to access that article unless I submitted one of my own!!

This is not what I had expected and had to come up with this piece as i was tryin to register for FREE! I still have not managed to complete the 250 word limit. This means I need to spend some more time figuring out a way to access the article available for free!

I have written an essay with no real relevance to the issue in hand.I would appreciate if you folks could ease out the burden that is imposed on a prospective learner in order to access your site.

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Sunday, December 11, 2011

Essay on My Fair Lady

Essay on "My Fair Lady"

The movie "My Fair Lady" satisfies the four elements that define fine arts. These elements include music, dance art and drama. Although the movie is set in a different time period, it still manages to successfully convey the important facets of fine arts.

The movie "My Fair Lady" is a 1960's musical, originally adapted from a play, Pygmalion. There are several different types of music included in the film. For example, one of the romantic songs is "I Could Have Danced All Night", which is sung by Eliza Doolittle. While there are quite a few romantic songs, the movie also includes witty songs, such as "I'm Just an Ordinary Man". Overall, the music in the film was excellent and made it enjoyable for the viewer.

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The movie also presents very strong dramatic tendencies. The actors do an excellent job in bringing the original Broadway play to life. Audrey Hepburn, for example, does an excellent job playing the young, illiterate flower girl Eliza Doolittle. In addition, Rex Harrison does and amazing job playing the professor of phonetics, Henry Higgins. Everything from the plot, to the costumes, to the background music, adds to the drama of the film.

The movie also demonstrates art through several sets, costumes and lighting. Art is very easily recognizable and plays an important role in the movie. For Example, the interior of Higgins's house, such as the library with its sliding ladder, represents a popular style of architecture for the time. Also, the difference in Eliza's outfits beginning from when she was a poor flower girl, to when she became a duchess, demonstrates the different levels of style in society.

There are a few dance numbers involved in the movie "My fair Lady". Many of these are performed individually, rather than involving the entire cast. Dance is used in the movie to show the growth of relationship between Eliza and Higgins. Dance is also used as part of Eliza's education, when she must learn how to dance like a duchess.

From art to music, the movie "My Fair Lady" is a very good example of all the different aspects of fine arts. Though considered a musical film, "My fair Lady" also contains classic musical ideas, as well as important ideas about art in general. Due to its adaptation from a play, "My Fair Lady" contains excellent examples of drama, dance and music. Art is also represented very well due to the costumes and sets of this time period.

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Kazimir Malevich Essay

Kazimir Malevich Essay

The corporate world is an ongoing fight towards individual rights and ideas working within the framework of a successful operation. Business is a well-oiled machine, but over the years people have realized that the individual parts have feelings. How do you accommodate these feelings while maintaining the machine as a whole? Therein is the fight and the progression. This fight for rights does not take place only in the working environment. Nor does it take place only in the home. Art is no different than the rest of the world. Kazimir Malevich believed that art was for the artist, not for the viewer.

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Kazimir was born in Kiev in 1878. He attended many schools for painting and drawing in his early years. He began painting in the Impressionist style before experimenting with Fauvism. Years later he became a master in the Russian art circle of cubofuturism. It was then when he introduced his theory called suprematism. His idea was non-objective art. "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder," not "beauty is beauty." Art went from landscapes and portraits to ambiguous shapes and avant-garde colors. No longer did the viewer determine what was beautiful and what was to be painted. The decision now rested firmly on the shoulders of the artist.

Saying that art imitates life in this situation would be incorrect. Life later imitates art. If artists feel that they are not free in their line of work then what hope is there for the factory worker? Art is freedom to express and explore. But that was not happening. The artists felt trapped. Artists united fore they had nothing to lose but their easels. A new movement took place. A new style of art was formed: Non-objective. It was true freedom at last. An apple doesn't necessarily have to look like and apple. People don't necessarily have to look like people. Art was finally free.

With art now free, it would not be long until others wanted the freedom as well. These paintings inspired. They evoked a feeling of freedom and meaning. No one could say concretely what was beautiful. No longer was there a right or a wrong. Later in the world this longing for freedom and meaning would manifest in life itself. The world was soon to become a freer place for the workingman.

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Tuesday, December 6, 2011

William Harnett Essay

William Harnett Essay

This is a painting done by William Harnett. The name of this portrait is called "A Smoke Backstage." This is an trompe l'oeil painting. The painting is made to look real. It's french for "fool the eye." Paintings like this impress me because they look real. It's dimensions are 7"*8.5". Some of the elements I'll be talking about are line, shape, texture, color, emphasis, and movement. These aspects are covered in chapter four and five.

The first element of art I will be telling about is line. In this painting, line is being used in a variety of ways. The line of the table, is setting the boundary for this picture. The package and newspaper help define the three-dimensional view. The part that you inhale through the pipe helps set the line and completes the pipe and definition.

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Shape is also a very important element used in this painting. By looking at the painting, I could see the shape at the base of the pipe. From the colors and textures apart from the base of the table. The pipe has more of a geometric shape. The tobacco package in the middle of the table is using up mass in the painting.

I think there is a variety of texture being used. First, the actual textures in the painting is the table, newspaper, and the long end of the pipe. There smooth and we could feel them by touching. The simulated textures in the painting would be the opened end of the tobacco package, the tobacco at the end of the pipe, and the pipe in general. It looks real, but if we would touch it, it would feel like smooth paint.

By looking at this picture, I found that it had a lot of linear perspective and atmospherical perspective. This painting has a foreground, middle ground, and a background. The newspaper appears closer in the foreground and they tend to decrease in size and vanish off into the background. There is a lot of wide variety of color and detail in the foreground of this painting which is also known as atmospherical perspective. Because the changing of color, value, and detail gives it an illusion of depth.

By observing and studying this picture, I also found that a variety of colors are being used throughout the painting. Color is mostly being used in the middle of the painting. The colors are light blue, cream, yellow, brown, and dark brown. The light blue is a nice contrast compared to all the dark colors.

There is also a lot of emphasis and subordination that is being used throughout this painting. The figure that drew my attention to this picture was the pipe leaning up against the tobacco box. This is a form called focal point. I think the newspaper was a subordination. It helped create a neutral area of lesser interest that kept me from being distracted from areas of less emphasis.

Movement is also another key aspect in this painting. Movement is occurring from the bottom of the painting to the top. The pipe extending from the bottom left to all the way back to the top right. Directional force is causing me to look from the bottom of the picture to the top.

By looking at this painting, I have come to the conclusion that this is a form of representational art. Most of William Harnett's paintings are personally expressive. I don't know what the meaning of this painting means, but I'm guessing it's representing a place to relax.

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Monday, December 5, 2011

James K Baxter Essay

James K Baxter Essay

James K Baxter was one of New Zealand most accomplished poetry writers. Baxter has tended to show his life emotions through his writing. Baxter's life has changed dramatically. And with this his poetry content has changed dramatically. Many things have helped to change his life including, His parents, Pacifism, Schooling, University, Alcohol, Religion, Work environments, Marriage, United Nations Commitments, Operating a Auckland Safe House and Having a number of occupations. James K Baxter describes his poems as "part of a large subconscious corpus of personal myth, like an island above the sea, but joined underwater to other islands".

James K Baxter was born in Otago to a farming family. His parent's labour voting influenced Baxter a lot as well as his parents contrasting backgrounds. Also his father being a pacifist made Baxter teenage years solitary. During 1942 and 1946 he drafted up to 600 poems. This helped his poetry mind to develop and grow and helped him to release feelings that he had never been able to, about life in general.

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James K Baxter always had strong views about the world, which has come out in his poetry. His views on systematic schooling were showed when on the first day of school he burnt his hand. He was a very unmotivated student who focused his time on reading poetry. He read a lot of poetry from Aude, Spencer, Macniece and Day Lewis , which inspired Baxter to write poetry on the problems with society. By his late teens he was developing a very strong inner voice to the views of the world and of New Zealand. In 1944 he started what Baxter called "a long and unsuccessful with the higher learning" at the time when he started with Otago University. With the start of University, alcoholism started to become a problem as well. In 1944 Baxter won the Macmillan Brown literary prize, and also published his first collection "Behind the Pallisade".

After Baxter left university in 1945, he started to work in farms and factories. This period of time was reflected in a novel called Horse. He also had his very first love affair at which failed because of his battle with alcohol. He became a more of a alcoholic after the break. His ex-girlfriend still had a lasting affect on Baxter as he wrote three poems about her. "Songs of the desert", "Cressida", "Words to lay a strong ghost." Also in this period he met another girl called Jacqueline Sturm.

In 1947 he went back to university in Christchurch. In Christchurch he saw a Jungian Psychologists, he started to put this into his poetry. Also in Christchurch, his battle with the bottle all as Baxter described it "irrigating river of alcohol" made him only occasionally attend lectures. In this time he also started associating with poets and Glover and he also he kept reading a lot. He had great interest in the Anglican religion. And he got married to Jacqueline Sturm in Napier at the St Johns Cathedral Napier in 1948, despite Baxter parents not agreeing to the wedding.

Over the next few years Baxter attended Teachers college and became assistant master at Lower Hutt's Epuni School. Just one of many occupations that he will have done. Also he attended Alcoholics Anonymous. To also help his problems with alcohol he visited and helped people in prisons. This continued till the day he died. In 1956 he left Epuni School, to go to work for school publications. This is when he provided numerous attacks on the bureaucracy..

In 1957 Baxter converted from Anglican to Roman Catholic. From this move Jacqueline Sturm and Baxter got divorced. In 1958 he was accepted into the Roman Catholic Church.

In 1958 Baxter travelled to Japan and India for an educational study. During this time overseas Jacqueline Sturm came over and reconciled with Baxter. Baxter was also shocked at the amount of poverty around India. This influenced his poetry, as his next collection was known as the "Asian collection". It was about the situations in less developed countries other than New Zealand like China and India.

His move back to New Zealand was a not a pleasant one as he had dysentery. This changed Baxter mind about New Zealand society. He started writing about this criticism in poetry and plays. Most of the criticism that he wrote about was about the amount of guilt, and the lack of love in relationships of New Zealand Families. Through the popularity of his play, "The Wide Open Cage" he kept writing about these thoughts through the next two or three years.

In 1963 he became a postman, another of his many professions that he has been through his life. Again he wrote a wee bit more of a light-hearted poem. But he wrote about what he still strongly believed in, about his times being a postman and how the posties refused to deliver heavy soap powder samples. Later that year he started writing in protest to the Vietnam War. He used the same themes as his father did when he refused to go to the First World War. He also used his teenager voice, to show how he felt as a teenager about the war. In 1966 he wrote one of his major collections. "Pig Island Letters".

As he travelled back to Otago, he became an active member in the Otago University, with helping with protests for the Vietnam War. During this time he also started to relive family memories, and started to write about them.

In 1968 he went to a marae and found a revelation. He found a group of Pakeha and Maori people who tries to live with out money and books, and live off the land and also worships god. This changed his beliefs a lot. Later that year Baxter left Wellington and travelled to Auckland where he had a job at the Chelsea Sugar refinery. He failed to keep it for too long. Then from there he set up a Drug Addicts centre. Baxter also was now known as Hemi, a Maori translation of James. The drug Addicts centre was set up like Alcoholics Anonymous. He also went round with bare feet, and scraggy clothes, and so got the attention of the media and the police.

At the start of the year 1969, Baxter went to Jerusalem. From there he wanted a Maori communal style of living, to make up for the loss of values by the New Zealand Pakeha.

After that he returned to Wellington, from there he was drained emotionally and physically. He died on the 22nd of October of a coronary thrombosis. He recorded his last collection of poems in 1972.

This essay has shown that James K Baxter had a lot of things that influenced his life, and as they influenced his life, they would normally influence his poetry, which is still regarded as some of New Zealand's greatest pieces of literature.

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Sunday, December 4, 2011

Maria Kozic Essay

Maria Kozic Essay

Maria Kozic's "Brady Bunch" is an appropriation of the intro to a famous 70's television show which focused on the trials and tribulations of a middle-class American family. Maria Kozic was born in 1957, lives and works in Melbourne, Australia.

The artwork has been painted with acrylic paints onto silkscreen and has then been attached to triangular prisms of wood. This then means that when you look at it from opposite angles it shows two different images. This idea has been used to represent the flickering of a TV screen as well as showing that there's more to television than just what you see on the screen.

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The piece was created in 1985 in Melbourne, Australia, where Maria does the vast majority of her work.

The purpose of this artwork was o show that there is more to television than just the faces that you see on the screen. beneath each of the happy smiley faces on the selected theme "The Brady Bunch", there was much much more than the happy life that is depicted on TV. Underneath each of those faces was a whole lot of secrets that had been hidden from the general publics eye to avoid unwanted publicity. Each of those actors actually have a personal life that they didn't want to share. This is the idea that Maria Kozics chose to depict.

Each of Marias works show that there is a deeper meaning to somthing than just what you see on the page, screen, etc. She uses hey talent to explore that other side of things like many other artists do aswell. This, in a nutshell is what art is all about and is what makes Maria Kosic such a successful artist especially in the field of appropriation.

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Tuesday, November 29, 2011

19th Century Industrialization Essay

19th Century Industrialization Essay

The end of the nineteenth century brought about a huge change in the way the United States worked as a nation, making the United States the worlds most productive nation. The nation as a whole was advancing rapidly and new inventions were bringing about new ways of life. There was a rise in big businesses and financial corporations which were looking to expand as much as possible.

Technology was advancing rapidly and new inventions were being used to further our expansion. Thomas Edison, after inventing the phonograph, through long work was able to invent a light bulb that would last for a long time thus changing the world so that now large buildings and Wall Street could now be lighted up with electric. J. P. Morgan was one of the earliest to use this invention buy lighting up his house and bank with the new technology. By 1888 Edison formed the Edison General Electric Company.

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Another breakthrough invention was the electric streetcars. Replacing the slow moving horse-drawn wagons, the streetcars were quickly moving citizens to destinations and ran off of electric wires that hung above. By 1900 there were about 15,000 miles of electric streetcar lines in American cities. The electric streetcars were helping the working man, who had to travel long distances, to better getting to work on time. It was connecting cities and bringing in new residents looking for homes.

The invention of motion pictures was helped by the invention of the electric light and photography. This new form of entertainment astonished people as they were able to watch a story be told on a screen in front of them although it was silent. Another form of entertainment that caught a lot of attention was baseball. Although played in the 1840's it wasn't until the civil war when it began to pick up more interest. Teams of soldiers spread the interest of the game which lead to the formation of more teams. In 1869 the first team to pay was formed and soon after the National League of Professional Baseball Clubs was formed.

By the end of the nineteenth century railroads covered half of the United States, transporting goods and materials wherever needed, helping with further production and bigger businesses ready to industrialize. Steel was a major business for this and Andrew Carnegie saw this and helped produce the worlds steel. Steel was needed for just about all new structures and especially the rail roads.

Businesses flourished and men became rich. With the times changing with new inventions and people looking for work, businesses were able to expand and rise to the top of their industry. Carnegie bought up all the iron mines and took on coal as a partner for his industry to lead in the steel industry. He was able to produce steel so cheaply and lower his prices that any other steel company was forced into letting him buy them out, thus monopolizing the industry. This was called vertical integration.

Another form of making a monopoly was horizontal integration. This was done by controlling not all the stages in the business, but the business itself. The railroads would expand and make money only because all the other companies were doing the same thing as them, moving freight and passengers from place to place.

Laissez-faire and Social Darwinism and impacts in industrialization that would change the way people paid their employees and they was people would work as a social community. The main idea of Laissez-faire was that in order to get the greatest and cheapest productivity possible, you must leave the individual employer and the worker to the free market. By this they meant that there would be no interaction with the government or unions for that would decrease the productivity. By following the concept of Laissez-faire, the factory owners would not pay their workers enough to even cover their basic needs.

Social Darwinism, the concept of survival of the fittest and not letting anything interfere with man, followed the concept of Laissez-faire very closely. It supported that an individual should be free to manage their own property and their own contracts that they chose without any government interference. Any interference on behalf of that or between labor and management would violate the employer's property rights and the right of employer and self contract.

In giant corporations all the concepts of Social Darwinism and Laissez-faire were nonsense. There was no equality in the bargaining of positions whether it was for a coal miner or of Baer's coal company over terms of employment. There were no free individual contracts for the employee and the only contract they had was to do that of the employer or face hunger.

In this industrial age the workers were thriving to find a job. The typical American though couldn't compete with the low wages that immigrants were willing to work for and this forced many Americans onto the streets only to leave their job for a new immigrant to the country. For the people that were willing to work for the low wages and the intense hours, there were jobs willing to pay the men, women, and children that would stand the smoke filled rooms, or digging in the coal mines for the long hour days of no rest. Many workers died or got ill from diseases. Tuberculosis was a product of crowding, overwork, and poor nutrition of thousands that worked.

The Supreme Court held a big role in industrialization, creating new laws and denying businesses of unconstitutional acts. Court cases were held for labor laws and financial issues that individuals and companies faced. In 1973 the Supreme Court ruled that a monopoly was invalid. With the monopolies the company could charge substantial rates to their customers. This would affect the well being of the public and it was up to the legislature to protect the public interest. States were taking the power of their government to regulate business. The Supreme Court ruled that this was unconstitutional that a state use a power only granted to Congress. The court would also prevent the state from acting in matters such as child labor.

The Supreme Court passed the Interstate Commerce Act after railroads were charging higher rates to others for the transportation of the same goods. The Act stated that the same rate must be applied equally through shipping of goods and that all rates should be reasonable. There would be an investigation of each rail-road to find if the rates were in fact of reasonable price.

Labor was affected due to industrialization. Labor Union had tried to form for many years after the Civil War. Once a successful union was formed they turned to getting an eight-hour day. In 1872 the group supported the labor party, but with the panic of 1873 the union collapsed, along with many other unions. Violence broke out between workers and employers. Workers wanted less hours and better rates. Many formed strikes until something was done. The Homestead Steel Strike was one of the most successful strikes formed. The workers new that everyone would follow and that without them the steel factory could not continue. They were confident before hand on what would happen in response to their strike.

As a response to the Industrial Age, the United States changed and adapted in many ways. Unions were formed, inventions were used to progress, businesses flourished and workers achieved some of what they wanted. The States were advancing and leading the world as the most productive nation, making the Industrial Age one of the biggest impacts in American history.

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Monday, November 28, 2011

Terra Nullius Essay

Terra Nullius Essay

For at least 40,000 years Aborigines have lived in and called Australia home. However the lives of Indigenous Australians changed in 1770 when European white men, unfairly took possession of the land (Simpson,1997). They wrongly declared the country "terra nullius", land owned by no one, and dramatically decreased the population of the aborigines dues to their invasion. Only in the past decade has Australian law recognised that prior to 1770 Indigenous people did live on the land, and in knowing this, the High Court of Australia rejected "terra nullius" from our law. This overturn however, did not and still does not address the fact that Europeans took land from Aborigines with no consent or agreement.

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European, Captain James Cook, arrived in Botany Bay, on the south-eastern coast of Australia in 1770. He claimed possession of the east coast of country for Britain under the doctrine of "terra nullius" (racismnoway.com.au). This doctrine was part of international law, which stated that Britain could take possession of another country if it was uninhabited, if the indigenous people gave them permission, or if they defeated that country in war. However Britain did not follow these rules in Australia, and acted as though the country was uninhabited. The land was declared "terra nullius" and free for appropriation. It has been debated that this occurred because Australia was the only country in the world where Indigenous people were not recognised, therefore no consent was needed. However the British Government may have purposely not acted in accordance with the international law of the time. Either way Australian land was declared empty as if the Aborigines did not exist. Those of different culture, language and lifestyle unfairly claimed their home.

Prior to Australia being taken over by Europeans, Aborigines lived unique and different lives to the rest of the world. They lived in hundreds of different tribes all over the country, and each spoke separate languages. Simple devices like spears and fishnets were highly effective ways of securing food for living. Aborigines also had a very deep connection with their land. Every rock and mountain had a name, and everything from a tree, to animal, to rainbow had a story and meaning (Luling,1979). The arrival of white people not only stole land, but also took away the Aborigines special way of life and culture. Britain made towns and cities, forced Indigenous people to work for them and enforced a totally different way of life. They brought about deadly diseases like smallpox and ultimately reduced the aboriginal population down to the 1.5% of the total population that it is today. Unjustifiably the culture and lifestyle of Indigenous Australians was demolished to the tiny amount that still exists today, but after over 200 years since invasion Australian law has begun to recognise what unfairly occurred in the 18th century.

For hundreds of yeas the rights of Aboriginal people were not recognised, but with the mid 20th century came the acknowledgement of the civil and legal rights of this small proportion of the population. In 1967 the first step toward recognition came when Aborigines were given voting rights. However it was in 1992 with the Mabo and Others v the State of Queensland, that Australia removed the principle of terra nullius for the law, and acknowledged that Aboriginal existence in Australia pre-dates that of Europeans (Farrer, 1999) This case involved Indigenous Australians appealing to the High Court of Australia in an effort to claim land that was rightfully theirs. Along with the outcome removing terra nullius, the Native Title Act 1993 (Cwlth) was implemented into Australian law. This act identifies the common law rights of Indigenous people in regard to land and their ability to negotiate matters involving sacred ground (Farrer, 1999). Nevertheless the Australian government still has not signed anything to formally admit that Australia was not terra nullius and that Europeans broke the law when invading the country. Today and for years to come, Aborigines will be fighting for the written recognition of their pre-1770 existence. The elimination of terra nullius in 1992 has made a stepping-stone for others to one day take action and for the government to one day sign a longed for treaty.

In 1770 Europeans invaded Australia, a country already inhabited with Aborigines. The British government defied international laws of the time, declared the land terra nullius, and took over the country. The lives of Aborigines were changed forever and only in the last century has Australian law begun to acknowledge that Australia was not terra nullius because Indigenous Australians have lived here for many more years than Europeans. Although terra nullius has not been removed from our law, the Australian government is yet to formally endorsed that Europeans took land from Aborigines with no consent or agreement.

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Saturday, November 26, 2011

Women's Suffrage Essay

Women's Suffrage Essay

The fight for women's suffrage, or voting, went on for about seventy years. The fight first officially started in 1848 with the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York. This was the start of a long, complicated battle.

The woman's rights issue was actually first motivated by another cause, anti-slavery. There were meetings that women weren't allowed to vote in. At the World's Anti-slavery Convention, women weren't allowed in. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, later suffrage leaders, were two of the women who were excluded admittance.

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It was 1848, and Stanton and Mott were starting their journey on the road to suffrage with the first women's rights convention. The women at the convention made up a list of complaints to show that for years men have been dominant over women. This became the first public protest for women's rights in America, "The Declaration of Sentiments."

Many people opposed to the idea of women's rights. Men, of course, being the majority of it. They thought that women weren't as smart. They thought they could represent women better than women themselves. There were also women who thought that women in politics would be the end of family life.

In May 1869, two women's suffrage organizations formed. The first was the National omen's Suffrage Organization formed by Stanton and Anthony. This group was the more radical of the two, their goal being to have an amendment ratified for women's suffrage. The other was the American Women's Suffrage Organization, the conservative one. Their goal was to get individual states to grant women the right to vote. Later, in 1890, the two joined together to make the National American Women's Suffrage Organization.

For over fifty years, these women were determined to win voting rights. So determined in fact, that in 1872, Susan B. Anthony and 50 other women went to register to vote in the presidential election. They were refused at first, but demanded to be able to register. Fifteen women along with the inspectors who allowed them to register were arrested and tried with a $500 bail.

The unwavering determination of these women was starting to wear down the all-male government. First came Wyoming in 1869. The next was Utah in 1870 and then Colorado in 1893. The boundaries of women were expanding. By 1919, 37 states gave women full or partial suffrage. In 1918, the suffrage amendment, which was proposed in 1878 but left unchanged, was defeated and then a year later. But in 1920, the women's suffrage amendment was finally ratified.

After a very long battle, the women's struggle paid off. Their long-awaited goal was granted. This was official with the nineteenth amendment. After suffrage was granted, women continued working on women's rights.

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Western Expansion Essay

Western Expansion Essay

In the early years of the American government, expansion of the United States was a very big issue. Our countries leaders believed in Manifest Destiny, or the right to rule from the tip of the east to the western shores. There were many different people who supported this idea for many different reasons. These groups of people included economists, militants, intellectuals, journalists, as well as religious leaders and missionaries.

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Economists pushed for the expansion of American soil. With more land came more worth. There would be more room for settlers and immigrants to build homes on. New towns would develop, and along with that came businesses. The more business, the more money, the more power and economic stability. One supporter from this point of view was Thomas Hart Benton. Benton preferred gaining territory through occupation rather than conflict. His ideas were used to create the Homestead Act of 1862, granting free land to settlers so long as they stayed on it for five years. He also encouraged the creation of overland transportation making travel to the west shorter and easier. Benton was chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs as well, and strived towards the removal of Native Americans to make room for the white settlers. He might not have had the most honest intentions, but he was driven to expand. His Son-in-Law followed in his footsteps and is well known for his conquests in California over the Spanish. With enough land and citizens, the U.S. could become a very stable and powerful nation.

While journalists wrote of gold and free land, and the militia fought with the Native Americans all over the continent, religious leaders and missionaries began to act as well. Missionaries spread out far and wide, trying to save the "savage" Native Americans from hell. They decided that the Native American way was wrong, and that they had to save these people from themselves. Many socially rejected religious leaders on the other hand saw the expansion as freedom from persecution. One such man, Brigham Young, was waiting for just such an opportunity. Young was the leader of the Mormon church. At this time the Mormons were feared because of their un-Christian ways. Young determined to lead his followers far west, where church members could gather without interruption. Other religions wished to follow in the same footsteps. New land meant freedom from the violence and negative attitude of others, and they could actually build communities based on their religions.

Later came a very important advocate for more expansion, President Theodore Roosevelt. He wanted to further expand the U.S., thus forth furthering the United States trade and power. Roosevelt wanted the U.S. was to be strong. He felt that through more expansion, the U.S. could become an even bigger and richer world power. As the president, he had very much success in doing so.

There were many reasons for expansion into the west, and everybody had their own. Religion, military, and economy were just a few. Although a lot of the methods used to expand were not quite honorable, they worked. And, U.S. citizens got what they wanted. Because of the expansion into the west, we have one of the strongest military powers in the world, along with a very strong economy, and open religious worship everywhere in the country. Those who dreamt of expansion, and those who made it happen helped this country succeed.

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Friday, November 25, 2011

Ancient Mesopotamia Essay

Mesopotamia Essay

The world is in turmoil over the war, but there has been one country affected drastically; and that is the center of it all: Iraq. Iraq's people have been affected directly by the war with bombings and troops marching all over, but they have also suffered indirectly. The destruction of the Iraqi cultural heritage has been a major issue.

Scholars claim that conflict will "result in devastating and irrecoverable losses to human civilization and to participate in or allow such destruction may inflame resentment and anger throughout the world" (EducationGuardian.co.uk).

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Ancient Mesopotamia is indeed ancient, reaching back more that 500 years, and scholars agree that this heritage is as important to the people as their economic survival. They also agree on several recommendations they wish to forward to the United Nations. They ask that the United Nations not to target such things as archaeological sites, museums, libraries and other institutions where the ancient heritage is housed.

In the 1920's, a famous British archaeologist by the name of Leonard Woolley discovered Sumerian royal tombs in Ur, Mesopotamia that dated back over 4500 years. It was obvious that these tombs housed royalty because they were surrounded with extravagant gold and jewelry. They also found numerous other items such as weapons and musical instruments, gaming pieces and sculptures. All of these luxury items are on display to form a unique exhibition. This exhibition prides one of the earliest and richest collections.

As the downward spiral of ancient cultural heritage is a devastation of the war, so is looting. The public went up in a fury, and rampages were on the agenda. They tore down buildings, set places on fire and took what did not belong to them. An institution that suffered the consequences of the terror was the Iraq National Museum: It was tore apart. In the aftermath, the museum was filled with broken artifacts, and if they were not broken, they were missing.

What is said to be the museum's most famous artifacts, were the tablets with Hammurabi's Code one of mankind's earliest codes of law. Another important treasure was the Ram in the Thicket - statue representing deity from 2600BCE.

The thoughts of many is that their ancient history is gone forever; thousands of years obliterated in an angry rage. Does it seem worth it now? A museum employee states, "It is all the fault of the Americans. This is Iraqi civilization. And it is all gone now."

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Yugoslav Holocaust Essay

Yugoslav Holocaust Essay

In what can be considered a modern day Holocaust, between 1992 and 1995, an unthinkable atrocity against man reared its ugly head yet again in Europe; only this time the setting was Bosnia. What is clear is that all three nationalities behavior (Croats, Bosnian-Serbs and Muslims) undermined any claim to moral superiority. Slovodan Milosevic, president of Yugoslavia, tired to deny any wrongdoing, but after numerous stories of the misconduct began to surface; it was only a matter of time before the international community took notice. The revelation came at a bad time for Milosevic who was trying to ease sanctions against Serbia and end the fighting in Bosnia.

The multi-ethnicity that Bosnia consists of is the aftermath of centuries of wars, invasions, and migrations from different groups. Yugoslavia, which means land of the South Slavs, (Friedman 5) was born in 1929 after World War I. After the death of the leader of Yugoslavia, Josip Broz Tito, in 1980 and later with the fall of the Soviet Union and communism, the country started to split apart little by little. Finally, in 1991 Yugoslavia broke into five republics: Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, and Serbia and Montenegro, which merged to create the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Before the war in Bosnia erupted, survivors recall how under Communist rule the multi-ethnic community was able to coexist peacefully.

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Our neighbors - we were like a family. Our flats were like one home. They had two kids. We lived together. We vacationed together. Spent holidays together. Over night, they changed. (Weine 15)

During the early stages of the war in Bosnia, Croats fell victims of ethnic cleansing by both the Serbians and Muslims. In 1993, during the Croat-Muslim war, forty-two Croatian villagers perished in the village of Doljani. Hundreds more were forced out of their homes and fled to cities and towns in central Bosnia. According to Croatian sources, local Serbian forces engaged in ethic cleansing against Croats. In late 1992, Serbs took over Posavina and began to ethnically cleanse Croatian villages.

Deliberate efforts were made to embed fear into the local Serbian community, who initially were not interested in joining the war against Muslims. Serbian leaders would recount a fabricated story of a Serbian farmer's wife being murdered by Muslims. This ploy was one of the tactics used to recruit local Serbs. At the end of the fighting only several thousand Muslims and Croats remained in territories under Serbian control. Most women and children were not incarcerated, but they were at the mercy of their tormentors. Men and boys were not as fortunate; many were killed upon capture or later during incarceration. It was like World War II, but now instead of Jews, Muslims leaders, teachers, and professionals were weeded out and executed by the Serbian forces.

Ethic cleansing achieved two objectives: it created irreversible facts on the ground, and incorporated the locals in the cover-up of the atrocities. Ethic cleansing, by definition, is killing off an ethnic community or causing it to flee its traditional place of residence for the purpose of creating an ethnically homogeneous population as a basis for claiming political control over the territory. More than 700,000 Muslims were uprooted from their homes throughout the Balkan region during the war.

The Serbian concentration camps can be closely identified with the Nazi concentration camps, even though they were not as organized as the Nazi camps. In World War II, the Nazis camps were highly systematized death factories with the end solution being the extermination of all Jews. This does not mean that the mass killings and rapes that did take place in the Serbian camps were less traumatic than during the Holocaust. This is just an attempt to clarify that the Serbian camps were not as systematic as their Nazi counterparts. The Serbian camps were sloppily set up in public places such as sports stadiums, schools, farms, mines, and warehouses. Most locations were not prepared to handle sewage, water, or food. The fact that these sites were not designed for such uses it had dire consequences for the detainees. (Weine 50)

Because the camps consisted of people from the same regions, many of the detainees knew each other as well as some of the camp guards and soldiers. These acquaintances had both advantages and disadvantages. On the upside, some guards or soldiers granted some detainees special favors. Also, the guards and soldiers informed the detainees about their families status. In most cases the information provided to the detainees was false. The disadvantages of such acquaintances were lethal. One survivor recalled the worst thing that could happen to someone in the camp.

When a new contingent of Serbian troops arrived every fifteen days to relieve the older guards. An acquaintance from one's hometown might be among the newcomers. That acquaintance would murder you because he didn't want a living witness to remain. The survivor grew a beard so as not to be recognized. (Weine 51)

When foreign journalists, human rights observers, or health care workers visited the camps the detainees were not allowed to tell them stories of the atrocities that were taking place there. Those who did speak out had their names written down and were later executed. One survivor recalls such an incident after the Red Cross visited one of the camps.

They took out ten men and had them lie on the ground, and then they stood on some blocks about a meter and a half high and jumped off and landed on their chests. They broke their chests and killed the men that way. That was the hardest for me, seeing their ribs broken, sticking out through their skin, seeing them rolled over, no skin on their back, just black. (Weine 52)

The fate of the detainees survival also depended a great deal on chance and impulse. In one camp the commandant believed that it was "unethical" to kill after 9 p.m., so detainees were executed between 8:45-9 p.m. The detainees recall that the guards would think up sadistic ways to torture and kill them. The guards played games reminiscent of a scene from Star Trek in which Captain Kirk and Spock had to fight to the death. The difference is that these were real people. The detainees were dammed if they did and dammed if they didn't, because after hours of beating each other, the soldiers would kill them. Many of the soldiers seemed to torture and kill for sport. One survivor remembers that these soldiers arrived at the camps on weekends only and they would "kill as much as they wanted to." (Weine 53) The detainees referred to these soldiers as "weekend warriors". (Weine 53) Still other soldiers were motivated by greed. The soldiers would force the detainees to sign over all their properties and money to them, and they had to buy bus tickets to Croatia before they were released.

Women also fell victim to Serbian torture and death. Although the precise number of women raped is undetermined, the United Nations Human Rights Commission approximated that number to be 12,000. They were taken to flats or schools that were set up like brothels for Serbian forces. The troops would rape and beat the women before either killing them or sending them back to their families. Serbian soldiers impregnated Muslim women in order to give birth to Serbian children.

In 1992 in Sarajevo, an epic siege ensued, leaving 12,000 people dead, 1,600 of whom were children. The three-year long siege of Sarajevo began with a barrage of shells raining on the capital city from the hilltops. The attackers where form all three factions. The city of Sarajevo is in a river valley surrounded by mountains. Before the war, it had a population of 500,000. It was the most multi ethnic city in the Balkan region. The location of the city gave shape to a unique coexistence of different nationalities and religions. However, during the siege of Sarajevo, residents who attempted to escape the city, without distinction of religion or nationality, were killed by sniper fire. Two young lovers from Sarajevo became targets of sniper fire. Admira Ismic and Bosko Brkic were dubbed Romeo and Juliet because of their age and their different ethnicities. The two lovers, one Muslim and the other Serbian, had lived together for nine years when they decided to flee war torn Sarajevo. As they crossed into Serbian territory Bosko was shot and killed. Admira, wounded, crawled to her boyfriend's side and died. NATO finally launched an air strike against Serbian forces in August 1995 following a fatal bombing in a Sarajevo marketplace. (www.liv-coll.ac.uk 2)

By far the most horrific incident occurred in Srebrenica in the summer of 1995. Srebrenica was supposed to be a "safe haven" for refugees. The people in this town were disarmed and U.N. was to send troops to protect the people. The Dutch government dispatched 110 troops to defend 30,000 mostly Bosnian Muslim refugees from Serb forces. Dutch troops were outnumbered by the Serbian forces, led by the infamous General Ratko Mladic, and the town was taken over without any resistance from the Dutch army. Between July 11, 1995, and July 16, 1995, General Mladic's army killed more than 7,000 Muslim men and threw their bodies in mass graves. The Dutch government, after 7 years, finally admitted in April 2002, that it could have done more to prevent the atrocities that ensued. (Brown 1) Before the war, Srebrenica was one of the most developed towns in Eastern Bosnia. Now only one in 10 members of the workforce has a paid job, and the average monthly salary is no more than $100. (Tmusic 4)

On November 21, 1995, the republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the republic of Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia reached an agreement in Dayton, Ohio.

It is known as the Dayton Peace Accord. It is not only an agreement to cease-fire; it is an agreement to respect one another and to tolerate each other. Bosnia and Herzegovina is now divided into two: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in control of the Muslims and Croats, and the Republika Srpska, which is under Bosnian-Serb rule. Life in Bosnia is very different nowadays from the times of communist rule. The state does not provide like it used to, now Bosnians have to work hard and they cannot expect something in return from their government. For now the international community is helping rebuild the country but that is not going to last forever.

It really is a shame that such a beautiful country with so much history and culture has to go through such nightmare. Like World War II, the Bosnia war should serve as a moral lesson. "Never again" really does mean "Never again." The exact number of Bosnians who perished is unknown at the moment and probably we are never going to have an exact number. The atrocities that befell those people were genocide. One thing is certain: the global community has to remain involved so that it will never happen again.

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Thursday, November 24, 2011

Essay on Wu Chao

Essay on Wu Chao

Wu Chao was born in 624 in China. Where at is unknown. In her early years she was called Wu Zetian. Wu Zetian lived during the medieval period of Chinese history, when people were strongly influenced by Confucian ideology. Women were generally held in low esteem, and there was considerable opposition to their participation in public affairs. In such a political climate, the struggle and unique success of We Zetian must be seen as remarkable. Her gifts were evident at any early age. She was 14 years old when here reputation for beauty reached the Emperor Tai Zong, and she was summoned to live in his palace. Although she began life in the palace as a low ranking concubine, Wu Zetian managed to attract the attention of Emperor Tai Zong, who was 26 years older than her. In admirations of her beauty and cleverness, he gave her the name Wu Mei, meaning charming female. In 646, Tang Zong was in his early 50's when he fell seriously ill. His ninth son and formally appointed heir was Li Zhi who kept close to his father's bedside. It was then that the young prince grew deeply attracted to Wu Zetian.

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In June, Li Zhi succeeded his father to the throne, the third emperor of the Tan Dynast, known historically as Tang Goa Zong. Most of his father's concubines left the palace. Wu Zetian shaved her head and entered a Buddhist temple as a nun. Goa Zong found a woman names Wang to be his empress. Several months later when he visited the temple where Wu Zetian was, their romance resumed. Wu Zetian was now 28 years old. In 651 she entered the palace for the second time. She cleverly cultivated her relationships with the empress as well as other concubines, and shared gifts and favors granted to her by the emperor with others in his service. In return, the servants became her spies, keeping her informed about the empress and other concubines. The empress in the meant time was still childless, and Wu Zetian's influence over the Emperor grew enormously. In China, it was a serious political move to consider replacing an empress. In 654, Wu Zetian gave birth to a daughter, whom the Emperor was said to love very much. One day after the empress has been playing with the baby, Wu Zetian secretly strangled her daughter in the cradle. Once the death was discovered, servants informed the emperor that the empress had been playing with the child, and the death of it became Goa Zong's excuse for making Wu Zetian empress.

In her new role as empress, Wu Zetian soon demonstrated remarkable ability as well as being very ruthless. She initiated transfers of statesmen who opposed her, including the emperors own uncle. She tormented the former empress and is believed to have been responsible for her death. As Goa Zong showed increasing signs of weakness, Wu Zetian found ways of extending her power throughout the whole empire. Now know as Empress Wu, she took charge of affairs of state both large and small, and she became involved into the formulation of all new policies. In 674, for the first time ever in Chinese History, Empress Wu instituted the titles of Heavenly Empress and Heavenly Emperor for herself and her husband. That same year, she further demonstrated her political power with her proposal of a 12-point program of reform. The provisions encouraged agricultural production, reduced taxes and labor services, and decreased military operation, provide wide opportunities for criticisms and reform of the government, provided long-serving officials, and increased officials salaries, thereby winning support from everyone.

The following year, the eldest son of Gao Zong and Empress Wu, the heir, Li Hong, died suddenly. Since he had been in total disagreement with the empress, it was believed that his mother, Empress Wu had him murdered. In 680, Wu Zetian's second son, the new heir, Li Xian, was charged with preparing a coup and was banished to a remote area. In late 683, Emperor Goa Zong died, making way for Li Xean, the third son of Goa Zong and Wu Zetian. He was 23 years old and his royal name was Tang Zhong Zong. Unfortunately, the new emperor was weak and even more incompetent than his father, so the Empress stayed in power. After that, Li Xean promoted his father-in-law to Emperor but was dethroned by Wu Zetian soon after. His younger brother Li Dan, known as Rui Zong, replaced him. This reckless intervention in so many state affairs eventually evoked strong opposition and an armed rebellion against her started in 686. The rebellion collapsed about three months later. Wu Zetian wanted to rule as Emperor in her own name so she drew together her supporters in a campaign devoted to winning widespread popularity. She helped the poor and ferreted out corrupt officials and fraudulent merchants for punishment.

In autumn of 690, after she had received three successive petitions requesting her to ascend the imperial throne, the Tang Dynasty was declared replaced by the Zhao Dynasty. Wu Zetian named herself Wu Zhao, the first and only female emperor in Chinese history. She continued her rule for 15 more years. Attentive to those who excelled in examinations, she prompted many talented men to key post and gave strong backing to the honest and upright officials in her government. Population grew form3.8 million households to 6.15 million, and her troops won signal victories in the war against Turk, Tu-bu, and Khitan. Finally, weakened by age, Wu Zhao could no longer control crimes committed by trusted followers. In February of 705, her chief chancellor, Zhang Jian-zhi led a palace coup to reinstate the deposed Zhong Zong (Li Xean). Hundreds of solders invaded the palace where Wu Zhao had been confined to her bed for weeks. The Empress got up to listen to the request to return the throne back to her son. She agreed and returned to bed. She died in November the same year. She had controlled China for half a century and was the first and only female emperor.

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Valley Forge Essay

Valley Forge Essay

Valley Forge
Dear Marie,
How are the struggles back home? Is the farm doing well? What about the meat? Is it selling, and are the crops healthy? I know I have not been able to write, and I am very sorry. It has been an extremely long march from White Marsh to Valley Forge. The conditions here are very rough. General George Washington decided to station in Valley Forge so we would be near Philadelphia where the Continental Congress meets in order to protect them. It is a small valley that is supposed to protect us from the weather, but as we arrived, a light snow fell. It is very cold, and I never imagined the climate being this severe. There are twelve thousand men and women in the Continental Army here at Valley Forge, and there is a shortage of shelter and food. It is supposedly the Continental Congress's responsibility to supply the items we soldiers need, but there are many explanations as to why this does not happen. It is said that the Continental Congress is unorganized and has battles to fight of their own. This situation is making it hard for soldiers to survive, and many are becoming weak and ill. It has taken our son John and me a long time to get here, and we have been fighting strong to maintain our lives. It would be very helpful if you could pack me a sufficient amount of warm clothing because the ones I have, have little warmth. Despite the weakness of our army, General George Washington is able to get Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gehard Augustin, known as the Baron Von Steuben, shortly come to and train us soldiers for different strategies in the field of battle and how to use different weapons. The reorganization that will be performed by George Washington and Von Steuben at a later date will help our army to become a more professional and disciplined group of leaders.

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But Marie, I am afraid there is one thing that I dread to tell you. Our son John was severely injured in the last battle before our arrival at Valley Forge. I did not know that the weather and diseases would have such a powerful impact on him. The wound was large, I have to admit, but I was hoping for the best of situations. Instead we came to the worst. John passed away only days after we arrived. You do not know how hard this is for me. As our only son, he was our whole world, and now the British have taken him. I was standing there in the battlefield with John, both of us fighting off the British. We were doing so well, when all of a sudden, I heard a gunshot right next to me. I looked down, and John was lying there at my feet, helpless in pain. I picked him up and held him in my arms. There was blood everywhere, it was all over him and me. He had a gaping wound in his right thigh, and he was losing blood quickly. He deeply looked into me eyes as if he were going to say something but all that came out was a soft sigh. I told him to be strong and everything would be okay.

It was not but a few days after we arrived at Valley Forge that the disease and infection got to him, and he passed away. I am so sorry that our lives have resulted in this horrible tragedy, and I pray everyday that things will get better for the both of us. I now need you to be strong until we are able to be together again. We must keep God close to our hearts. and He will help us through this. The whole heartbreak just tears me up inside. The situation was almost more than I could bear. I can hardly think of what life will be like now without him. I know you will take this information hard. I am very sorry that I am not there with you right now, but my courage and bravery are shown on the battlefield so I must stay here and fight for the freedom of our country. There are often days I feel so full of despair and just want to give up, but I think of you and John, and I tell myself that I can make it.


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Sunday, November 20, 2011

The Lord of the Rings Analysis Essay

Essay: The Lord of the Rings

Frodo, just a three-foot tall hobbit, embarks on a perilous mission to destroy the legendary One Ring.

Sauron the Dark Lord of Modor and the ring's evil creator has sent many of his servants, the Ringwraiths and orcs after Frodo. On his quest he has many trials, testing his courage, strength, and heart, but he is not alone. A fellowship formed of Gandalf the wizard, four hobbits Merry, Samwise, Pippin, and Frodo, two humans Aragorn and Boromir, Gimli the dwarf, and Legolas the elf. Together they will protect and help Frodo reach his destiny to destroy the ring forever and eliminate the source of all evil.

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Even though the Fellowship of the Ring is only a book, it depicts the ongoing battles of good vs. evil throughout history. Unlike the Fellowship of the Ring, many battles humans are faced with are, in fact, faced alone. Sometimes people reject the help of others and still overcome their obstacles. I know, because I did.

After just barely getting by in my 9th and 10th grade years at Mercyhurst High School I was, "asked to leave" to put it in a nice way. I was flunking more than half of my classes. Even after all the grounding periods and bribes for me to get passing grades, I never succeeded. The school, my parents, and counselors went to every extreme to help me but I always brushed them aside and promised a passing report card. Still I never passed all my classes and at the end of my sophomore year I was given the boot and sent back to Iroquois High School.

Starting off my junior year, I thought it would be a breeze. I expected Mercyhurst to be more advanced than Iroquois, so my problems were in the past, I had thought anyways. My classes were harder than I had imagined. Because of my past laziness, I was behind in all my classes. I struggled but for once I managed to just barely pass all my classes. My now humiliated parents were pleased to see I had passed for once but still dissatisfied that I was still not working to my potential.

Second semester had come and I was ready to work. I was ready to fight my battle, to fight the evil, to accomplish good. My four and a half month long battle was like someone ripping out each tooth individually from my mouth. After studying, taking tests, doing homework, and doing it to my potential, I had finally not only passed all my classes but also passed them with an impressive straight A report card.

Some people like Frodo's character may need the help of others to reach their goals, but sometimes you can learn more by accomplishing goals on your own. I regret not working hard in the beginning, but I have learned a lot from what has happened. In retrospect I have learned that you don't have all the time in the world to make mistakes because it will take too long to make up for the lost time. My senior year will be an even bigger struggle for me but if I keep focusing and working hard I'll accomplish what I set out to do furthermore pushing good over evil.

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Thursday, November 17, 2011

Witness Essay

Witness Essay

Peter Weir's "Witness" is a perfect example to show the many opposites and clashes in cultures. The main clashes viewed in "Witness" include the Amish and Urban views and ways of life. The Amish live very simple lives free of violence and technology which in "Witness" is the very opposite to the urban world.

The first clash we see is early in the movie where an Amish group travels to the city in a horse and carriage. The viewer sees the horse and cart holding up a seemingly enormous truck. The horse and cart is tiny compared to the built up industrial town which surrounds it and seems very out of place in the very busy and fast paced streets of the urban world. A number of techniques are used by Weir to exaggerate this clash including the use of long full shots which show the large city in the background in comparison to the cart.

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The barn raising scene clearly out lines what the Amish people are about and their strong sense of community. The community comes from all directions to help build the barn, this is the very opposite to the urban world where everyone seems to be individual and do things for themselves. This closely knit community relies upon its strong sense of community to survive as the in the urban world everyone only looks out for only themselves. The sense of community in this scene is complemented by very uplifting and high spirited music. This music sets the mood to this scene and leads the viewer to believe that is how the mood would be when the Amish are raising the barn.

Later on in the film a confrontation occurs in the urban "world" where a cocky youth proceeds to make a mockery of Daniel and the Amish people. As the Amish are pacifists there ignore the taunts and do not react in any way. John Book sees this behavior and decides to take action against the will of Eli and the other Amish people. His urban nature is shown here as he proceeds to fight the youths and give the Amish people a bad name. This one split second decision gives the corrupt police what they need to find Book. The Amish way of pacifism seems to be the best option as violence and crime would greatly decrease if everyone acted in this mature manner. This is a significant difference between these to very different cultures.

"Witness" brings up the "World within a World" concept. The Amish world within the surrounding urban world is one example of this. Another clash of "worlds" is the corrupt police network which is running within the legitimate police force. John Book represents the legitimate and majority of the people force as he is an honest person with intentions to help people and has strong moral values. The corrupt world consists of characters such as Schaeffer, McPhee and Fergie who are all driven by money and greed. When Book discovers this corrupt group he's does all in his power to expose them and a number of times almost pays with greatest price of all, his life.

In all "Witness" is a perfect text to compare opposites in culture, lifestyles and worlds.

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